№ 7 (71), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 5 (81), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Skiperskikh A.V. Policy as a Game: Russian Projection

Kamaletdinova D.R. Political Islam: Problems of Definitions

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Osin R.S. Projects of the Image of the Future in the Light of the Ideological Guidelines of Marxist Thought in the USSR at the Turn of the 1940s-1950s.

Zurnadjian G.S. Spiritual and Political Doctrine of Metropolitan Filaret (Drozdov) in Modern Historiography

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Kadysheva K.V. Social Networks as a Tool for Forming the Image of the Head of the Region (on the Example of the Heads of Regions of the Volga Federal District)

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Magadiev M.F. Information Security and Digital Signature in the Electronic Government System Russian Federation

Brega A.A. Creation and Dissemination of Frames as a Way of Legitimizing Power Decisions

Budarin Ya.S. Foresight of Digital Transformation in the Legislature or "Smart Parliament of the Russian Federation"

Dilmukhametova A.A. Improving Information Support for the Activities of Executive Authorities for the Development of a Network of Educational Institutions

Kulikova D.V. Anti-Corruption as a Tool of Political Fight in the Republic of Korea

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Ravochkin N.N. Political Management Practices Transformation in Digitalization Realities (Part 3)

Khlopov O.A. Digital Technologies as a Driving Force for Ensuring Energy Security

Goncharova D.A. Digital Dimention of National Security

Mironova S.A. Some Features of the Legal Regulation of Lobbying Activities of the Oil and Gas Business in the Russian Federation

Hazeli Reza. Labor Immigration and the Possibility of its Regulation Under Sanctions

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Vankovska B. The Macedonian Chairmenship with OSCE 2023: Dark Clouds Looming on the Horizon

Bolshakov A.G. Settlement of Territorial Conflicts in Central Asia: Positive Practices and Case Kyrgyz-Tajik Confrontation

Vozzhenikov A.V., Tsybakov D.L. Formation of the CSTO Collective Security System in a Multipolar World

Dubrovina O.V., Dubrovina O.Yu., Plotnikov V.S. Regions of States Eurasian Economic Union as a Tool for Expanding the Borders Of Integration

Kuleshova N.S., Hao Lun. Western Economic Sanctions and Russia's "Long-Term" Response after the Crimean Crisis

Ba Alawi Murad Mohammed. New Transition Period in Yemen: Main Scenario of Development of Events

Dmitrievа N.I., Dong Zichao. Sovereignty of Cyberspace as National Sovereignty

Maystat M.A., Dennis Gitau Mwangi. Mechanisms for Increasing Women's Political Participation in East African Countries

Mirzazhanov R.H. Russia and International Organizations in the Fight Against the Global Threats of Extremism and Terrorism

Rakhimov K.H., Lushina A.A., Kholov S.H. Cooperation of the SCO Countries with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on the Settlement of the Afghan Issue: Before and After the US Withdrawal

Shanchenko E.P. UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Context of the Theory of Just War

Wang Yang. Russian-Chinese Cooperation in the Field of Innovation in the Scientific and Educational Environment

Kazaryan S.A. Political Aspects of the American Model of Corporate Social Responsibility of Transnational Corporations

Krivosheeva N.I., Podurueva-Miloevich V.Yu. Democratic Resources of the Modern Public Sphere: from Social Networks to Muck-Racking

Sui Tao. Assessment of the Development of China-US Relations Based on the Policy Analysis of Trump And Biden

Tang Cuizhu. Prospects for Deepening Military-Strategic Cooperation Between China and Russia: Main Scenarios

Strasburger M.L. History of Studying the Political Participation of the Russian-Speaking Diaspora in the USA in the Period of Three Waves of Emigration

Yue Ruishuang. On Maintaining Strategic Stability in Sino-US Relations

Yazan Hearbake. Chinese Investment in Africa as a Component of Geoeconomic Strategies

Sui Tao, Voronin V.A. China-U.S. Relations (an Analysis of the Actions of the Trump and Biden Administrations in their Strategic Rivalry with China)

Zhao Lu, Guo Wei. Modern Chinese-American and Russian-American Strategic Competition and the Transformation of the International Order

Alekseenko Yu.A. Evolution of the Antarctic Treaty System

Mironov K.A. The Analysis of Features of Nationalist Parties in the European Union

Dong Zichao. Political Problems of International Relations, Global and Regional Development

Musieva D.M. A New Round of Tension Between Russia and the USA

STUDENT SCIENCE

Li Jingying. Confrontation Between China and Russia and America under Sanctions

Gustyr A.A. The Evolution of Russian Soft Power in the 2008-2013 Period

Protsenko A.L. The Role of Propaganda in Totalitarianism

Tarasochkina D.D. Comparative Analysis of the Results of the Competition Leaders of Russia from 2017 to 2020

Korolkov K.A., Shvyrkov V.S. Governance of Islamic Emirate Afghanistan in Socio-Cultural Sphere

Кomarov K.S. AUKUS: the Outlook of Trilateral Partnership

Our authors № 5-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.001

A.V. SKIPERSKIKH Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Philosophy and Social Science Department, Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia

POLICY AS A GAME: RUSSIAN PROJECTION

The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between politics and the game. The game is a specific technology of legitimation of political actors.

The author sets the task of studying the evolution of Russian politics in the context of spectacle production. To solve this problem, the author uses the historical method. The game permeates all power structures, affecting the images of all branches of the Russian government. The author believes that the production of a spectacle becomes an important condition for the political life of specific politicians. The creation of attractive scenery for political action eventually turns into a certain technology of political legitimation. This problem is solved with the help of specific cases, which the researcher addresses within the framework of the case-study method.

The author considers the game character of politics becomes a way of distracting society from real problems. The request for a spectacular component is only increasing. This places additional demands on politicians, who are increasingly flirting with voters, involving them in the game. The government is beginning to dominate the sphere of the game, covering more and more public spaces with it. As a result, the production of the game becomes a kind of simulator with which politicians try to manage public sentiment on the ground. At the same time, politics is simulated by insignificant, local actions carried out in the populist interests of specific actors. The real benefits of such actions seem rather doubtful, if we do not take into account the withdrawal of society from a stressful state.

Key words: power, game, legitimation, society, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.002

D.R. KAMALETDINOVA Postgraduate student of faculty of global studies, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL ISLAM: PROBLEMS OF DEFINITIONS

The phenomenon of political Islam, which appeared within the framework of the Islamic revival at the beginning of the 20th century, did not immediately attract the attention of the scientific community. That has happened because islamism was associated with the all-inclusiveness of Islam, that unites all the spheres: religious, political and socio-economic one. At the same time, the acceleration of globalization processes, accompanied by a general unification of values and culture, as well as by the pressure on the Muslim ummah, led to a political mobilization under Islamic religious slogans in different parts of the world. Attempts to comprehend the beginning of the Islamic revival by scientific community did not lead to the emergence of a single, monolithic approach to the definition of a new phenomenon, that in turn, led to the impossibility of developing universal ways of interacting with it. In this regard, the author of the article attempts to analyze political Islam in the Western-centric discourse. The first part of the article discusses the use of various terms to characterize the phenomenon of Islamism in the period from the 18th to the 20th century. The second part of the article is devoted to changes in the interpretation of political Islam after the tragic events of September 11, 2001. At the end of the article, it was concluded that, due to the lack of homogeneity of the phenomenon under consideration, the expansion of the terminological apparatus and the semantic field of the concept of political Islam occurred in accordance with changes within the Arab world and the global context in general.

Key words: political Islam, jihadism, takfirism, fundamentalism, Islamofascism.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.003

R.S. OSIN Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Departments of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

PROJECTS OF THE IMAGE OF THE FUTURE IN THE LIGHT OF THE IDEOLOGICAL GUIDELINES OF MARXIST THOUGHT IN THE USSR AT THE TURN OF THE 1940S-1950S.

Ideological guidelines for building an image of the future are extremely relevant for modern Russian society in the context of new foreign and domestic political challenges. In this regard, it seems productive to turn to the ideological projects of the image of the future in the Soviet past.

The purpose of the article is to consider various approaches in the framework of discussions among the leading ideologists of the USSR at the turn of the 1940s-1950s. In those years, after recovering from the devastation of the war, the political leadership of the Soviet state was able to return to the strategic issues of the theory of the transformation of Soviet society from socialist to communist and put many questions of theory in the practical plane. When writing the work, both the general philosophical method of materialistic dialectics and a number of specific scientific methods were used: content analysis, comparative, historical, etc. The basis of the methodology of the article is a materialistic understanding of history.

As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that, despite the external commitment to Marxism, the Soviet ideological elite was not completely monolithic. During the discussion, different approaches and points of view on the process of formation of the communist formation were viewed. Soviet ideological workers tried to combine the realism of achievable goals with the proclamation of the imminent approach of communist society. If at I.V. According to Stalin, these approaches were strictly limited by the political and ideological realities of that time, then in the future many of the ideas voiced at closed meetings in the late 1940s were reflected in the party documents of the CPSU and became widely used in agitation and propaganda.

Key words: communism, socialism, alienation, social division of labor, commodity-money relations, working day, classes, socialization, property.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.004

G.S. ZURNADJIAN Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL DOCTRINE OF METROPOLITAN FILARET (DROZDOV) IN MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY

The interest of the paper is to explore the literature dedicated to Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna Filaret (Drozdov) as a religious and political figure. In the field of the research are the works of Russian and foreign scientists from the historical, theological, sociological, political, philological standpoint. The works in which the authors describe and analyze the state-church relations of the synodal period as well as the relations between Filaret and the politicians of the epoch are of particular interest hereof.

