№ 4 (68), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 4 (68), 2021

CONTENTS

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

Tushkov A.A. Aggregate Qualities of Political Power of Russian Local Civilization

Kuzmin A.G. Features of the Imperial Project of Modernization in the Russian National-Patriotic Movement of Modern Russia: «Left Turn»?

Wang Jiaxu. The Chinese Dream as a Goal of Political Modernization

Perevalova E.A. The Development Vectors of the Political Action According to the Virtual Information Space Setting

Birinchi E. The Concept of “Foreign Policy Factor” and the Main Factors of Russian Middle East Policy

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Мagadiev M.F. State System of Youth Patriotic Upbringing in Modern Russia

Bekmurodova G. Problems of Forming the Political Competence of the Individual

Ustyuzhaninov I.D. Public Movements of the City of Kirov in 2012: the Сorrelation between the Federal Political Process and the Activity of Local Forces as Exemplified by the Activities of the «For Fair Elections» Movement

Muratov A.H. Methodology for Researching Anti-Terrorist Activities in the Context of the Transformation of Modern Society

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Sazhaev M.I., Oseledets A.G., Tushkov A.A. Formation of Military Personnel Technologies in the Interwar Period of Military Construction

Маrtynova M.Yu., Zholmanov A.S. Countering Corruption in Modern Russia: Features of State Policy Formation

Ravochkin N.N. Political and Legal Institutional Dynamics of New and Modern Time (Part 1)

Belov S.I. Prospects for Using Video Games with a Historical Plot as a Memory Policy Instrument of the Russian Federation

Kryukova E.V. The Role of the "Silent Majority" in the Development of Modern Democracies

Bespamiatnova M.N., Popov S.I. The Prospect of Local Self-Government Institutions Functions’ Harmonization in the Context of its’ Interaction with Public Organizations

Аlexandrov A.R. Constitutional Reforms – a New Stage in the Development of Local Self-Government in Russia

Denisenko P.V., Yesiev E.T. Internet Technologies as a Tool for Political Mobilization in the Era of Big Data

Melnikova Yu.D. Models and Experiences of Local Civic Initiative – Implementation in the United States

Do Thanh Tu. Social Network as a Space Implementation of Political Activities by Citizens of Vietnam: Results of Applied Political Analysis (2020)

Semibokov D.A. Ethnopolitical Conflicts as a Factor of Instability of the Political Systems of the Unrecognized Republics

Sardar Alaa. Public Policy as a Sphere of Activity of Interest Groups in the Modern State: Subjects and Mechanism of Interaction

Pleshakova D.I. Regional Parliamentarism in Modern Russia: Features of Formation and Development Problems

Neshkov S.V. Reasons for the Involvement of Youth in the Process of Destabilizing the Internal Political Situation in Russia

Ruzavina A.K. Internet and Social Networks as a Factor of Spreading Youth Extremism

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, FOREIGN AND WORLD POLICY

Syzdykova Zh.S. China's One Belt, One Road Megaproject: Internal and External Challenges

Chu Ling, Han Haolei. Dynamics of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in the Context of Bilateral Relations Political Relation

Маgadiev M.F. Global Instability as a Factor of Political Instability Mobilization and Radicalization of Mass Consciousness

Zhetpysbaev S.K. Kazakhstan's Path to Independence is the Path to Democratization and Integration

Blinov V.V. Atlas of the Greater Mediterranean: Crimea at the Crossroads of Civilizations

Batsazov G.T. The Influence of the External Factor on the Domestic Political Processes in the Lebanese Republic

Аfonin A.D. EU Policy Towards Kazakhstan: Energy Aspect

Buzanov N.A., Vorovskaya D.V. Who Can Violate International Law? The Relationships between National and International Law. Monism and Dualism. Impact on Russian-Chinese Strategic Partnership

Chernyshev R.S., Rashkovan A.A. Legal Problems of International Relations in Cyberspace

Cherpakova A.I. France's Attitude Towards the EU Eastern Partnership

STUDENT SCIENCE

Mohammad Anwar Baktash, Kamwar Ahmad Javid, Mohmand Hashmatullah. Language Policy in Afghanistan

Komarov K.S. Modern Geopolitical Engineering of Israel in the Middle East

Sun Wenxian. Integrative Approach to the Formation of Economic Competence of Future Technology Teachers

Our authors № 4-2021

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.001

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

AGGREGATE QUALITIES OF POLITICAL POWER OF RUSSIAN LOCAL CIVILIZATION

The problem of researching the clash of civilizations in political science is becoming more and more urgent in connection with the current environment, in which the study of differences between societies is most acute and can lead to an understanding of how they function society and how to resolve the accumulated contradictions. The authors' proposed series of articles aims to analyse such methodological approaches as the study of civilizations as Western-oriented, Western-skeptic, cultural, biological or natural approach, as well as decadent. This article explores a basic structurally-designed approach as a Western-oriented.

