Academic journal “Political Science Issues”

Issue 2 (14), 2014

CONTENTS

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

  • Karadzhe T.V. Political Ethics as a Branch of Political Science
  • Irkhin Yu.V. Mission, Development Peculiarities and Methodology of the American School of Political Science. Towards the 135th Anniversary of Scientific Political Science in the U.S.
  • Ryabeka A.G. Modus of the Planetary Political Field in the XXI Century

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES

  • Kiryukhina E.Yu. Evolution of the Youth Political Protest in Modern Russia: from Street Protests to Social Networks

POLITICAL REGIONALISTICS AND ETHNO-POLICY

  • Vysotskiy A.V. Ethnic Conflicts in the Post-Soviet Space: Politological Review
  • Murtaev F.A. Political stability and conflicts in Russian regions of (taking the Republic of Bashkortostan as an example)
  • Semochkin A.Ye. Term of Office of the Head of Subject of the Russian Federation and Possibility of his Resignation: Political and Legal Opinions

ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA AND THEIR POLITICAL REPERCUSSIONS

  • Nisnevich Yu.A. Political and Legal Analysis of Parliamentary and Presidential Electionsof the Years 2011 and 2012. Part V. 2012 Presidential Elections: Confrontation

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND NATIONAL SECURITY

  • Gayduk V.V., Suleymanov A.R. Ukrainian tragedy as a challenge to international security
  • Vasilenko V.I., Mаmеdov R.N. Structural and Functional Model Ensuring Information and Communication Security
  • Abdulmazitov R.R. Energy Policy of the European Union in the Context of Globalization: Sanctions and Strategies

AUTHORIZED TRAINING COURSES

  • Medvedev N.P. Comparative Politics: Modern Political Systems. Educational and methodological complex

Наши авторы № 2-2014

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

T.V. KARADZHE D.Sc. (philosophy), Professor, Head of the Moscow State Pedagogical University’s Political Science and Sociology Department, Russia, Moscow

POLITICAL ETHICS AS A BRANCH OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

The problem of assessing the moral aspect of the activities of political actors is widely and emotionally debated by scientists, politicians, journalists, and ordinary citizens. Not only in press publications, but also in scientific literature an opinion is often expressed that politics and political actors in general are outside the moral norm regulation. This conclusion is constantly reproduced when we hear about the incompatibility of morals and politics or that politics is a "dirty business" and so on; such theses fix at the level of mass consciousness a belief that politics is not subject to moral evaluation or public control. Is this conclusion true? It seems that the reason for this conclusion is that it does not take into account the complexity and ambiguity of such areas as politics. In this context, the article discusses the problem of political ethics, the directions of its development, including the ethics of political institutions, the ethics of legitimate violence and the ethics of resistance to the authorities and civil disobedience, and the ethics of globalization. The article also analyzes peculiarities of political space and political activities, contributing to the specificity of political ethics. Summing up, the author notes that the task of political ethics is to consider, on the one hand, the fact that politics determines the functioning of the social system and affects the interests of all citizens, and, on the other hand, the political sphere, possessing the properties of the conflicts and ambivalence, determines the scope of application of moral standards. This problem reinforces the need for further development of different areas of political ethics, within which the resolution of its problems is only possible.

Key words: political ethics, morality, system of moral values, the ethics of political institutions, the ethics of legitimate violence, the ethics of resistance and civil disobedience, the ethics of globalization.

Yu.V. IRKHIN D.Sc. (philosophy), professor, Chair of Political Science and Administration, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Chair of Political Science, Russian State University of Humanities, Russia, Moscow

MISSION, DEVELOPMENT PECULIARITIES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

(Towards the 135th Anniversary of Scientific Political Science in the U.S.)

In his article, the author notes that political science in the United States, the development of which began in the 80s of the XIX century, has a long history of genesis and has become a common academic discipline. The author analyzes the essence, basic features, peculiarities and direction of development of the U.S. school of political science. He describes methodology and principles of the U.S. political science and of its teaching at the American universities. Thus, according to the author, the mission and peculiarities in the development of the U.S. political science were determined by a number of factors. First, the political science in the United States was formed on the solid basis of American constitutional thought and practice. Second, the U.S. political science arose at a time when the country has turned into a kind of a community of universities, which accumulated and developed its academic potential. Third, many prominent political scientists were advisors to statesmen and politicians, including U.S. presidents, and after that held important administrative positions. Many presidential candidates studied political science and law. Fourth feature of the political science organization in the U.S. is that U.S. political scientists traditionally join the American Political Science Association, the world's first organization of its kind established back in 1903. The author, while studying stages and features of the development of the U.S. school of political science, outlines key phases of its genesis and analyzes them. Analyzing the main phases in the development of the U.S. school of political science, the author identifies three "paradigmatic and academic tops." The author also describes how teaching of political sciences is organized at the American universities.