Key words: Metropolitan Filaret (Drozdov), spiritual and political thought, state and Church.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.005

K.V. KADYSHEVA Assistant of the Department of Public Relations and Applied Political Science of Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A TOOL FOR FORMING THE IMAGE OF THE HEAD OF THE REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE HEADS OF REGIONS OF THE VOLGA FEDERAL DISTRICT)

This article attempts to consider the effectiveness of social networks of the head of the subject of the Russian Federation as a factor in the formation of his image. The paper uses data obtained during the author's content analysis of publications of social networks of heads of regions of the Volga Federal District. Based on the analysis, the problem areas of the image component of the heads of the region in social networks are identified, and the conclusion is made about the importance of information coverage of the political activity of the leader, since it sets the pace of setting and solving the problems of the region and contributes to increasing loyalty from both the federal center and the population.

Key words: political image, head of the region, political leader, social networks.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.006

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in the foreign policy activities of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

INFORMATION SECURITY AND DIGITAL SIGNATURE IN THE ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT SYSTEM RUSSIAN FEDERATION

All state structures of the Russian Federation operate within the framework of the "Electronic Government" platform, which is a system of electronic interaction between different authorities, equipped with a variety of functions, as well as an effective communication system between different departments and structures of state power. E-government was created several years ago and is gradually being integrated into the work of all state structures of the Russian Federation, which greatly simplifies the process of public administration and reduces the losses and risks of their functioning. However, in the context of the rapid development of technology, the degree of risk of losing government information also increases. The presence of a huge number of hacker attacks on government websites and information systems increases the concern of the Government of the Russian Federation with these facts. The article describes the systems of "Electronic Government" and its vulnerabilities due to the use of a digital electronic signature on the platform. Options for protection against cyber fraud are given, as well as the possibility of strengthening the crypto protection of the digital signature used in the "Electronic Government" system.

Key words: information and analytical systems, digitalization, public administration, development of information technologies, electronic digital signature, information protection.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.007

A.A. BREGA Postgraduate student, Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

CREATION AND DISSEMINATION OF FRAMES AS A WAY OF LEGITIMIZING POWER DECISIONS

The article deals with the problem of creating frames as a way of legitimizing power. Attention is drawn to the specifics of frame analysis, the prerequisites for its active use at the present stage. The types of legitimacy are identified, which are provided by the creation and distribution of frames. It is noted that frames depend on public opinion, and therefore politicians use them for their own purposes. For the success of their political activities, politicians must have an idea of the alignment of social forces in the country, be able to properly assess the reality of meeting the demands of society. As a rule, politicians put forward ideas that are most popular in society, and do not initiate new ones, thus, basically, the distribution of frames is in the nature of reproduction or minimal modification of existing frames.

Key words: fame, framing, legitimation, power, power decisions, politics, communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.008

YA.S. BUDARIN Student, Institute of Public Service and Management, Russian Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FORESIGHT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION IN THE LEGISLATURE OR "SMART PARLIAMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION"

The key shortcomings of the legislative power in the context of state-building are described. The sequence of solving the problems of Russian citizens in parliament and the emergence of derivative problems under the influence of information capsules is monitored. The influence of administrative and economic actors on the adoption of draft laws is analyzed. The basic concept of a Smart Parliament of the Russian Federation based on digital technologies is put forward.

The Smart Parliament of the Russian Federation (Smart-parliament) is a single initiative platform of citizens of the Russian Federation, created with the aim of generalizing/structuring and forming a holistic socio-economic strategic and operational agenda of the multinational people of Russia in a single information infrastructure of state authorities and local self-government. The platform should provide a centralized integrated approach to state-building issues in the context of creating and ensuring the digital regulatory architecture of the Russian Federation. The actors of state-building in the Smart Parliament are initiative citizens of Russia, who are identified through the Public Services platform with full verification. Smart parliament allows citizens to create an initiative in accordance with an established template, discuss it with other users and receive a motivated response from state and local government authorities, and when passing it to the level of municipal/regional/federal significance – the opportunity to defend their initiative in person and get advice from leading experts of the Russian Federation. In addition, it is assumed that there is a system of political credit. Political credit should be understood as a multi-level system of benefits and offers, fixed at the legislative level, for active citizens of the Russian Federation participating in state construction. Political credit is ranked according to the degree of significance and is calculated in the form of conventional units.

In order to form the agenda of the multinational people of Russia at a qualitatively high level, initiatives are filtered for compliance with the interests of state-building. All initiatives are analyzed in the context of integration into the international regulatory framework and the legislative framework of the Russian Federation.

Key words: State Duma of the Russian Federation, legislative power, actor, political ecosystem of citizens, institution of power, Smart Parliament, public authorities.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.009

A.A. DILMUKHAMETOVA Assistant of the Department of Public Relations and Applied Political Science of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

IMPROVING INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR THE ACTIVITIES OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORK OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

This article discusses the main aspects of improving information support for the activities of executive authorities for the development of a network of educational institutions. The modern directions of education development in Russia are studied. By the method of an expert survey among representatives of regional education management bodies, the main problematic aspects of information support for the activities of executive authorities for the development of a network of educational institutions are identified, and the most effective trends for improving processes in this area are proposed.

Key words: information support, education system, innovations, educational institutions, trends.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.010

D.V. KULIKOVA Postgraduate student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

ANTI-CORRUPTION AS A TOOL OF POLITICAL FIGHT IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The purpose of the study was to identify and describe the relationship between the features of combating corruption crimes and the political sphere of the Republic of Korea. The article discusses the main anti-corruption law of the Republic of Korea and its weaknesses, as well as the most famous corruption cases that demonstrate the use of anti-corruption rhetoric in a political context.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption, political struggle, politics.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.011

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TRANSFORMATION IN DIGITALIZATION REALITIES (PART 3)

Digitalization is becoming one of the complex determinants, modeling options for the post-industrial transit of the modern world, influencing all spheres and areas of public life. Modern politics can no longer be represented, without digital services, and public administration and the struggle for power have undergone multiple metamorphoses. Transformation of political management practices and changes in the functionality of institutions seem to be vital for national governments, since it is the relevance to current challenges that allows us to rely on evolutionary development scenarios, remodeling of political practices and activities of the authorities The third part of the study summarizes the features of the digitalization of the political sphere in Europe. The author examines China's experience in the use of information and communication technologies in political activities. The high role of state regulation of the Internet and the importance of censorship of any information related to government practices are emphasized. The distinctive features of the Chinese way of digitalization of politics are revealed. In conclusion, the main results are presented and the trajectories of future research on the digitalization of the political sphere in the world regions are outlined.

Key words: political management, power, digitalization, society, interactions, political participation, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.012

O.A. KHLOPOV PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations, Political Science and Foreign Regional Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH), Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AS A DRIVING FORCE FOR ENSURING ENERGY SECURITY

The article presents an analysis of the relationship between digitalization, energy and security, analyzes the impact of the digital transformation process in business and the public sector on energy security. Digital technologies play a key role for improving energy security, and the digitalization of public services contributes to achieving energy sustainability. The use of modern digital technologies, such as big data, cloud computing are essential to ensure the security of the energy system and the availability of energy. The author argues that digital transformation activities that is taking place in various sectors on various energy aspects is very important to ensure energy security, including accessibility, affordability, ability to sustainable development.

Key words: energy security, energy resources, sustainable development, digitalization, digital technologies, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.013

D.A. GONCHAROVA Postgraduate, Faculty of Global Studies Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL DIMENTION OF NATIONAL SECURITY

Introduction. Regardless of political and social systems, the existence of the national security sector and organisations can be considered universal in almost all states. The main task of national security organisations in each country is to support decision makers in the country with accurate, up-to-date information. Their main tasks are to obtain and analyse information. In the 20th century, specific areas of information gathering (e.g. SIGINT – Signal Intelligence, HUMINT – Human Intelligence, OSINT – Open Source Intelligence and MASINT – Measurement and Signature Intelligence) were developed to carry out these activities. At the same time, apart from their specific purpose and secrecy, these fields are undergoing constant change, and one of the most important shaping factors is the external technological environment. Consequently, monitoring changes in the external environment plays an important role, and national security decision-makers are also responding to them by improving their methods. On the one hand, digital technology allows for faster and easier information acquisition, but on the other hand it also leads to the emergence of risks.

Research methodology. The methodological basis of the study comprises general scientific research methods, such as synthesis, analysis, comparison, as well as a special research method, such as content analysis of official documents.

Results of the study. The study argues that digitalization brings both benefits and risks to national security, so each country needs to respond and support technological support for national security. Russia lags behind the U.S. in key digital dimensions. Russia lags behind, and work needs to be done at the legislative and departmental levels to improve economic competitiveness, develop ICT in Russia's different regions, and introduce initiatives to accelerate broadband penetration and increase the adoption of e-services by different sectors and by different levels of government.

Discussion. Digitalization as a process poses significant risks to maintaining the current position in the national security system focused on physical threats. The main threats to the new social organization are: digital terrorism; crime in the virtual environment; human psycho-emotional insecurity, lack of personal space in the digital environment; falsification of information; and threat to national sovereignty in the digital space.

Conclusion. In the future, technological superiority will play an important role, providing unpredictable advantages to countries with the most advanced capabilities and solutions. State authorities are aware of all the need to adopt digital technologies, which are used for national security, but also in related sectors, in particular for information, technological, financial and economic security.