Key words: «civilization», local civilization, social process, power, features of the political process, Western-oriented approach.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.002

А.G. KUZMIN Candidate of Sciences (political sciences), Associate Professor at the Chair of social work and psychology of Syktyvkar State University named after Pitirim Sorokin, Syktyvkar, Russia

FEATURES OF THE IMPERIAL PROJECT OF MODERNIZATION IN THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL-PATRIOTIC MOVEMENT OF MODERN RUSSIA: «LEFT TURN»?

The article is devoted, first of all, to an assessment of the latest general trends that can be traced in modern Russian nationalism, and first of all to the main modernization models put forward by representatives of modern Russian nationalism. The purpose of this work is to analyze the ideology of modern Russian nationalism in the context of the problem of modernizing Russian society at the beginning of the XXI century, in order to show the relevance of a number of ideas of Russian imperial nationalism.

The objectives of the study are to clarify various aspects of the practical and theoretical activities of representatives of Russian nationalism of different trends regarding their self-presentation of ways to modernize Russian society and the state. In addition, in turn, the analysis carried out has a close connection with the consideration of the real possibilities of implementing these ideas, the reaction to them by the Russian authorities and society and the determination of the degree of further development of relations in conditions when Russian nationalists of the imperial direction created the project empire, some elements of which became part of the modern Russian modernization complex on the basis of a balance between the ideas they proposed and the actions of the authorities. This synthesis of ideas has been especially effective since 2014, during and after the events of the reunification of Crimea and the Donbas armed conflict. The analysis carried out mainly uses historical and comparative research methods.

As a result of the work carried out, we can note that some of the provisions of the Russian nationalist imperial project today have managed to create popular political ideas and slogans, and Russian national patriotism in its imperial version has become one of the topical political ideologies influencing the nature of modern changes in the country. The involvement of representatives of Russian imperial nationalism in the official Russian parliamentary policy indicates a change in the attitude of the Russian authorities towards Russian nationalism as a political actor.

In Russian political science, the study of the development and classification of models of transformation and solving problems of the path of political modernization of the country by modern Russian nationalists has become important and can serve as the basis for further scientific and applied research.

In conclusion, the article analyzes the prospects for the country's modernization development in the changed conditions of the external and internal political situation.

Key words: political ideology, Russian nationalism, "Russian Spring", imperial nationalism, ethno-nationalism, empire, modernization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.003

WANG JIAXU Postgraduate, Institute of History and Politics, Moscow state pedagogical university, Senior lecturer at Heilongjiang University, China

THE CHINESE DREAM AS A GOAL OF POLITICAL MODERNIZATION

Political modernization is the reflection of modernization in politics and is a process from traditional politics to modern politics. The new idea of the Chinese dream, proposed by Xi Jinping, is the belief and goal to unite the party and the people in the stage of Chinese comprehensive reform. The Chinese dream expounds the goal of China’s political modernization, enriches the content of China’s political modernization, and makes clear the main body and core of leadership of China’s political modernization. The realization of the Chinese dream has great significance to the promotion of China’s political modernization.

Key words: Xi Jinping, the Chinese dream, political modernization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.004

Е.А. PEREVALOVA Senior lecturer at the Northwestern Institute of Management, a branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration; postgraduate student at the Faculty of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

THE DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF THE POLITICAL ACTION ACCORDING TO THE VIRTUAL INFORMATION SPACE SETTING

In this article the author analyzes structure and quality changes of the political action occurred on different stages of society development. The article examines the implementation of information and communication technologies in the sphere of the political action. The functioning and the perception of political action in traditional societies largely differ from the development vector of this notion in the information society. The actual stage characterizes by the construction of virtual political space and the sthenic media politization.

Key words: political action, information technology, information society, traditional society, networking.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.005

E. BIRINCHI Postgraduate student at the Chair of comparative political science, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE CONCEPT OF “FOREIGN POLICY FACTOR” AND THE MAIN FACTORS OF RUSSIAN MIDDLE EAST POLICY

This article discusses the concept of "foreign policy factor" and the main factors of Russia's foreign policy in the Middle East. For this purpose, the author, first, considers the use of the expression "foreign policy factor" in Russian and English-language studies. Secondly, the foreign policy factors are discussed from the point of view of different theories of international relations. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the main factors of Russia's foreign policy in the Middle East are suggested by the theories of realism and constructivism and are influenced by the system of international relations and Russian identity.

Key words: foreign policy factor, Russian foreign policy, constructivism, neorealism, the Middle East.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.006

М.F. МAGADIEV Candidate of Sciences (sociology), Associate Professor at the Chair of state administration in foreign policy activities, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

STATE SYSTEM OF YOUTH PATRIOTIC UPBRINGING IN MODERN RUSSIA

The article considers the basics of the state policy of patriotic upbringing of modern Russian youth and the possibilities of its development. It has been established that the patriotic upbringing of young people in Russia is the most important incentive for maintaining the historically established mentality of the people and formation of a value attitude to the feats and victories accomplished by the Russian people. Patriotism is an important quality of the Russian people and to convey it to everyone it is necessary to educate children in a patriotic environment and by ideologically positive parents. The article examines the main obstacles, the overcoming of which can have a significant impact on the level of patriotism of Russian youth.