Key words: American political science association, methodology, USA political science school, universities.

А.G. RYABEKA PhD (political science), assistant professor, National Pedagogical University named after M.P. Dragomanov, Ukraine, Kiev

MODUS OF THE PLANETARY POLITICAL FIELD IN THE XXI CENTURY

The article views the moment of the organizational restructuring of the world order and names the completely new subjects of the planetary development: Planetary personality, World civil society, World government, secret government, legitimate government, World state, Interocracy. Genetically they were generated by four globalization tendencies, stipulating the formation of anthropological, ontological, information and organizational entity of the planetary community. Their major parametric characteristics and self-development conditions in the discourse of the XXI century are provided. The aim of the article is to predict the consequences of the globalization process in anthropological, ontological and organizational spheres of modern social development for the planetary life. Mondialists are the closest to the analysis of this phenomenon as they have been studying the idea of establishment of the new world order for a long time. The theory of mondialism (from French monde “world”) is aimed at the establishment of the direct rule of the World government. The current globalization process, covering all spheres of planetary life, is the reason for generating new players of the planetary social field, which, according to our working hypothesis, include Planetary personality, World civil society, World government: secret and legitimate, World state, and finally, Interocracy, which, according to the general opinion of modern researchers, claims to control the new order. In this case the globalization process is different in every sphere of planetary life or at every separate organizational level and leads to principally different final products. Four tendencies, observed in anthropological, ontological, information and organizational spheres, are analyzed. The establishment of new products is predicted: 1) in the anthropological sphere, integrating the world community into the organic entity, the final product is the Planetary personality (Interman); 2) in the ontological sphere (structural, genetic) – network society; 3) in the semantic sphere – information metabolism and society of knowledge; 4) in the cratological sphere – organized society and Interocracy. Information society integrates generic models into the unity. As conclusions and research perspectives the author states that new players of the planetary social field form a completely new organizational formation – planetary social organism (according to V. Bekh). It should become a unique organizational structure that would appear in the XXI century.

Key words: mondialism, new order, Planetary personality, World civil society, World government, secret government, legitimate government, World state, Interocracy.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES

Е.Yu. KIRYUKHINA working for a PhD degree at the chair of politology and history of the Bashkir State University, Russia, Ufa

EVOLUTION OF THE YOUTH POLITICAL PROTEST IN MODERN RUSSIA: FROM STREET PROTESTS TO SOCIAL NETWORKS

Problems of the protest behavior of the youth in politics, being permanently significant for the preservation of the socio-political systems and their development, have become in the last few years particularly acute in connection with the increasing scope and intensity of political violence in different regions of the world. As a result of the so-called "color revolutions" the ruling regimes in some post-Soviet states have been replaced, which are now experiencing the ever growing pressure of the most active segments of the population, and especially young people. The article explores evolution of the youth protests in Russian politics and its transition from the direct participation of the youth in the protest events to the social networking in the Internet space. The protest potential, carried by the youth, hides a danger to the modern society, as its manifestations entail events contributing to an imbalance and confusion in the society, but on the other hand, due to the positive manifestation of protest potential, the youth masters behavior pattern in a civil society, gains an opportunity to express themselves and change the situation, i.e. leads the society to a progressive model of development. This thesis is important for the understanding and creation of mechanisms of regulation of the manifestations of protest potential of the youth. The state's task is not to repress or prevent manifestations of protest potential of the youth, but to competently regulate its various manifestations and to raise citizens caring of their motherland.

Key words: politics, youth, political protest, political activity, "colour revolutions", the Internet, social networks.

POLITICAL REGIONALISTICS AND ETHNO-POLICY

A.V. VYSOTSKIY PhD (political sciences), expert of the Eurasia Politological Expert Club, Russia, Moscow

ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN THE POST-SOVIET SPACE: POLITOLOGICAL REVIEW

The end of the XX century was marked by the increase in the number of ethnic conflicts around the world. The redrawing of the world political map in the last century, as a result of the world wars, elimination of the colonial system and disintegration of empires, affected the growth of ethnic conflicts in modern society. Considering that any conflict within the state always has a detrimental impact on the socio-economic and political development of the country and the modern world is full of multiethnic states, the birth of new inter-ethnic tensions objectively forms a real threat to the stability and security of the world community. In this regard, a thorough understanding of peculiarities of inter-ethnic clashes is of particular importance in the politics of each state; it is necessary for the further development of mechanisms of prediction, prevention and resolution and for the avoidance of their possible repetition in the future. In his article, the author analyzes the causes of ethnic conflicts, the peculiarities of their development and the stage of their development. The author notes that there are many different approaches to the study of ethnic conflicts in the political doctrine in the post-Soviet dimension. Among the main approaches methodologists specify: institutional, neo-institutional, behavioral, comparative, structural and functional, historical, rational choice theory, discourse and some other. Based on such methodology, the author attempts to understand and explore characteristics of ethnic conflicts in the post-Soviet space. A comparative analysis of the history of ethnic clashes in the post-Soviet space has allowed the author to highlight some of their common causes. The analysis of the history and typology of ethnic conflicts allows us to conclude that the cause of this kind of conflicts is often the people’s desire to preserve their ethnic group identity, but the very existence of ethnic identity is not the reason for such conflicts. The desire to preserve the ethnic group identity can serve as a tool in the hands of political groups seeking their own, often political purposes. Thus, in particular, the author analyzes the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the Georgian-Ossetian and Georgian-Abkhazian conflicts.