Key words: digital economy, digital technology, challenges, national security, digitalization, digital transformation, ICT development index, digital terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.014

S.A. MIRONOVA Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SOME FEATURES OF THE LEGAL REGULATION OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES OF THE OIL AND GAS BUSINESS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article analyzes various approaches to the problems of legal regulation of lobbying activities, including directly in the oil and gas industry, shows the relationship between world and domestic views on lobbying, examines the Russian specifics of lobbying in comparison with foreign experience, substantiates the problems of legal regulation of lobbying in modern Russia.

The purpose of this article is to determine the specifics of the legal regulation of lobbying in the oil and gas industry in the Russian Federation on the basis of a content analysis of current legislation and research materials, and to outline the possible limits of this regulation.

In the course of the study, the author concludes that legal regulation of lobbying is not possible in all societies, since it implies transparency not only in the field of lobbying, but also in general within the framework of regulating relations between the state and society, whether it is issues of distribution of social support, taxation or, narrowly, public procurement.

According to the author, the European model of regulation of lobbying, involving the participation of interest groups in the work of special advisory institutions in order to effectively influence political decision-making, deserves attention. In this regard, it is necessary to give a legal definition of lobbying and lobbyists in relation to the realities of modern Russia, to establish on the basis of the law the rules for financing the political process, regulating the activities of relevant organizations and business associations, as well as to determine the degree of their influence on the development of the political system, the process of forming public policy.

Key words: interest groups, lobbying, public authorities, interaction between business and government, oil and gas complex, communication technologies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.015

HAZELI REZA Graduate student, Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

LABOR IMMIGRATION AND THE POSSIBILITY OF ITS REGULATION UNDER SANCTIONS

The purpose of this article is to identify the features of labor migration in the Russian Federation in the post-pandemic period and new sanctions measures. The work is based on the works of domestic and foreign researchers, on statistical and factual data covering migration processes, labor resources, demographic dynamics, and the social structure of the population. The presented data are systematized in various directions, the impact of sanctions measures on the structure of the modern migration process, on the problems of economic and socio-political development of the Russian Federation is considered.

Key words: international labor migration, sanctions measures, socio-political development, labor resources, political and legal analysis.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.016

B. VANKOVSKA Professor of political science and International relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia

THE MACEDONIAN CHAIRMENSHIP WITH OSCE 2023: DARK CLOUDS LOOMING ON THE HORIZON

The article deals with the challenges and prospects of the forthcoming 2023 OSCE Chairmanship-in-Office of Macedonia, which combines the serious problems of both OSCE and the Macedonian weak diplomacy. The combination of the two does not give many reasons for hope in the context of the Ukraine situation, which with all likelihood will dominate the agenda. On one hand, OSCE is facing an existential crisis as an organization that has obviously failed to preserve peace and cooperation on the European continent but still badly seeks out its new raison d’etre. On the other hand, during the worst global security crisis in the recent decades, the Organization is to be chaired by one of its minor and weakest states. The key questions read: does it matter who chairs the OSCE in a situation where the member states have already taken sides and the decision-making process is in impasse? How relevant is OSCE today and what are its prospects?

Key words: OSCE, Chairmanship, Macedonia, diplomacy, European security architecture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.017

A.G. BOLSHAKOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Conflictology, Institute of Social Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

SETTLEMENT OF TERRITORIAL CONFLICTS IN CENTRAL ASIA: POSITIVE PRACTICES AND CASE KYRGYZ-TAJIK CONFRONTATION

The article is devoted to the Territorial Conflicts of the Post-Soviet period in Central Asia. Territorial Conflicts arose in this region due to the lack of clear state bordes, the presense of numerus enclaves and exclaves, since earlier the borders were only administrative on the territory of one state – the Soviet Union. The purpose of article is to determine the most effective Methods for Resolving Territorial Conflicts in the region.

These may include, first of all, lengthy Negotiations between the parties to the dispute, Delimitation and Demarcation of borders. The region has accumulated quite a few such practices, and they are gradually leading to the fact that the process of gaining state borders ends. The most successful in this regard are Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. However, the Ferghana Valley is the most difficult area for resolving border problems and disputies between the countries of the region, and there are a number of reasons for this, which are presented in detail in this text.

Direct Russian Mediation, the creation of Zones of Economic Cooperation, the Abolition of borders are still less effective ways to Resolve Conflicts. At the same time, the Russian alliance, ensuring security for a number of Central Asian countries ensures their successful progress towards a gradual reduction in Territorial Conflict.

The case of Conflicts between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan has not yet been Resolved. The most intense conflict between the countries occurred in 2021, which brought the border conflict to the National Level for the two states of the region. But since the Conflicts between these countries are not Ethno-Religious, they are not intractable and, most likely, will be Resolved before 2030.

Key words: Territorial Conflict, Border Conflict, Enclave, Exclave, Negotiations, Mediation, border Delimitation, border Demarcation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.018

A.V. VOZZHENIKOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of Cultural Studies and Social Communication, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

D.L. TSYBAKOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Academy of Civil Protection of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia Khimki, Russia

FORMATION OF THE CSTO COLLECTIVE SECURITY SYSTEM IN A MULTIPOLAR WORLD

The article analyzes the development of the collective security system in the former USSR during the 1990s-2000s. The authors define the purpose of their research to consider the formation of the institutional and conceptual foundations for ensuring the strategic interests of Russia and its allies in the post-Soviet geopolitical region against the background of the processes of emerging multipolarity. Historical, comparative, dialectical methods are used to fulfill this goal. The analysis of the stages of collective security functioning in the post-Soviet space in the context of the development of CIS institutions and the formation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization is carried out. The content of the "Tashkent Pact" of 1992 and the reasons for the correction of doctrinal acts issued on its basis in the field of ensuring regional security are evaluated. Considerable attention is paid to the process of transforming the CSTO into a multifunctional entity for maintaining international stability in the CIS area.

Crisis situations in the process of evolution of the collective security system that took place at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries are described. The prerequisites of destructive manifestations in the integration strategies of Russia and its allies in the field of regional security are revealed. It is summarized that the crises of its institutions in the post-Soviet space were based on such factors as ethnic and confessional tensions in the newly independent CIS states, the incompleteness of their national sovereignty, as well as the policy of the Euro-Atlantic community to establish its geopolitical hegemony in the former USSR. The prerequisites and conditions for expanding the CSTO's sphere of responsibility are determined, which resulted in the reformatting of this association from a classic military-political union into a regional security organization of a new type.

Key words: post-Soviet space, collective security, regional security, Collective Security Treaty, CIS, NATO, CSTO.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.019

O.V. DUBROVINA Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

O.YU. DUBROVINA PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor, Coordinator, National Union of Political Scientists of Russia, Moscow, Russia

V.S. PLOTNIKOV PhD in Social Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Customs Siberian State Transport University, Novosibirsk, Russia

REGIONS OF STATES EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION AS A TOOL FOR EXPANDING THE BORDERS OF INTEGRATION

The article is devoted to the topical issues of the development of the Eurasian Economic Union and the possible regional participation in this integration process. The article considers theoretical and applied aspects of the problem. The purpose of the article is to show that international economic integration in the modern world is a necessary condition for the successful economic growth of countries, and substate regions become a key level of political action and dialogue, a place where supranational and national forces meet regional demands and needs. The regions of states are playing an increasingly important role in the national and supranational political process, including integration.

Key words: Eurasian Economic Union, integration, regions of states, substate regions, cross-border cooperation, cross-border regions and spaces, inter-territorial cooperation, integration policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.020

N.S. KULESHOVA Doctor of philosophical science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East Institute of Asian and African countries Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

HAO LUN Candidate of Political Sciences, Moscow State University, Doctor of Political Science, Peking University, Lecturer at the Institute for the Humanities and social sciences, Harbin Engineering University, Beijing, China

WESTERN ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND RUSSIA'S "LONG-TERM" RESPONSE AFTER THE CRIMEAN CRISIS

The current international situation is complicated by the Russian-Ukrainian situation. The collective West continues to impose new sanctions against Russia, using sanctions as an instrument of political pressure, but the effect of the sanctions is still far from expected. Anti-Russian sanctions create unprecedented challenges for the Russian economy and disastrous consequences for the global economy. Current trends and methods of Russia's response in a crisis situation attract close attention of domestic and foreign scientists. The subject of our study is the counter-sanctions policy of the Russian Federation, as an integral system of state decisions against sanctions coercion of the West.

Key words: Russia, total Western sanctions, international relations, financial institutions, political stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.021

BA ALAWI MURAD MOHAMMED Candidate of political sciences, Associate professor, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Hadhramaut State University, Yemen

NEW TRANSITION PERIOD IN YEMEN: MAIN SCENARIO OF DEVELOPMENT OF EVENTS

The article considers the political situation in Yemen, in particular, the announcement of the creation of a Presidential council as a result of negotiations held in Riyadh from March 29 to April 7, 2022. It also analyzes the reasons for Ansar Allah's refusal to participate in the negotiations. This paper proposes three scenarios for the development of events in Yemen in the near future.

Key words: presidential council, Yemen, Ansar Allah, yemeni negotiations, Saudi Arabia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.022

N.I. DMITRIEVА Ph.D. (Economic Sciences), Assistant Professor, The Chair of Theory and Technology of Management, the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

DONG ZICHAO PhD Student, The Chair of Theory and Technology of Management, the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SOVEREIGNTY OF CYBERSPACE AS NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY

The paper is devoted to the cyberspace security current state and the features of state regulation of this sphere both at the national, bilateral and multilateral levels. The focus of the study is on the need to define "digital borders" to ensure national priority in cybersecurity, i.e. areas in which the country's leadership has the right to use various measures to protect information data to form cyberspace national sovereignty.