Key words: state policy, youth policy, national and cultural values, patriotic education, Russian youth, “color revolutions,” national security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.007

G. BEKMURODOVA Candidate of Sciences (philosophy), Associate Professor at Karshi State University, Karshi, Uzbekistan

PROBLEMS OF FORMING THE POLITICAL COMPETENCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL

The article discusses the modern problems of the formation of the socio-political competence of the individual, the place and role of the individual in the socio-political life of the society

Key words: society, personality, competence, formation, factors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.008

I.D. USTYUZHANINOV Postgraduate student of History of political movements and political parties’ department Lomonosov MSU Faculty of History, Moscow, Russia

PUBLIC MOVEMENTS OF THE CITY OF KIROV IN 2012: THE СORRELATION BETWEEN THE FEDERAL POLITICAL PROCESS AND THE ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FORCES AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE ACTIVITIES OF THE «FOR FAIR ELECTIONS» MOVEMENT

The events of the winter of 2011-2012 generally intensified the political participation of Russians. Dissatisfaction with the results of the State Duma elections led to massive demonstrations that took place across the country until June 2012. However, the main centers of protest activity were the capitals: Moscow and St. Petersburg, while small regional cities did not create the main trend for participation in these actions. This article analyzes the relationship between the public activity of residents of the city of Kirov and federal trends in 2012. The main question of this article is to what extent the residents of Kirov were ready to support the all-Russian political sentiments and what was the attitude of the townspeople to the social activities of forces based not on local issues, but on the federal agenda.

Key words: political activity, civil society, political parties, political regional studies, political participation, political systems of regions, Kirov region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.009

A.H. MURATOV Ph.D. in the Department of Conflictology of the Institute of Social and Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications of the Russian, Kazan, Russia

METHODOLOGY FOR RESEARCHING ANTI-TERRORIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF MODERN SOCIETY

The phenomenon of terrorism, as a subject of study, with an objective necessity requires the formation of a methodology for the study of anti-terrorist activities, the identification of its main methodological features and the formation of the most important principles based on a neo-institutional approach based on the importance of social institutions. The current phenomenon of terrorism increasingly tends to define it as a doctrine, way of thinking, policies, strategies and tactics of radical extremist groups aimed at forcibly eliminating or suppressing their opponents, which requires the formation of an adequate methodology of anti-terrorist activities. The essential characteristics of terrorism have been formulated, reflecting the diversity and diversity of its impact on the world community, which can form the basis for the development of an adequate integrated strategy of anti-terrorist activities with its specific principles, tools, methods and other composite methodological apparatus.

Key words: terrorism, political terrorism, methodology, signs and characteristics of terrorism, anti-terrorist activities, terrorism, typology of terrorism, stages of terrorist threat, neo-easeatation approach, methods, tools.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.010

M.I. SAZHAEV Graduate student professor in the Department of International Relations and Law at Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.G. OSELEDETS Ph.D., Associate Professor, Military Science Center of Far Eastern Federal University Vladivostok, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. TUSHKOV Professor, Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

FORMATION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD OF MILITARY CONSTRUCTION

The article is devoted to the activities of state institutions and military administration in the field of military personnel policy in the Navy during the interwar period of military construction. The conclusions of scientists about the government's activities during this period to strengthen the personnel of the RCCA and RKKF are diametrically opposed. A number of scientists rate it as a highly effective work, and some scientists in their research emphasize the destruction of military personnel in the last quarter of the thirties. The source of the lack of training of their considerable understaffing, as well as other shortcomings, which were largely affected during the war period, is generally referred to as the repression of military personnel 1937-1938. The general drawback of both approaches is that they have moved away from impartiality and have become hostages to the goals and objectives of their research, which have been based on ideology. In this regard, the most important is a comprehensive analysis of the development of training and training in 1921-1941, as the key to understanding the outcome of the war.

Key words: USSR, RKKF, military-personnel policy, interwar period.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.011

М.Yu. МАRTYNOVA Doctor of Political Science, Professor at the Faculty of Humanities, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

А.S. ZHOLMANOV Postgraduate student at the Chair of political science and political management of the Institute of Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

COUNTERING CORRUPTION IN MODERN RUSSIA: FEATURES OF STATE POLICY FORMATION

The article discusses the features of the formation of anti-corruption policy in modern Russia. Even though the process of forming an anti-corruption policy is complex, in the anti-corruption system, the administrative and legal method that is characteristic of state power institutions prevails. The use of such an approach is not always able to neutralize the low level of legal culture in society, and in general, the passive role of civil society institutions in the anti-corruption agenda does not contribute to the effective implementation of public anti-corruption control mechanisms. The authors ' attention is also drawn to the norms of international law, which, in view of the relevant amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of their implementation.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption policy, public administration, civil society institutions, international normative legal acts.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.012