Key words: ethnic conflict, the post-Soviet space, political regionalistics, ethno-politics, Georgia, Kosovo, Ossetia, Abkhazia, and escalation.

F.A. MURTAEV post-graduate student at the chair of politology and history of the Bashkir State University, Russia, Ufa

POLITICAL STABILITY AND CONFLICTS IN RUSSIAN REGIONS OF (TAKING THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN AS AN EXAMPLE)

Potential of political conflicts is determined by a number of factors affecting certain events that can lead to irreversible consequences: from holding single pickets up to the civil war and implementation of the constitutional right of secession by the Federation subjects. It is important to understand, therefore, the subject structure of the political conflict, how far the warring parties are willing to go, what their targets are and what is the understanding of the contradictions by the citizens involved in the events, carrying a destructive force. National relations to date are a chain of interdependent actions that are not always aimed at the creation of a single product, uniting citizens. It often happens that different peoples or radical religious groups come into confrontations. 22 republics of the Russian Federation are primarily "at risk" if measured along these factors. Some of them are most vulnerable to socio-political disasters, some are relatively safe. But the fact that each republic is a complex conglomerate of ethnic and religious relations makes it necessary to work out a comprehensive approach to the identification of any conflict at its inception. This article is devoted to the problem of the origin of political conflicts based on migration, ethnic and religious factors. The article reviews some of the factors that can be decisive in conflict situations and analyzes socio-economic and political backgrounds.

Key words: politology, political regionalistics, ethno-policy, political conflict, national and federative relations, migration, republic, subject of the federation, nationality, escalation of the conflict.

А.Ye. SEMOCHKIN postgraduate student, Department of Political Science and History of the Bashkir State University, Russia, Ufa

TERM OF OFFICE OF THE HEAD OF SUBJECT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND POSSIBILITY OF HIS RESIGNATION: POLITICAL AND LEGAL OPINIONS

In the current political and socio-economic realities, heads of subjects of the Russian Federation are of particular importance for the strengthening of the integrity of the country, its political and legal space, and formation of a united economic and financial system. Concentration of the executive power tasks in the hands of the highest officials of the subjects of the Russian Federation largely serves the unity of the control system and is intended to prevent conflicts connected with the division of competences on the horizontal level. However, an effective activity of the heads of the subjects of the Russian Federation directly depends on the length of the term of their powers and their periodicity. The term of office of the heads of the subjects of the Russian Federation has a direct institutional meaning associated with the political and legal definition of time spent in that position in the normal and shortened time mode. The term of office of elected public officials does not always coincide with the actual time of tenure, and requires a scientific definition of the term, its timing, political and legal limits. This article examines political and legal features of calculation of the period of powers of the highest officials of the subjects of the Russian Federation and variations of their resignation.

Key words: politology, the head of the subject of Russian Federation, federalism, appointment, electability, term of office, resignation.

ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA AND THEIR POLITICAL REPERCUSSIONS

Yu.A. NISNEVICH D.Sc. (political science), Professor of Higher School of Economics, National Research University, and of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia, Moscow

POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF PARLIAMENTARY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF THE YEARS 2011 AND 2012

PART V. 2012 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS: CONFRONTATION

This part of the research is devoted to the political and legal analysis of the presidential election of 2012. The scenario of these elections was determined by the announcement of the reshuffle of the presidential post by Medvedev and Putin, which caused a growth of protest moods and mass street protests that began since December 5, 2011 as a reaction to the falsification of the results of the parliamentary elections, called the protest “angry citizens”. The “vertical of power” acted as the “election machine” of candidate Putin and traditionally abused all types of administrative resources, in particular, organized rallies confronting “angry citizens”. Many of the protest-minded voters became observers at the polling stations on the election day of March 4, and although they actively opposed falsifications, but in general they could prevent mass falsifications, organized by the power “election machine”. The victory of the ruling regime in the 2011 parliamentary elections and 2012 presidential elections seems to be a Pyrrhic victory, because these elections have finally dispelled the myth of the long-term stability of the regime and have generated significant negative socio-political and economic implications.