Key words: cyberspace, concept of sovereignty, national sovereignty of cyberspace, information data protection, digital environment, digital sovereignty, digital borders.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.023

M.A. MAYSTAT Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

DENNIS GITAU MWANGI Fourth-year student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Republic of Kenya

MECHANISMS FOR INCREASING WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN EAST AFRICAN COUNTRIES

The article analyzes the mechanisms of achieving gender equality in the politics of East African states (for example, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) in historical retrospect (postcolonial period) and at the present stage.

The authors highlight the internal and external reasons for the need to empower African women in politics, structural and other obstacles, features and consequences of the implementation of gender quotas in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.

The authors conclude that in order to democratize and form governance structures, norms and values in African states, in addition to the numerical political presence of women and the progressive norms of the Constitution, it is necessary to attract strong and mutually responsible voters and create appropriate mechanisms inside and outside the formal governance structures.

Key words: gender policy, women in politics, gender quotas, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, East Africa.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.024

R.H. MIRZAZHANOV Head of the educational Department of the Department of special training of the military training center at Moscow state University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST THE GLOBAL THREATS OF EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM

In this paper we analyze the documents of international and regional organizations dedicated to combating extremism and terrorism, or at least mentioning this issue. The factors hindering the creation of a global anti-terrorist (anti-extremist) coalition are highlighted. It is shown that today's expectations in the fight against extremism and terrorism (in addition to national-state structures) should be orientated towards regional and sub-regional associations. We reveal that the principal vectors of the anti-terrorist activities of the SCO and the CSTO for the most part coincide or are similar in content. We conclude that strengthening of inter-regional interaction of already existing structures (for example, the SCO and the CSTO) on the “anti-terrorist agenda” looks optimal for the Eurasian area.

Key words: extremism, terrorism, the Russian Federation, the UN, the SCO, the CSTO, the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, strategizing the fight against manifestations of anti-humanism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.025

K.H. RAKHIMOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Post-graduate Assistant of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, specialist Center for Research of Post-Soviet Countries (CIS), Moscow, Russia

A.A. LUSHINA Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the RUDN, Moscow, Russia

S.H. KHOLOV Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the RUDN, Moscow, Russia

COOPERATION OF THE SCO COUNTRIES WITH THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN ON THE SETTLEMENT OF THE AFGHAN ISSUE: BEFORE AND AFTER THE US WITHDRAWAL

This article analyzes the experience of solving the Afghan problem accumulated by the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (hereinafter-SCO). In particular, the article examines the diplomatic efforts of this organization, its humanitarian actions, and attempts to develop infrastructure in Afghanistan. The article also shows the differences between the SCO participants' approach from other countries and organizations, and analyzes the overall effectiveness of the proposed solutions. The essence of the Afghan problem from the point of view of the SCO members is that the main part of the state border of Afghanistan falls on the member countries of the Organization. Therefore, all the risks that come from Afghanistan – terrorism, the expansion of radical Islam, as well as organized crime (including drug smuggling), are serious threats to the participating countries of the organization. An additional complication lies in the fact that the official Afghan government does not control the entire territory of the country, and has been waging an intense war with the radical Islamic movement for a long time. On August 15, 2021, power in Afghanistan came under the control of the Taliban (the organization is under UN sanctions for terrorist activities). In exchange for the support of the international community, the movement promised to create an inclusive government and respect human rights. So far, these words remain promises: reports of human rights violations, reprisals against representatives of the former regime and suppression of dissent periodically come from the region. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of the problems of the SCO's influence and the attempts of its participants to resolve the Afghan conflict.

Key words: SCO, regional security, war in Afghanistan, radical Islam, terrorism, economic and energy security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.026

E.P. SHANCHENKO Junior researcher, Institute for International Studies, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO); PhD candidate, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF JUST WAR

In this article the author depicts in detail the theory (group of theories) of just war. Referring to the classical postulates of these theories (the principles of initiation of war and the principles of rules of engagement in combat), the author analyzes how "just" could be the involvement of the UN peacekeeping contingents in conflict resolution. On the one hand, the conduct of a peacekeeping operation is connected with the intention to stop the bloodshed, and the "fairness" of the participation of peacekeeping contingents is also connected with the involvement of the world community in the settlement of the conflict through UN peacekeeping forces. At the same time, it should be recognized that the UN is a non-state actor, in a meaning of the classical postulates of the theory of just war. To analyze the actions of non-state actors, the author appeals to the non-classical approach of the American expert N. Foushin. Similarly, the author raises questions about the compliance with the principle of legitimacy of an authority (representation of countries in the UN Security Council, active financing by Western partners of the UN Fund, the Peacebuilding Commission Fund, the fund of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs), as well as the lack of correlation between the list of countries providing peacekeeping contingents and the circle of states making political decisions regarding the content of the UN mandates. Also, compliance with the principles of jus post bellum, which appeared in the scientific discourse relatively recently, is associated with the conduct of peacekeeping operations (proportionality of claims against the losing side, restoration of the rights of sovereignty and territorial integrity of the losing side, proportionality of punishment of the political leadership and the military in accordance with the share of responsibility of their decisions, the issue of compensation, the issue of political reconstruction and restoration of the party that lost). Due to possible non-compliance with a number of principles of a just war (the principle of legitimacy, the principle of a just cause, the principle of probability of success, the principles of jus post bellum), some peacekeeping operations may not be considered as "just" by certain political actors.

Key word: “just war”, justice, the United Nations, jus ad bellum, jus in bello, jus post bellum, peacemaking operations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.027

WANG YANG Weifang University lecturer, China

RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF INNOVATION IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

The strategic partnership of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China requires the development of innovations in the educational sphere, since it directly affects the training of modern personnel for sustainable development and comprehensive strategic partnership. The article is devoted to the problems of improving the scientific and educational environment of the PRC and the Russian Federation. The article describes the directions of cooperation in the conditions of digitalization, its main components, presents the results of Russian-Chinese cooperation, taking into account the national and political peculiarities of development. The author's political analysis of new trends in cooperation between the two states in the educational sphere clearly identifies differences in the needs of countries in this aspect, and also provides national statistical data.

Key words: scientific and educational environment, modernization of the education system, digitalization, innovations, trends in the development of university education in China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.028

S.A. KAZARYAN PhD student Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL ASPECTS OF THE AMERICAN MODEL OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS

The article is devoted to the study of political aspects of the American model of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of transnational corporations (TNCs). The article’s author presented the versatile works of the Russian and foreign scientists on the study of various aspects of the problem. The analysis of US foreign policy carried out in the article, implemented through the American model of CSR TNCs, showed that the latter allows Washington to accelerate the processes of globalization in the world and extend its own standards of socially responsible business functioning to developing and least developed states. At the same time, the United States manages to influence the politics of these states due to the dependence of their national economies on the activities of American TNCs on their territory, including the management of enterprises in the extractive and manufacturing industries, controlling stakes in which the US transnational business owns.

Key words: transnational corporations, corporate social responsibility, American model, political influence, developing and least developed states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.029

N.I. KRIVOSHEEVA Postgraduate of the Department of Public Administration and Management, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Volgograd, Russia

V.YU. PODURUEVA-MILOEVICH Postgraduate of the Department of Public Administration and Management, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Volgograd, Russia

DEMOCRATIC RESOURCES OF THE MODERN PUBLIC SPHERE: FROM SOCIAL NETWORKS TO MUCK-RACKING

The article substantiates the characteristic features of the modern public sphere in the context of the three most important institutions of democracy, such as freedom of expression, alternative sources of information and the autonomy of associations. It is argued that the core of the modern public sphere are the following resources: democratization of information, social networks, cross-border public, opinion leaders, macro-hacking. The influence of these resources on democratic institutions is analyzed. The concept of the public sphere Yu. Habermas and the concept of «communicative abundance» by J. Keane is offered as a methodological tool that reveals the relationship between the modern public sphere and its democratic potential.

Key words: public sphere, democracy, Internet, mass media, civil society, democratic resources, social networks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.030

SUI TAO Ph.D. Student the School of World Politics Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ASSESSMENT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA-US RELATIONS BASED ON THE POLICY ANALYSIS OF TRUMP AND BIDEN

Sino-US relations have deteriorated sharply during the Trump administration. Under the leadership of President Trump, Washington abandoned its four-decade policy of engagement with Beijing, designated China as a great power seeking to reshape the regional and world order, imposed sweeping tariffs on Chinese goods, and tightened controls on Chinese investment in the United States.

The article analyzes the Chinese strategy of the administration of D. Trump and J. Biden for long-term, strategic and tough rivalry with China.

Key words: Sino-American relations, strategic competition, fundamentals of strategic rivalry, US foreign policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.031

TANG CUIZHU Postgraduate student, Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR DEEPENING MILITARY-STRATEGIC COOPERATION BETWEEN CHINA AND RUSSIA: MAIN SCENARIOS

This article analyzes the Sino-Russian military and strategic aspects of the partnership, as well as scenarios for its development. The author gives a general description of the current state of interaction between the two states in the area under consideration on the basis of current scientific literature. Particular attention is paid to Central Asia as an important strategic path for the development of relations between Russia and China, as well as the exchange of military exercises and the exchange of technologies as an important aspect of further interaction between states. The article also considers three scenarios for deepening interaction between the two states: open rivalry, military alliance and strategic coordination. Three factors make it likely that the relationship will develop into a stable and enduring relationship over the next 10 to 15 years. It is likely that China and Russia will continue to firmly believe in advancing a multipolar world order. Countries will continue to uphold the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention, and remain vigilant against any advancement of Western liberal values and norms.