N.N. RAVOCHKIN PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Humanitarian and Legal Disciplines Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL AND LEGAL INSTITUTIONAL DYNAMICS OF NEW AND MODERN TIME (PART 1)

Political and legal institutions are the leading drivers on which states assign responsibility for social success and evolutionary trajectories of their development. The current situation in the world can easily be linked to uncertainty, nonlinearity and unpredictability. In this vein, it is natural to turn to the ideological foundations that founded the institutions of today, which are found in the modern era. In the first part of the article, which sets itself the task of studying and comparing the political and legal institutional dynamics of the New and Modern times, the author focuses on the analysis of the first declared period, where the example of Europe highlights the rootedness of modern political and legal institutions in liberal ideas. The role of bourgeois revolutions, which affected the remodeling of the modern institutional order, is considered separately. It has been substantiated why ideas as intellectual constructs find their institutional embodiment in the epoch of modern times.

Key words: political and legal institutions, institutional dynamics, Modern, ideas, power, society, revolution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.013

S.I. BELOV PhD, Associate Professor of Faculty of Political Science of Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR USING VIDEO GAMES WITH A HISTORICAL PLOT AS A MEMORY POLICY INSTRUMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The presented research is devoted to the problems of the use of video games by Russia as a resource for the implementation of memorial policy. The goal of the author is to identify promising areas of application of video games as a tool for the policy of memory of the Russian Federation. The methodology of the work is built through a combination of comparative, structural and descriptive analysis. The conducted research has shown that the strategy for the development of historical video games as an instrument of the policy of memory of the Russian authorities should be built around the thesis about the need to increase their genre diversity. To date, most projects in this plan are simulators of military equipment and strategies, devoid of a plot component. It is necessary to focus on the creation of plot projects that guarantee the emergence of a "immersion effect" and empathy among gamers in relation to game characters, as well as a wide range of reality simulators that simulate the performance of survival tasks or the performance of specific types of work that have a stable symbolic connection with certain events and eras.

Key words: video games, politics of memory, memorial politics, Russia, perspectives, historical plot.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.014

E.V. KRYUKOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE "SILENT MAJORITY" IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN DEMOCRACIES

The article describes the role of the so-called «silent majority» in the development of modern democracies. The article defines the concept of «silent majority», shows the specifics of the development of democracy in various advanced countries of the world, where the manipulation of the majority in their own interests is one of the specifics of the development of democracy.

Key words: «silent majority», democracy, developed democratic countries, manipulation of public opinion, development of democracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.015

М.N. BESPAMIATNOVA PhD student, Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

THE PROSPECT OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FUNCTIONS’ HARMONIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS’ INTERACTION WITH PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

The article presents the reflections and some results of the study of the necessity and possibilities of the harmonization of the local self-government institutions functions. In the frames of this article, key features of interaction between public organizations and local governments are outlined, therefore a number of conclusions can be drawn about the high potential of applying the concept of harmonization in the public sector, and in particular, in the institutions of local self-government.

Key words: public administration, the concept of harmonization, local self-government, public organization, civil society, political stability, interacting management, institutionalization, dependence on resources, distribution of forces.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.016

А.R. АLEXANDROV Postgraduate student at Tambov State Technical University; Deputy of the Tambov City Duma of the Tambov Region of the seventh convocation, Tambov, Russia

CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS – A NEW STAGE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA

The article examines the impact of constitutional changes on the development of local self-government in the Russian Federation. The key amendments made to the Constitution of the Russian Federation are studied, including: building a unified system of public power, ensuring the financial self-sufficiency of local self-government and the participation of state authorities in the formation of local self-government bodies.

Key words: local self-government, the system of public power, constitutional reform.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.017

P.V. DENISENKO Postgraduate student at the Faculty of Politology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

E.Т. YESIEV Postgraduate student at the Faculty of Politology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AS A TOOL FOR POLITICAL MOBILIZATION IN THE ERA OF BIG DATA

In this paper the authors analyze the role of Internet technologies as a tool for political mobilization. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of theoretical ideas about the impact of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies on political systems. Moreover, the authors consider in detail the current state and transformation of the tools of political mobilization in the context of the development of Big Data technologies. In particular, the potential of big user data is regarded.

Key words: political mobilization, Internet technologies, Web 2.0, Big Data, big user data, geotargeting.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.018

YU.D. MELNIKOVA Postgraduate student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MODELS AND EXPERIENCES OF LOCAL CIVIC INITIATIVE – IMPLEMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

Civil initiative is one of the central mechanisms of direct democracy in America. While there is increasing media and academic focus on the use, structure, and impact of civic initiative at the state level, there is much less research on local government initiative provisions in the United States. However, it should be noted that the use of this mechanism at the local level occurs quite often, since the main goal of the civil initiative is to improve the life quality of the citizens and society. Civil initiative can regulate various spheres of social life and, if adopted, its provisions are binding on all citizens. To study the experience of implementing a civil initiative in the United States at the local level, this article presents an analysis of various examples (case studies) of the implementation of the initiative, indicating the strengths and weaknesses of a particular experience, as well as a study of the historical and theoretical part of the issue under study.