Key words: elections, president, parliament, analysis, power, opposition, election campaign.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND NATIONAL SECURITY

V.V. GAYDUK D.Sc (political sciences), Ph.D. (law), professor, head of the chair of politology and history of the Bashkir State University, Russia, Ufa

A.R. SULEYMANOV Ph.D. (political sciences), working for the doctorate degree at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russia, Ufa

UKRAINIAN TRAGEDY AS A CHALLENGE TO INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

In the modern world, in the context of globalization there are examples of not only of an increase in the dynamics of the rapprochement between peoples and national states, but also of stronger confrontation between them. Especially clearly this problem has emerged in the last world processes associated with the events in Ukraine. Today, some scientists and politicians already speak about the institutionalization of the past phase of the international relations between the U.S. and Russia and return to the "cold war". However, this process, in our opinion, is much thinner than a banal confrontation and competition between the monopolistic USA, and a resurgent Russia, and we can talk about new risks and threats to the national security of modern states. But is Russia ready to such external challenges? And how can the world change in case of aggravation of international relations among the key players in the global community? And what role in these processes is played by Europe and Asia? These and other questions are covered in the article.

Key words: political crisis, world politics, world political processes, international risks, the re-division of the world, former Soviet republics, the Ukrainian tragedy, international security, USA, Russia, Ukraine, sanctions.

V.I. VASILENKO D.Sc. (political sciences), professor, Deputy Head of the Chair of the Russian Statehood, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russia, Moscow

R.N. MАMЕDOV working for a Ph.D. degree at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Head of Administration of the Governor and the Moscow Region Government Russia, Moscow

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL ENSURING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SECURITY

The Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation uses the term "regulatory system", although the definition of this term is omitted. At the same time, the definition of the content and structure of this system can help to shape organizational basis for the realization of the information and communication security (ICS). The ICS regulatory system includes all tools, forms and methods of human interaction with the environment, produced to maintain information and communication activities. The article describes the methodological basis of the conceptual model necessary for ensuring ICS. The ICS conceptual model is determined by the understanding of causal and structurally-institutional relations in the security sphere and its role as such is very important. Real security concerns have to be interpreted in the form of a documented systemic presentation of the ICS provisions that can be used for direct identification and resolution of organizational problems in this area, as well as for their revision in the event of changes in the external or internal environment.

Key words: information security, information and communication security, conceptual model of information and communication security, structures of security and goals for ensuring security, structure and nature of informational threats, mass media system, Public Relations.

R.R. ABDULMAZITOV Director of the Engineering Center GUP "Institute of transportation of energy resources" of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, applicant of the Department of National and Federative Relations of the Russian Presidential Academy of the National Economy and State Service, Russia, Ufa

ENERGY POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION: SANCTIONS AND STRATEGIES

Energy policy is defining and strategic in nature, because it creates prerequisites not only for the existence of any industrial production, but also for the insurance of internal political stability and international security of the country. Energy issues have been one of the key factors in the creation of supranational structures of the European Union. However, despite the significant importance of these issues, they have not become a separate pillar of the EU. Energy policy was considered a prerogative of national states and the EU did not have a unified energy strategy. In recent years, with the strengthening of integration processes within the European Union there has been a considerable intensification of efforts to develop and implement a common energy policy within the EU and in respect of the countries that are not included in that union. This article explores the EU energy policy in terms of domestic crisis on Ukraine and the imposition of sanctions against Russia.

Key words: politology, energy policy, EU, globalization, political crisis, Ukraine, Russia, energy security, sanctions.

AUTHORIZED TRAINING COURSES

N.P. MEDVEDEV D.Sc. (political science), Professor at the National and Federative Relations Department of the Russian Academy of People’s Economy and Administrative Service under the Russian President

COMPARATIVE POLITICS: MODERN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Educational and methodological complex

Goals and objectives of the discipline. The purpose of the course is to give students a basic knowledge of the structure and functioning of political systems and types of political cultures in different countries through the use of modern methods of comparative studies. Objectives of the course are to consider main approaches to the political system theory, to give a detailed comparative analysis of political systems in the U.S., UK, Germany, France, China and Russia, as well as of the features of political systems in the former USSR countries and in a number of East Asian and African states, and to analyze peculiarities of political cultures in the West, East and Russia.

Key words: comparative politics, political system, society, state, typology, technique, political socialization, political culture, interest groups, political participation, aggregation, interests, policies, political process, political decision, regional authorities, the government, the parliament, the president, government policy, the political system of Great Britain, the United States political system, the political system of Germany, the political system of France, Russia's political system, local government, the electoral system, the multiparty system.

   
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