Key words: China, Russia, military-strategic partnership, Arctic, exercises, politics, world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.032

M.L. STRASBURGER Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Theory of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

HISTORY OF STUDYING THE POLITICAL PARTICIPATION OF THE RUSSIAN-SPEAKING DIASPORA IN THE USA IN THE PERIOD OF THREE WAVES OF EMIGRATION

In this article, the author examines the history of studying the political participation of the Russian-speaking diaspora in the United States during the period of three waves of emigration. In the introduction, the author proposes a periodization of the waves of emigration from Russia/USSR to the United States, indicates the main stages in the coverage of this process in the scientific literature. The author examines the coverage of various forms of political unification of the diaspora and highlights the idea that they were primarily aimed at fighting the corresponding political regime in Russia/USSR from abroad, and not at exerting significant political influence within the country. The author, comes to the conclusion, that after studying the main works on the topic under study and describing the main Russian-speaking political organizations, clubs and associations of the three waves of emigration, it can be stated that, in contrast to the cultural and economic aspects, the political aspect is poorly developed. The author points out the reasons why the Russian-speaking diaspora did not become an independent political player. This includes the "wave-like nature of emigration", cardinal differences in political convictions, and the class and social affiliation of the migrants.

Key words: russian-speaking diaspora, emigration, political participation, waves of emigration, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.033

YUE RUISHUANG PhD student, International Relations and World Politics Department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ON MAINTAINING STRATEGIC STABILITY IN SINO-US RELATIONS

In today's era, China-US relations are one of the most important bilateral relations in global international relations. It is absolutely obvious that its direction and content significantly influence the global civilizational, military-political and economic development. China and the United States need to ease strategic suspicions and build mutual trust through cooperation, treat conflict as the new normal, and establish a strong and stable strategic relationship. After decades of development of the international and constant diversity of the domestic situation, China-US relations are now facing new challenges, as well as unprecedented new problems. Common interests and economic and political interdependence, including the interdependence between China and the United States and the interdependence of the two countries on the international system, is an important pillar of China-US relations. Over the past few decades, China and the United States have established dozens of intergovernmental dialogue mechanisms, notably the Sino-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue.

Key words: China-US relations, common interests, global stability, competition, development.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.034

YAZAN HEARBAKE Postgraduate student of the Moscow Pedagogical state university, Moscow, Russia

CHINESE INVESTMENT IN AFRICA AS A COMPONENT OF GEOECONOMIC STRATEGIES

China's aspirations for regional and global leadership will largely be achieved by its geo-economic strategy. Investments are one of the geo-economic tools in this regard.

The article presents Chinese investment in the African continent, especially in the energy and mining sectors, which has become a geo-economic phenomenon in a globalized world moving to change its economic system.

Purpose: The role of China's investment in the African continent in the context of the Geo-Economic Strategy.

Highlights the importance of the challenges these investments face.

Key words: investments, energy, America, Africa, China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.035

SUI TAO Ph.D. Student The School of World Politics Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

V.A. VORONIN Ph.D. Student Department of World Economy Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

CHINA-U.S. RELATIONS (AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIONS OF THE TRUMP AND BIDEN ADMINISTRATIONS IN THEIR STRATEGIC RIVALRY WITH CHINA)

After China's reforms and opening up in 1978, the county experience more than 40 years of economic development. Nowadays, China become the second-largest economy in the world. The rise of China's all-encompassing power led the United States to change its strategic position and engage in strategic rivalry with China. This strategy shift occurred during the Trump administration and has been continued by the Biden administration. This article analyzes the development of the Sino-American strategies during the Trump and Biden administrations. It concludes that the United States will adopt three political directions of rivalry, confrontation, and cooperation to manage its relationship with China. The US will rely on alliances and partners and will pursue a long-term rivalry with China.

Key words: Sino-American relations, strategic competition, bases of strategic rivalry.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.036

ZHAO LU PhD student at the department of comparative political science Faculty of Political Science of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

GUO WEI Postgraduate Student, Department of Modern Sociology, Faculty of Sociology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

MODERN CHINESE-AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN-AMERICAN STRATEGIC COMPETITION AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORDER

China, Russia and the United States are among the most important powers in the world. The strategic relations between China and the United States, Russia and the United States and their evolution represent an important milestone in the observation for the study of international political problems. In the face of increased competition between China and the United States, the emergence of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, the "confrontation" between the United States and Russia portends a serious change in the strategic model of the international order.

The article describes the strategic rivalry between China and the United States, Russia and the United States. It also analyzes the competition for the transformation of the international order, led by the main players in the role of China, the United States and Russia.

Having examined the topic of competition between China, Russia and the United States, it can be concluded that China, in competing with the United States, also benefits to a certain extent from the existing international order, but at the same time puts forward some of its own strategic proposals. The role of Russia in the current international order is twofold: on the one hand, it tries to maintain peace, and on the other, it violates it. The rules-based international order, led by the United States, is in decline. China, Russia and the United States through the UN and other international organizations, it is necessary to establish a fairer international political and economic order. In contrast to the US-Chinese and US-Russian relations entering a "period of severe stagnation", the Sino-Russian relations are getting better and better. However, from the point of view of the United States, a closer comprehensive strategic partnership between China and Russia in the new era poses a serious challenge to the interests of the United States, its allies and partners.

Key words: China-American competition, Russian-American competition, strategic competition, international order, China-Russian-American relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.037

YU.A. ALEKSEENKO Master's Degree in International Relations, Postgraduate student, Department of International Security, Lomonosov Moscow State University, School of World Politics, Moscow, Russia

EVOLUTION OF THE ANTARCTIC TREATY SYSTEM

The Antarctic Treaty (1959) laid the foundations for the international legal regime of Antarctica and was to protect the region from the scenario that played out at the opposite side of the globe. The issue of territorial sovereignty in Antarctica was frozen. The logic of collective international management of Antarctica was to overcome a dangerous point in interstate issues – disputes over territories. However, Antarctica began to face management problems immediately after something more than a «tent camp» appeared on its territory. This article analyzes contemporary territorial state claims in Antarctica and how these claims relate to the 1959 Treaty. This article regards the Antarctic Treaty System and reveals the prerequisites for its changes.

Key words: Antarctica, Antarctic Treaty System, Antarctic governance regime, co-governance, global governance, international security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.038

K.A. MIRONOV Postgraduate student Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

THE ANALYSIS OF FEATURES OF NATIONALIST PARTIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

The article examines the various features of nationalist parties in the European Union. An analysis of the scientific literature and political programs of the parties identified the main features that separate nationalists from other political forces. The main feature of nationalist parties is the desire to fulfill the principle of Ernest Gellner, according to which nationalists advocate the coincidence of political and ethnic boundaries. Attempts to comply with this principle force political parties to put forward territorial demands on neighboring countries, or fight for the independence of individual regions. Since the principles of the European Union prohibit territorial conflicts between member countries, nationalists support their ethnicity abroad, trying to integrate compatriots into a common economic and cultural field. Also important distinguishing features of nationalist parties in the European Union are: attitude towards migrants and ethnic minorities, skepticism about European and global institutions. It is important to note that modern nationalist parties resort to populist practices. Nationalists stigmatize the "alien", the role of which is played by representatives of other nations, and oppose the elites.

Key words: nationalism, the European Union, political parties, populism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.039

DONG ZICHAO PhD Student, The Chair of Theory and Technology of Management, the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, GLOBAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

At the moment, international relations are evolving quite intensively, which leads to the emergence of new political and global problems. The current problems are the preservation of peace, terrorism, cybersecurity problems, negative climate changes on Earth and the preservation of the environment, uncontrolled migration of the population, the threat of cross-border epidemics. Global problems inevitably lead to a clash of interests of different countries, increasingly acquiring political overtones. The coming years will undoubtedly be problematic, since the devastating consequences of the pandemic, both human and economic, will be significant.

Key words: Global problems: peace preservation, ecology, cybersecurity, epidemics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.040

D.M. MUSIEVA PhD Student, Faculty of Global Processes Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A NEW ROUND OF TENSION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE USA

The article analyzes the features of the current stage in the development of relations between Russia and the United States as a natural result of structural problems in world development, characterized by economic decline and the growth of socio-political contradictions both within countries and in relations between them. The regularity of these processes is determined by the fact that at the moment there is a transition from the fifth economic cycle to the sixth, which is traditionally accompanied by serious geopolitical consequences and is confirmed by facts from history. Based on this, even before the development of the Ukrainian crisis, forecasts were made about possible conflicts and clashes between the major powers for the redivision of the world. The "hybrid war" of the United States and its allies against Russia in connection with a special military operation in Ukraine is such a conflict. The transition to a new world order has now reached an acute phase of confrontation between the United States, seeking to maintain the old order, and Russia, seeking to change it.

Key words: Russian-American confrontation, Kondratiev cycles, new world order, "hybrid wars".

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.041

LI JINGYING Master's degree, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

CONFRONTATION BETWEEN CHINA AND RUSSIA AND AMERICA UNDER SANCTIONS

International sanctions against Russia continue to intensify. A growing number of Western leaders, including Ukrainian President Zelensky, hope that China can use its influence over Russia to end the war in Ukraine, or at least to remain "neutral", as China itself puts it. This is one of the goals of European leaders. However, analysts argue that China will not be "neutral", much less give up on Russia. Some have even noted that in order for Russia to retain its position as Beijing's key strategic partner, "the worse Putin's position in Ukraine, the more China will support him". After Russia's invasion of Ukraine, China is trying to "bet on both sides", in the Chinese government's public expression, "to maintain neutrality. For this reason, China actively supports Russia in the fight against sanctions.