Key words: local government, civic initiative, civil society, direct democracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.019

DO THANH TU Postgraduate, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL NETWORK AS A SPACE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLITICAL ACTIVITIES BY CITIZENS OF VIETNAM: RESULTS OF APPLIED POLITICAL ANALYSIS (2020)

Analyzed the behavior of Vietnamese in the field of searching, exchanging political information online, commenting on it and criticizing it in virtual cyberspace. At the same time, the specifics of the participation of Vietnamese citizens in online communities for the exercise of their political and civil rights have been clarified. In addition, the potential of the Internet to mobilize Vietnamese users for protests is also presented.

The practical significance of the obtained results lies in the possibility of developing, based on the analysis of the involvement of Vietnamese people in social networks with a civil and political orientation, measures to improve the conditions for the development of a culture of conventional civil participation among the Vietnamese.

Key words: social network, online community, Facebook, Youtube, Zalo, Google+, Instagram, Twitter, civil and political rights, protest action.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.020

D.A. SEMIBOKOV Post-graduate student of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ETHNOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS AS A FACTOR OF INSTABILITY OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF THE UNRECOGNIZED REPUBLICS

The article examines the essence of ethnopolitical conflicts as a factor in the emergence of unrecognized states. In addition, an analysis of these conflicts from the point of view of their impact on the stability of the modern unrecognized republics of the post-Soviet space is given.

In addition, the text provides a step-by-step analysis of the emergence of ethnopolitical conflicts, the reasons why the emergence of these conflicts is possible in modern political conditions.

Key words: ethnopolitics, ethnopolitical conflicts, political systems, unrecognized states, unrecognized republics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.021

SARDAR ALAA Graduate student, Department of Political Theory and Communication, the Institute of International Relations and World History, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia

PUBLIC POLICY AS A SPHERE OF ACTIVITY OF INTEREST GROUPS IN THE MODERN STATE: SUBJECTS AND MECHANISM OF INTERACTION

Interest groups have political and scientific significance due to their influence on public policy. The influence can have many shades. Successful attempts to influence political decisions are most noticeable, but influence can also occur at earlier stages of the political process. It is noted that interest groups differ in the set of public policy areas they seek to influence, and the political context can be critical to the ability of groups to influence policy. It is concluded that the influence of interest groups on public policy is carried out both directly and indirectly based on the range of goals and objectives pursued by a particular group and on the basis of its existing potential in the form of material, information and organizational resources.

Key words: politics, political system, state, government, interest groups, lobbying, political practice, public policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.022

D.I. PLESHAKOVA Graduate student, Tambov State University named after G.R. Derzhavin, The Russian Federation, Tambov, Russia

REGIONAL PARLIAMENTARISM IN MODERN RUSSIA: FEATURES OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS

The author studies the peculiarities of the formation of Russian parliamentarism in the regions. Regional parliamentarism is an integral part of the entire parliamentary system and the closest to society. Therefore, the study of regional parliamentarism is relevant for scientists who are engaged in the study of the Russian political system.

The author of the article believes that regional parliamentarism was formed under the influence of the state parliamentary system and in the context of the conflict between the executive and legislative branches. The author uses institutional and systemic methods to analyze parliamentarism in Russian regions. This is how the author defines the specifics of the development of parliamentarism, the state's role in this process and the influence of the configuration of state institutions on the position of regional parliaments.

In addition, the author identified the main problems of regional parliamentarism at the present time (such as the strengthening of executive power, the decline in the role of parliaments in the decision-making process and public confidence in them) and gave an assessment of its further development.

Key words: parliamentarism, political system, regional parliamentarism, executive branch, legislature, regional parliament, separation of powers, head of the regional administration, parliament.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.023

S.V. NESHKOV Postgraduate student of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

REASONS FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF YOUTH IN THE PROCESS OF DESTABILIZING THE INTERNAL POLITICAL SITUATION IN RUSSIA

The presented research is devoted to the question of the reasons for the increased interest on the part of external and internal political actors in the involvement of young people in processes designed to destabilize the internal situation in Russia. The author comes to the conclusion that the increased attention to building communication with the younger generation in this case is due partly to the relative weakness of the state in terms of control over the social media space, partly to the abnormally high degree of representation of young people in the structure of consumers of the corresponding media content, produced by the process of cultural globalization “revolution consumer expectations ”and the specificity of the political perception of the younger generation, due to the lack of social experience and the peculiarities of developmental psychology.