Key words: Russia, U.S., China, sanctions, fight.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.042

A.A. GUSTYR Master of International Relations, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), Moscow, Russia

THE EVOLUTION OF RUSSIAN SOFT POWER IN THE 2008-2013 PERIOD

The article examines the evolution of the Russian soft-power influence and its broadcast channels in the 2008-2013 period. Analysing the structural and institutional basis formed for Russian soft power during this time, the author characterizes the turn to a "smart" foreign policy that occurred during the presidency of Dmitry Medvedev, identifies the main stages in its development, and assesses the degree of its success. Based on the analysis, it is concluded that the measures taken by Russia were effective in a number of areas, especially with regard to the modernization and digitalization of Russian diplomacy. At the same time, there was a limitation of the achieved success due to the top-down orientation of the formed soft-power institutions.

Key words: soft power, diplomacy, modernization, information support, positioning.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.043

A.L. PROTSENKO Undergraduate of the Department of Global management and international organizations Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF PROPAGANDA IN TOTALITARIANISM

The purpose of the study is to determine the role of propaganda in totalitarianism. As a result of the study, definitions of totalitarianism and propaganda are formulated, and the main characteristic features of totalitarianism are described. It is concluded that propaganda plays a key role in totalitarian regimes and takes on a massive scale; with its help, ideology penetrates into many spheres of society. Important features of propaganda in totalitarianism were identified: the desire of propaganda to control social processes by distributing the roles of members of society in the political system, the centralized organizational structure of propaganda, the use of images that already exist in society: the image of a hero, enemy, friend.

Key words: totalitarianism, propaganda, digital totalitarianism, media and totalitarianism, manipulation of public opinion.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.044

D.D. TARASOCHKINA Bachelor student of the Far East Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE COMPETITION LEADERS OF RUSSIA FROM 2017 TO 2020

Elitological problems have been formed over several centuries, transforming and changing against the backdrop of the development and transformation of political systems and processes in society. Various philosophers and thinkers of the Ancient World, the Renaissance, the Modern Age dealt with the issues of education and development of the political elite. In addition, it is important to study the process of recruiting elites as the main factor in the selection of the upper class, as well as their involvement in the formation of the modern political process in the state. Recruiting helps not only to highlight the capabilities of the ruling elite, but also to explore areas for improving their activities and forming their professional competence. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the results of the Leaders of Russia competition from 2017 to 2022. The author believes that this type of search for people involved in politics is one of the mechanisms for recruiting the Russian political elite. Comparative analysis was used as the basis for writing the research paper, which made it possible to evaluate the results of the competition over several years. The author relied on traditional theoretical principles in the study of political elites, where the works of the founders of the theory of elites G. Mosca, V. Pareto were used. Despite the fact that the contribution of scientists to the study of this issue is quite large, the elites to this day remain a rather unexplored structure.

Key words: political elite, upper class, privileged society, administrative elite, regional elite, business elite, Leaders of Russia competition, recruitment of elites, personnel reserve.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.045

K.A. KOROLKOV Student in Political Science Institute of Oriental Studies – School of Regional and International Studies, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Island, Ajax, Primorsky Krai, Russia

V.S. SHVYRKOV Student in Political Science Institute of Oriental Studies – School of Regional and International Studies, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Island, Ajax, Primorsky Krai, Russia

GOVERNANCE OF ISLAMIC EMIRATE AFGHANISTAN IN SOCIO-CULTURAL SPHERE

This article analyses the socio-cultural governance of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, three areas: regulation of public life, education policy and the media are in the spotlight. It focuses on the measures taken by the new government to achieve comprehensive islamization by examining the extent and nature of the ongoing transformations and the obstacles encountered along the way, emphasising the uncertain legal status of the restrictions imposed. A special place in the context of the study focuses on the specific functioning of the line ministries and agencies responsible for the implementation of the chosen policy, concluding that there is no single coherent socio-cultural policy, and that the governance system is disorganised.

Key words: Afghanistan, governance, governance system, socio-cultural sphere, Islamic Emirate Afghanistan, Taliban.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.81.5.046

K.S. КOMAROV Student, Moscow State Linguistic University (MSLU), Moscow, Russia

AUKUS: THE OUTLOOK OF TRILATERAL PARTNERSHIP

The article introduces in broad political discourse in the framework of current global security issues the author's comprehension of dynamically emerging new reality (illustrated by AUKUS trilateral security partnership) in Indo-Pacific region. The activation of regional formats in sort of minilateralism actualizes the project of institutionalization of the Indo-Pacific. The Indo-Pacific space is turning into the center of one of the processes that will determine the parameters of not only the regional, but also the global world order. A significant part of the planet's conflict potential density in the Indo-Pacific inevitably highlights the issues of freedom of navigation, security of sea and air communications. The location of a number of nuclear and "threshold" states sharpens nuclear proliferation problem. The formation of a new AUKUS construct is an explicit material for further development of the post-bipolar model of international relations.

Key words: AUKUS, Indo-Pacific region, geopolitics, security partnership, minilateralism, global confrontation, post-bipolar world.

OUR AUTHORS

ALEKSEENKO YU.A. – Master's Degree in International Relations, Postgraduate student, Department of International Security, Lomonosov Moscow State University, School of World Politics, Moscow, Russia.

BA ALAWI MURAD MOHAMMED – Candidate of political sciences, Associate professor, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Hadhramaut State University, Yemen.

BOLSHAKOV A.G. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Conflictology, Institute of Social Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

BREGA A.A. – Postgraduate student, Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

BUDARIN YA.S. – Student, Institute of Public Service and Management, Russian Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

DENNIS GITAU MWANGI – Student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Republic of Kenya.

DILMUKHAMETOVA A.A. – Assistant of the Department of Public Relations and Applied Political Science of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

DMITRIEVА N.I. – Ph.D. (Economic Sciences), Assistant Professor, the Chair of Theory and Technology of Management, the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

DONG ZICHAO – PhD Student, The Chair of Theory and Technology of Management, the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

DUBROVINA O.V. – Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

DUBROVINA O.YU. – PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor, Coordinator, National Union of Political Scientists of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

GONCHAROVA D.A. – Postgraduate, Faculty of Global Studies Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

GUO WEI – Postgraduate Student, Department of Modern Sociology, Faculty of Sociology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

GUSTYR A.A. – Master of International Relations, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), Moscow, Russia.

HAO LUN – Candidate of Political Sciences, Moscow State University, Doctor of Political Science, Peking University, Lecturer at the Institute for the Humanities and social sciences, Harbin Engineering University, Beijing, China.

HAZELI REZA – Graduate student, Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

KADYSHEVA K.V. – Assistant of the Department of Public Relations and Applied Political Science of Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

KAMALETDINOVA D.R. – Postgraduate student of faculty of global studies, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KAZARYAN S.A. – PhD student Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KHLOPOV O.A. – PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations, Political Science and Foreign Regional Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH), Moscow, Russia.

KHOLOV S.H. – Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the RUDN, Moscow, Russia.

KOMAROV K.S. – Student, Moscow State Linguistic University (MSLU), Moscow, Russia.

KOROLKOV K.A. – Student in Political Science Institute of Oriental Studies – School of Regional and International Studies, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Island, Ajax, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

KRIVOSHEEVA N.I. – Postgraduate of the Department of Public Administration and Management, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Volgograd, Russia.

KULESHOVA N.S. – Doctor of philosophical science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East Institute of Asian and African countries Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

KULIKOVA D.V. – Postgraduate student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

LI JINGYING – Master's degree, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus.

LUSHINA A.A. – Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the RUDN, Moscow, Russia.

MAGADIEV M.F. – Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in the foreign policy activities of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

MAYSTAT M.A. – Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia.

MIRONOV K.A. – Postgraduate student, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia.

MIRONOVA S.A. – Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MIRZAZHANOV R.H. – Head of the educational Department of the Department of special training of the military training center at Moscow state University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

MUSIEVA D.M. – PhD Student, Faculty of Global Processes, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

OSIN R.S. – Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Departments of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines Synergy University, Moscow, Russia.

PLOTNIKOV V.S. – PhD in Social Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Customs Siberian State Transport University, Novosibirsk, Russia.

PODURUEVA-MILOEVICH V.YU. – Postgraduate of the Department of Public Administration and Management, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Volgograd, Russia.

PROTSENKO A.L. – Undergraduate of the Department of Global management and international organizations, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

RAKHIMOV K.H. – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Post-graduate Assistant of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, specialist Center for Research of Post-Soviet Countries (CIS), Moscow, Russia.

RAVOCHKIN N.N. – Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia.

SHANCHENKO E.P. – Junior researcher, Institute for International Studies, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO); PhD candidate, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

SHVYRKOV V.S. – Student in Political Science Institute of Oriental Studies – School of Regional and International Studies, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Island, Ajax, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

SKIPERSKIKH A.V. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Philosophy and Social Science Department, Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia.

STRASBURGER M.L. – Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Theory of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

SUI TAO – Ph.D. Student the School of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

TANG CUIZHU – Postgraduate student, Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

TARASOCHKINA D.D. – Bachelor student of the Far East Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

TSYBAKOV D.L. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Academy of Civil Protection of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Khimki, Russia.

VANKOVSKA B. – Professor of political science and International relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia.

VORONIN V.A. – Ph.D. Student, Department of World Economy, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

VOZZHENIKOV A.V. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of Cultural Studies and Social Communication, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

WANG YANG – Weifang University lecturer, China.

YAZAN HEARBAKE – Postgraduate student of the Moscow Pedagogical state university, Moscow, Russia.

YUE RUISHUANG – PhD student, International Relations and World Politics Department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

ZHAO LU – PhD student at the department of comparative political science Faculty of Political Science of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

ZURNADJIAN G.S. – Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 4 (80), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Bakhtin G.O. On Some Methodological Foundations for Studying the Phenomenon of Death in Political Philosophy

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Argun L.L. Psychological Approach of H.D. Lasswell to the Study of Political Behavior

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vnuk V.K. DPR and LPR as Independent States: Problems and Prospects

Kryukova E.V. Eclecticism of Mass Political Consciousness in the Era of Change

Furs V.A. Forms of Digital Monopolies Influence on Political Processes

Mazhnikov V.I. The Main Stages and Trends in the Modernization of the Electoral System of the Russian Federation

Romanov Yu.A. Background and the Present State of Russia as a Federal State

Maystat M.A., Chan Thi Ziem Cham. Criteria for the Effectiveness of Modern Anti-Corruption Policy in Vietnam

Abbasov O.T. Confederation. The Form of the Territorial Structure or a Variety of the Union of States?

Shvetsova L.N. Party System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Malakhov A.A. Social Insurance and Depauperization as Constitutive Features of the Welfare State

Maslov K.V. The Problem of State Sovereignty in Political Science

Belov L.P. Institutionalization of a Strong State in the Conditions of Modern Public Administration

Belyakova T.M. The Covid-19 Pandemic and its Impact on the Use of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church Internet Media to Promote Information Policy

Goncharov V.S. Application of Combined Technologies of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Psychological Wars

Chibrikov A.O. Creation and Promotion of Content in the Modern Media Environment

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Ravochkin N.N. Political Management Practices Transformation in Digitalization Realities (Part 2)

Menshikov P.V., Agrba A.A. The Work of Modern Social Ecosystems in Times of Pandemic

Arshin K.V. Digitalization as an Element of Migration Policy Management

Ponyavina M.B. Efficiency of State Education Policy

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Morozov I.L. Historical Remembrance as a Geopolitical Category

Muravykh A.I., Nikitenko E.G. The Agony of the Collective West

Pyzh V.V., Strutina Yu.V. Politicization of the Olympic Games: History and Prospects

Surma I.V., Kharlanov A.S. The Modern Military-Political Doctrine of Japan and the Formation of the Regional Security System in the Asia-Pacific Region

Furman F.P. On the Issue of Russia's Geopolitics

Kuleshova N.S., Chzhan Chen`I. The Revival of the RICK Mechanism? (Analysis of India's Neutral Position in the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict)

Utkina M.F. Habitus, Cultural and Symbolic Capital of the British Political Elite as Resources of Social Reproduction

Kovalevskaia N.V., Orlov I.V. The Formation of the "Hybrid War Theory": Conceptual and Historical Aspects

Bortsov D.V. Economic Diplomacy in the USSR

Malinin A.Yu. The Crisis of the European Parliamentary Republics in 2021: the Party Dimension

Mao Shuo. A New Era in China's Development and Profound Changes Never Seen in the Last Hundred Years

Han Shiying. Comparative Analysis of Russian-Chinese Military-Technical Cooperation in the XXI Century

Huo Dong. Political Aspects of Cooperation Between the Chinese People's Republic and the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Security within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Yu Lan. Discourse Power and Political Ideology in the Process of PRC Modernization

Drozdov I.A., Rakhman Khashimi Matiar, Fedorov A.V., Sharagina A.D. The Factor of China Economic Influence in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Kazakhstan

STUDENT SCIENCE

Kazakova P.O. Democratic Deficit in the European Union: Theoretical Approaches

Kozhiev A.Yu., Inheev A.B., Klimochko B.V. Evolution of the Development of Methodology and Methods of Scientific Knowledge. Theoretical Substantiation of Metascientific Methodology in the Study of Political Processes

Our authors № 4-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.001

G.O. BAKHTIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Theory and Philosophy, Faculty of Political Science, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ON SOME METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR STUDYING THE PHENOMENON OF DEATH IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

The article attempts to outline some of the possible approaches to the study of death within the framework of political philosophy. The purpose of the work is to consider intellectual currents potentially suitable for studying the phenomenon of death, paradigmatic attitudes and methodological schools, not only in their essential dimension, but also – to some extent – in the procedural one. Thus, it becomes possible to trace not only the trajectories along which the methodological foundations made shifts, but also to understand the origins of their formation.

Key words: methodology, death, political philosophy, Cambridge School of Concepts, cultural sociology, intellectual history.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.002

L.L. ARGUN 1st category guide of State Historical Museum Graduate student of the Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH OF H.D. LASSWELL TO THE STUDY OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

The article considers the understanding of political behavior in the theory of the representative of the Chicago school of political science Harold Dwight Lasswell (1902-1978). Difficulties in interpreting the behavior of actors in politics, highlighted by American scientists, are analyzed in this article. To overcome these difficulties H.D. Lasswell proposes to consider the personality in politics, based on the foundations of psychoanalysis and using the three-component approach of Sigmund Freud. The article shows that it is a new perspective on personality as a combination of object orientations, thinking, autistic component and somatics that makes it possible to create more accurate and scientific explanations of the actions of actors in politics. Psychological approach of H.D. Lasswell expanded the theoretical and methodological field of behavioral research in political science.

Key words: behavioralism, psychopathology, H.D. Lasswell, political behavior, political psychology, personality.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.003

V.K. VNUK Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social-Humanitarian Disciplines of Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

DPR AND LPR AS INDEPENDENT STATES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The article examines the reasons for the secession of the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). A special place is given to internal factors that accompanied the process of secession of the LPR and DPR from Ukraine. These factors include: the course of the political leadership of Ukraine to build a unitary state, the rejection of federalization, a short-sighted national and language policy, depriving the Russian people of the status of an indigenous people. The coup d'état of 2014 year as well as the course of the Ukrainian political leadership towards the integration of the country into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization were among other factors that contributed to the development of decentralized tendencies in Ukraine and the declaration of independence of the DPR and LPR. The article analyzes the political consequences of the recognition by the Russian Federation of the sovereignty of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic. In addition, the article made a forecast of possible scenarios for the development of events around the LPR and the DPR.

Key words: Republic of Ukraine, The Russian Federation, Donetsk People's Republic, Lugansk People's Republic, unrecognized states, international recognition, the right of a nation to self-determination, territorial integrity, secession, indigenous peoples, small peoples, unitary state, federation, confederation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.004

E.V. KRYUKOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Sociology, Psychology of Management and History State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

ECLECTICISM OF MASS POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE ERA OF CHANGE

The archetypal foundations of mass political consciousness are formed in a dynamic relationship with administrative influences, including state, public, political, state-administrative. Consequently, the identification of such influences, the study of their nature, features will allow us to form a paradigm of public administration that, in principle, would be optimized taking into account the public demand for administrative influence, in particular in matters of forming public opinion, position and political sentiment.

Key words: transition period, eclecticism, mass consciousness, political system, mass political consciousness.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.005

V.A. FURS PhD of Political Sciences Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy Academies of the State Fire Service EMERCOM of Russia, Moscow, Russia

FORMS OF DIGITAL MONOPOLIES INFLUENCE ON POLITICAL PROCESSES

The article analyzes the experience of digital monopolies participation in political processes, identifies the forms of digital monopolies influence on electoral processes, political decision-making processes and on the structure of political relations in the modern world. The paper examines the main political risks that can be caused by the intensive and uncontrolled development of digital platforms and their monopolization. The author examining the specifics of the interaction of large IT corporations with various types of political regimes by the example of political processes in the USA and China comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to revise the existing stereotype about the value and ideological neutrality of modern communication technologies.

The problems of the presented research are becoming particularly relevant to the background of the currently observed aggravation of international conflicts and the escalation of confrontation between different centers of forces: leading digital platforms are involved in these processes as an instrument of information warfare.

Key words: digitalization, digital monopolies, digital platforms, social networks, political processes, political technologies, political risks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.006

V.I. MAZHNIKOV Candidate of philosophy, associate Professor, associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow University for Industry and Finance «Synergy», Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN STAGES AND TRENDS IN THE MODERNIZATION OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article highlights and characterizes the most important modernization stages in the development of the electoral system of modern Russian society. Based on the fact that the general trend in the modernization of the electoral system of the Russian Federation is a high level of dynamism and instability, largely due to the realization of the interests of the ruling political elite, the article analyzes the features of the models of electoral systems emerging in the process of modernization and the main trends in their change.

Key words: electoral system, elections, modernization, electoral process, majoritarian electoral system, proportional electoral system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.007

YU.A. ROMANOV Сand. Sc. Sociology, Associate professor East Siberian State University of Technology and Management, Ulan-Ude, Russia

BACKGROUND AND THE PRESENT STATE OF RUSSIA AS A FEDERAL STATE

This article is devoted to the description and consideration of the problems of the federal structure of modern Russia, taking into account the historical context of the development of this topic. Modern Russia is a federal, multinational and multi-confessional country in which representatives of various peoples and nations peacefully live. And, therefore, the situation is ripe for considering the situation with its territorial-administrative and national-territorial structure in the modern world, a world where any scenario of the world order is possible. Federalism performs the aggregating role entrusted to it in generalizing the interests of the peoples, nations and ethnic groups inhabiting Russia in the processes of building and modeling a democratic system. The described processes are facilitated by the involvement of the peoples, nations and ethnic groups themselves in them. The article also describes the changes in the processes of the life of the country, which has an important impact on the course of the political life of modern Russia.