Key words: youth, political stability, protest, social networks, social media, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.024

A.K. RUZAVINA Post-Graduate of Siberian Institute of Management – the branch of RANEPA, Novosibirsk, Russia

INTERNET AND SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A FACTOR OF SPREADING YOUTH EXTREMISM

The article is devoted to the role of the Internet and social networks in spreading extremism among youth. The article gives an analysis of the growth of extremist crimes over the past few years and the problem of the transition of crimes to the virtual reality. Much attention is given to the main ways of placing extremist materials on the Internet. Further the author reports focus on new problems of countering extremism and their possible causes and analyses existing legislation in the field of countering extremism on the Internet. The author justifies the relevance of developing measures to counter extremism on the Internet.

Key words: extremism, youth extremism, terrorism, state, mass media, Internet, Russia.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, FOREIGN AND WORLD POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.025

ZH.S. SYZDYKOVA Doctor of History, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

CHINA'S ONE BELT, ONE ROAD MEGAPROJECT: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHALLENGES

The article is devoted to one of the urgent problems of the modern world, which attracts special attention, due to the fact that in the near future it can determine the main main ways of development of the entire world economy and world politics. This project can bring China to the first place in the main indicators, which in the future leads to changes in the configuration of the existing world. It is noted that at present, in geopolitical terms, China opposes the policy of the United States and the West as a whole. Attention is drawn to the fact that the "One Belt, One Road" project affects entire regions of the world. And China at the official level prefers not to focus on its geopolitical goals.

Key words: "One belt, one road", China, megaproject, state, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.026

CHU LING Ph.D. of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Moral Education of the Faculty of Marxism of the Inner Mongolia Technological University of China, expert of the Russian-Mongolian Research Center of the Inner Mongolia Technological University of China, China, Inner Mongolia, Hohhot

HAN HAOLEI Ph.D. of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Sinicization of Marxism, Faculty of Marxism China Inner Mongolia University of Technology, China, Inner Mongolia, Hohhot

DYNAMICS OF CHINA-RUSSIA ENERGY COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF BILATERAL RELATIONS POLITICAL RELATION

In 2019, on the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia, the two leaders signed the "Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the Development of a Comprehensive Strategic and Cooperative Partnership in the New Era ". Bilateral relations have entered a new stage in history. This article examines the state of development of Sino-Russian energy cooperation in the context of bilateral political relations between the two countries. The influence of the Sino-Russian political relations on the energy cooperation between the two countries is shown. The author points out the obstacles facing the deepening of Sino-Russian energy cooperation. The article puts forward ways to strengthen energy cooperation between China and Russia in the "post-epidemic era."

Key words: energy cooperation, political relations, China, Russia, national strategy, new era.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.027

М.F. МАGADIEV Candidate of Sciences (sociology), Associate Professor at the Chair of Public Administration in Foreign Policy, the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

GLOBAL INSTABILITY AS A FACTOR OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY MOBILIZATION AND RADICALIZATION OF MASS CONSCIOUSNESS

The article studies global instability as a factor of political mobilization and radicalization of mass consciousness. Russia is the most powerful country in the world with a strong military, intellectual and resource potential. All this is a significant factor in the country's competitiveness on the world stage, which causes discontent among other countries. The United States and the EU countries are the source of destruction of social stability in the world, permeating the entire global space with instability. In order to increase negative trends, the United States, by interfering in the internal affairs of weaker states, forces internal conflicts, wars and refugee flows which subsequently become a factor in the development of terrorism and extremism in the world. Thus, global instability in the world is one of the factors of political mobilization and radicalization of the mass consciousness of people.

The article aims to systematize the methods of political mobilization and radicalization of the mass consciousness. It shows the main directions of countering such phenomena and preventing their mass occurrence in Russia.

Key words: global instability, political mobilization, radicalization, mass consciousness, proxy wars, globalization, counteraction.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.028

S.K. ZHETPYSBAEV Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associated Professor of the Department of Economics, NJSC named Toraigyrov University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

KAZAKHSTAN'S PATH TO INDEPENDENCE IS THE PATH TO DEMOCRATIZATION AND INTEGRATION

The author of the article has analyzed the main aspects of the domestic and foreign policy of sovereign Kazakhstan in the context of ensuring improvement of the welfare of the people and the country’s national security. The study covers more than twenty years of the formation of the independent state of Kazakhstan, which until recently was little known in the world, but in a short time became a prominent subject of the modern world community.

The article covers the history of market reform, notes the successful anti-crisis policy of Kazakhstan, its initiatives at the global level of political and steps aimed at social modernization of Kazakhstan's society.

A significant place in the work is given to the strengthening of the country’s national security and measures ensuring the internal political stability of the society. The article shows the historical role and significant steps of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev on the way to the formation of a young independent state after the collapse of the USSR. The article highlights the main stages of Kazakhstan’s economic reforms in the context of the global economic crisis. The article covers the most difficult and bright moments of the Kazakh way in the modern history of Kazakhstan. It was the work on the Strategy of Kazakhstan’s Development until 2030, the process of adopting the current Constitution of the Republic, the introduction of the national currency, the process of denationalization and privatization and the transfer of the capital to Astana. The article reveals the international initiatives of the young state and its contribution to the maintenance of global peace, harmony and political stability at the present stage.

Key words: market economy, global crisis, modernization, Kazakhstan, independence, strategy, denationalization, privatization, state, history, world community, CIS, UES, transition period, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.029

V.V. BLINOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science, the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

ATLAS OF THE GREATER MEDITERRANEAN: CRIMEA AT THE CROSSROADS OF CIVILIZATIONS

The article presents an overview of the articles of the Atlas of the Greater Mediterranean (rusrimland.ru), covering key events in the history of the Mediterranean-Black Sea region. The review is followed by the most vivid stories that point to the key place of the Crimean Peninsula at the crossroads of civilizations supported by archival cartographic information. The presented maps clearly demonstrate the political, cultural and military processes that have influenced the image of Europe and Asia. Atlas of the Greater Mediterranean is an academic online resource that presents scientific knowledge based on visually understandable maps and infographics.

Key words: Crimea, Sevastopol, Atlas of the Greater Mediterranean, Mediterranean-Black Sea region, Greater Mediterranean.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.030

G.T. BATSAZOV Graduate Student of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTERNAL FACTOR ON THE DOMESTIC POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE LEBANESE REPUBLIC

In this article the external factor, the states having interest and influence in Republic of Lebanon are addressed. It is noted that those states have opposite interests in this strategic region and directly influence domestic political processes in the country. It is also stated that the confrontation of the states in the region impacts on the instability in the country and leads to inter-confessional contradictions and clashes. Thus, a number of the countries listed in the article are the factor that influences the destiny of Republic of Lebanon and relations of the confessions inhabiting it between them and the external actors.

Key words: external factor, political player, confessionalism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.031

А.D. АFONIN Postgraduate student at the Chair of political science and political philosophy, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

EU POLICY TOWARDS KAZAKHSTAN: ENERGY ASPECT

Introduction. The article is devoted to the consideration of relations in the energy sector between Kazakhstan and the EU in the context of global shifts in the energy sector, the creation of a pan-European energy market, as well as taking into account the development of advanced energy technologies. The purpose of the article is to study the components and key directions of the EU policy towards Kazakhstan in the energy plane. Objectives: 1) to analyze the features of the EU energy supply; 2) to consider vectors of mutually beneficial cooperation between Europe and Kazakhstan in the energy sector. Methods: analysis, synthesis, comparison, historical review, forecasting, modeling, generalization, systematization. Results. In the course of the study, it was found that the goals stipulated by the EU program documents in the field of the development of alternative energy, the abandonment of fossil energy resources have not been achieved, and measures for their implementation are not effective and do not give the expected result. As a result, the countries of the continent depend on oil and gas supplies, which account for 39.3% and 22.6%, respectively, in the energy balance. Taking this into account, the EU demonstrates a high interest in diversifying energy sources that do not depend on Russian or Middle Eastern deposits. In this context, the article identifies three key vectors of Europe's energy policy towards Kazakhstan: investment support for the exploration and production of Caspian energy resources; development of nuclear energy, mining and export of raw uranium; assistance to the transition of the Republic to green energy. Conclusions. The main vector of political interaction between the European Union and Kazakhstan in the energy aspect is to ensure the security of energy supplies to European countries. To this end, the EU supports the development of oil fields and nuclear energy, and also actively involves the Republic in the "green" agenda of the continent.

Key words: Europe, energy, oil, Kazakhstan, supplies, balance, renewable energy sources, emission reduction, energy balance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.032

N.A. BUZANOV PhD student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

D.V. VOROVSKAYA Magistra iuris, Paris Lodron University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria

WHO CAN VIOLATE INTERNATIONAL LAW? THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW. MONISM AND DUALISM. IMPACT ON RUSSIAN-CHINESE STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

This work aims to show different approaches in the sphere of interaction and interrelation of national and international law, as well as to define the issue of violation of international law, both written and oral, and the consequences of possible violations. It also discusses the impact of different legal approaches in international law on international relations and arrangements using the example of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. A comparative analysis of the constitutions of the two countries was conducted to examine this issue. General international legal acts, which are regulating international relations of the two countries were also analyzed. The authors conclude that the application of monism and dualism by these countries has no direct influence on international relations. In the case of Russia and China, other factors, discussed in the article, have a determining influence. The authors also emphasize that subjects of international law usually have no legal basis for its violation, but non-subjects, for obvious reasons, are not subject to this obligation.

Key words: international law, monism, dualism, supremacy of the constitution, gentlemen's agreement.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.033

R.S. CHERNYSHEV Master, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

A.A. RASHKOVAN PhD student, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

LEGAL PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CYBERSPACE

The article examines some of the legal problems of international relations in cyberspace, which directly affect the effectiveness of the mechanism for combating cybercrime. These gaps in the law can directly affect the relationship between various actors in international relations.

The authors propose a systematic consideration of the legal regulation of legal relations in cyberspace, namely: the problem of identifying the perpetrators of cyber attacks and their subsequent responsibility; uncertainties in the application of the "presumption of political crime".

The authors conclude that cyberspace, a new area for international relations, leaves a huge number of unresolved issues today, because of which negotiations or even relations between countries can come to a standstill. In this case, due to the lack of a single international document or convention that would allow regulating legal processes in this area, most cybercriminals have the opportunity to remain unpunished, which is fertile ground for major cyberattacks.

Key words: cybersecurity, cyberspace, international relations, world politics, law.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.034

A.I. CHERPAKOVA Post-graduate student, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FRANCE'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE EU EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

The article is dedicated to the analysis of France’s attitude towards Eastern Partnership – the EU program of collaboration with Armenia, Belorussia, Ukraine, Moldova, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The article considers the main factors shaping the French government endorsement of this program. The particular attention is given to French actions in the scope of the Eastern Partnership priorities. The results of the research demonstrate that despite the fact that France has not paid any particular attention to the Eastern Partnership since its beginning, nowadays France reconsiders its attitude to this project. Not being an active adherer of the Eastern Partnership, France tries to play a significant role in post-soviet countries conflicts regulation. According to the French government, the countries which participate in the Eastern partnership should not consider it as a mechanism of EU accession, the Eastern partnership should be deemed as an instrument of EU’s geopolitical struggle with Russia.

Key words: France, European Union, Eastern partnership, EU Neighborhood policy, Russia, conflict regulation.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.035

MOHAMMAD ANWAR BAKTASH Student working for the Master's Degree at the Chair of political analysis and management, RUDN, Kabul, Afghanistan

KAMWAR AHMAD JAVID Student working for the Master's Degree at the Chair of political analysis and management, RUDN, Kabul, Afghanistan

MOHMAND HASHMATULLAH BA at the Chair of political analysis and management, RUDN, Kabul, Afghanistan

LANGUAGE POLICY IN AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan is a multicultural, multilingual nation and includes ethnic groups of Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, Nuristanis, Imams, Balochis, and other smaller ethnic groups. For many years, there were several languages in Afghanistan, each within its own specific geographical area. The article examines the policies of past regimes regarding the use and official status of different languages. The focus is on Dari and Pashto, the country's two most important official languages.

During the 20th century, the language policy in Afghanistan has often changed in response to socio-political conditions and efforts to advance the political goals of the transitional regimes. The main goals were to promote national unity, national identity, ethnic motives and political thought, and thus the history of Afghanistan in the 20th century is accompanied by frequent changes in the Afghan language policy.

Key words: Afghanistan, language policy, history, current state, linguistic diversity.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.036

K.S. KOMAROV Student, Moscow State Linguistic University (MSLU), Moscow, Russia

MODERN GEOPOLITICAL ENGINEERING OF ISRAEL IN THE MIDDLE EAST

The article introduces in the scientific discourse in the framework of new geopolitical paradigm сonceptual comprehension of “geopolitical engineering” (illustrated by Israel) and its specific manifestation in MidEast area, with broad forecasting application prospects.

Key words: Geopolitical engineering, Israel, the Middle East, сonceptual comprehension, geopolitical forecast.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.68.4.037

SUN WENXIAN Master, Lanzhou University, Institute of Foreign Languages, China

INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO THE FORMATION OF ECONOMIC COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS

The December 1986 events in Alma-Ata were an ethnic conflict during the Soviet Union in the capital of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and were the first large-scale outbreak of the Soviet Union's national problem. The immediate cause of the events was that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union removed Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev from the post of the first Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and directly appointed Gennady Vasilyevich Kolbin to the post. The change of Kunayev caused strong discontent among the Kazakh population, then a large-scale protest demonstration broke out. Due to a misjudgment of the situation, the Soviet authorities used force to suppress the unrest, which eventually led to bloody conflicts and casualties, and a large number of people were arrested and punished. After the incident, the Central Committee of the CPSU described the riots in Almaty as "a manifestation of Kazakh nationalism." However, this conclusion seriously hurt the national pride of the Kazakhs, and they strongly opposed this decision. Three years later, with the changes in the situation and the growing voice of the people, the Central Committee of the CPSU reversed its previous decision, and the incident was eventually rehabilitated. In the context of the unequal national policy of the Soviet Union, the December events were the inevitable result of a long accumulation of ethnic contradictions. The highly centralized system allowed the Union Republic to have little power, limited political and economic autonomy, and severely suppressed the development of the national language and culture. With the gradual strengthening of national consciousness, the national elite, represented by national intellectuals, became increasingly dissatisfied with the power of the Soviet Union and strongly called for the realization of national equality and the preservation of state sovereignty. Combined with the free environment created by the reform of Mikhail S. Gorbachev, this personnel appointment, which was not fully thought out, was the beginning of a series of successive mass outbreaks of the Soviet national problem, and the country began to be in turmoil. After all, the national crisis that began in December in Almaty accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Key words: December events in Alma-Ata, national problem, collapse of the USSR.

   
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