Key words: federalism, federal state, federation, confederation, unitary state, federal treaty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.008

M.A. MAYSTAT Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

CHAN THI ZIEM CHAM 2nd year master's degree at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University Vietnam, Hanoi

CRITERIA FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODERN ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY IN VIETNAM

The article is devoted to the analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the anti-corruption policy carried out in Vietnam over the past 10 years, from the point of view of the political, economic, socio-cultural goals and objectives facing the country. The authors review and evaluate the achievements in this area and the difficulties faced by the country's leadership, as well as offer some recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the implementation of anti-corruption policy in the near future.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption policy, Vietnam, efficiency.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.009

O.T. ABBASOV Senior lecturer of the department fundamental legal and social and humanitarian disciplines MFPU "Synergy", Moscow, Russia

CONFEDERATION. THE FORM OF THE TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OR A VARIETY OF THE UNION OF STATES?

This article is devoted to such a phenomenon as a confederation. In view of the development of interstate relations, the issues of the union of independent states are becoming more and more relevant. In this article, we will try to understand what a confederation is. Can this phenomenon be considered a form of territorial structure? Or, after all, is a confederation just another form of interaction between sovereign states? We believe that this topic has been poorly studied today, but the prospects for further development of this form of relations between states are visible to the naked eye. That is why we believe that this issue needs to be analyzed.

Key words: confederation, form of government, form of state, state, political regimes, forms of government, treasury, territory.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.010

L.N. SHVETSOVA Senior Lecturer of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

PARTY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

The relevance of the study is due to the close historically determined socio-economic and political ties between Russia and Kazakhstan. The purpose of the article is to analyze the nature of the party system in Kazakhstan and the factors that caused it. The research methods are dialectical and comparative methods. The objectives of the article are to compare the processes of transformation of legislation on political parties in Russia and Kazakhstan, to analyze the impact of changes in Russian legislation on the nature of the party system of our country and to extrapolate these trends to Kazakhstan to predict changes in its party system. The author comes to the conclusion about the existence of a multiparty system in Kazakhstan with one dominant party, which was due to the high requirements established by law for the minimum number of members of a political party, the requirements for the presence of structural units in all regions, cities of republican significance and in the capital, the order of state financing of political parties.

Key words: party system of Kazakhstan, political parties, dominant party.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.011

A.A. MALAKHOV Head of the Legal Department Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Potato Research Center named after A.G. Lorkh", Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL INSURANCE AND DEPAUPERIZATION AS CONSTITUTIVE FEATURES OF THE WELFARE STATE

It is noted that in the XIX century, in the wake of the growth of social democratic movements in those countries in which capitalist relations and nation-states were generally formed, the boundaries of the "minimal" welfare state took shape. The qualitative differences, which are called constitutive features of welfare states, are analyzed. The first and one of the main features is the introduction and availability of a social insurance system in the state. It is shown that in different countries they were introduced at different time periods, were different in scope and scale of state participation, as well as in the size of state aid. It is emphasized that the legitimization of social insurance has come to be considered in developed countries as part of the mutual rights and obligations that bind the state and civil society.

Key words: social policy, welfare state, social contract, natural (pre-political) state, social protection.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.012

K.V. MASLOV Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The paper analyzes various approaches to the concept of "sovereignty", shows its relationship with political actors, the peculiarities of its manifestation in the domestic and foreign policy of the state, justifies the further need to use this concept in political science.

The purpose of the paper is to reveal the meaning of the concept of "sovereignty" through the analysis of political actors capable of changing political reality by means of the state.

The objectives of the paper are as follows: firstly, to identify subjects potentially capable of sovereignty; secondly, based on the attributes of sovereignty, to assess the ability of political actors to become subjects capable of exercising sovereignty; thirdly, to show a certain limitation of political actors capable of exercising sovereignty within the state.

As a result of the research, the author's version of the concept of "sovereignty" was proposed. Subjects capable of exercising sovereignty have been identified. The necessity of state sovereignty in contemporary society is substantiated.

Key words: sovereignty, political actors, ruling elite, nation, people, supreme ruler.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.013

L.P. BELOV Graduate student, North-West Institute of Management, branch of RANEPA; OOO «Gelios», CEO, Saint Petersburg, Russia

INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF A STRONG STATE IN THE CONDITIONS OF MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

The subject of the research of the author of the article is the relationship between the conceptual approach to the characterization of a strong state and the development of the institutional foundations of modern public policy.

The author proceeds from the fundamental changes in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 2020, which consolidate the existence of a unified system of public authority in the country. Using the methods of theoretical and discourse analysis, his own idea of the relationship between the idea and concept of a strong state and the establishment of a democratic political order in the paradigm of public administration is substantiated. According to the author, the problem of a strong state and its role in the system of public power is aggravated by an insufficient degree of theoretical and institutional study of both the very concept of a system of public power and its configuration in the specific conditions of the development of the modern domestic political process.

Key words: strong state, system of public authority, political and administrative management, factors of inhibition of a strong state, internal threats to a strong state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.014

T.M. BELYAKOVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of State Management of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND ITS IMPACT ON THE USE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH INTERNET MEDIA TO PROMOTE INFORMATION POLICY

The coronavirus pandemic that swept the world in 2019 undoubtedly had a significant impact on all spheres of human society: economic, political, social and even religious. The pandemic has become a catalyst for the transition to electronic forms of activity in educational and labor practices. There were also such trends in the religious sphere, but their introduction definitely had its own specifics – after all, the religious environment assumes a greater degree of personal involvement of actors than economic or political, a greater confidence in the atmosphere of people's communication, which is not always technically feasible with a "remote" communication format. This article examines the degree of adaptation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church to the new realities of the pandemic period.

Key words: information policy, pandemic, COVID-19, Russian Orthodox church, Roman Catholic Church, Internet-communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.015

V.S. GONCHAROV Graduate student of the Department of International Security and Foreign Policy of Russian foreign policy, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

APPLICATION OF COMBINED TECHNOLOGIES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN INFORMATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WARS

Thanks to a significant increase in computing power and the growth of innovation, artificial intelligence is reaching a new operational level, opening up new horizons for its application in various spheres of life. Meanwhile, artificial intelligence poses many risks. Among others, special attention should be paid to the danger of malicious use of AI by irresponsible nonstate actors and unfriendly states in order to destabilize the situation in other countries.

This article reveals the problems of application of artificial intelligence technologies in the conditions of information-psychological warfare, identifies current and future threats to information-psychological security, caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence and reveals features of the approach to security against these risks with an emphasis on information-psychological security, which is the basis for all spheres of social life and determines the ability to live a decent life in the world.

Key words: information-psychological wars, malicious use of artificial intelligence, information-psychological weapons, information security, deepfakes, GPT-3.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.016

A.O. CHIBRIKOV PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Global Processes, Direction of Geopolitics and Diplomacy, Moscow, Russia

CREATION AND PROMOTION OF CONTENT IN THE MODERN MEDIA ENVIRONMENT

The article is devoted to the development of information security in the Russian Federation. The article conducted a study during which the strengths and weaknesses of the current information security system were identified. The ways of protecting information in the Russian Federation are also analyzed.

Key words: Legal framework, information security, Russian Federation, development trends, information technologies.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.017

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TRANSFORMATION IN DIGITALIZATION REALITIES (PART 2)

Digitalization has a complex impact on social life, in fact, affecting all its levels and sections without exception. Political management also did not remain without the impact of information, communication and digital determinants, which significantly transformed the modern struggle for power. In the modern world, the remodeling of political practices and the activities of government institutions often offer unique scenarios when, in empirical contexts close in structural and functional conditions, the effects of the implementation of digitalization projects can turn out to be diametrically opposed. It is emphasized that the Internet is the most important tool for political management. In this part of the article, the author considers the transformation of political management practices under the influence of digitalization in European states. Practical examples are considered. The factors that determine the success of digitalization are shown, as well as the determinants that slow down these projects in the political sphere are identified.

Key words: political management, power, digitalization, society, interactions, political participation, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.018

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

A.A. AGRBA Ph.D. in culture studies, Senior lecturer аt the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

THE WORK OF MODERN SOCIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC

The problem raised in the study deals with the implementation of social activities based on digital ecosystems during the pandemic. The critical situation caused by the COVID-19 outbreak revealed the problems of internal social contradictions, showed the importance of coordinated actions and a systematic approach in the fight against global challenges facing society. The purpose of the study is to identify the principles of the social ecosystem (SES) as a key factor for sustainable development. SES has performed as a decent response to the demand of the population for stability and security. Our tasks is to define the principles of its functioning; to understand the mechanisms and features of it; to outline the circle of actors and the algorithm of work in search of new forms of cooperation. The relevance of the study is guided by the changing living conditions in the pandemic time, which brought to the fore the desire of people to feel their significance and belonging to the Union. The trend towards the transition to ecosystems is becoming dominant in the modern world due to the increasing introduction of artificial intelligence tools into everyday life. The results of the study show that digital ecosystems and the organization of high-tech programs can significantly improve the providing targeted social assistance to those in need, improving the environmental situation, combating epidemics, emergency response to disasters, etc. Further study of ecosystems tools and opportunities seems to be relevant for the modernization of socially significant activities.

Key words: social ecosystem, pandemic, social activity, innovation, sustainable development, integrated solutions, coordinated actions, high-tech systems, social services, digital services.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.019

K.V. ARSHIN PhD in Philosophy, Scientific Secretary of Russian Potato Research Centre, Lyubertsy, Moscow region, Russia

DIGITALIZATION AS AN ELEMENT OF MIGRATION POLICY MANAGEMENT

In recent years, digitalization has tightly entered the life of modern society. Migration is one of the areas of public administration that has undergone digitalization. In the article, the author considers the issue of using digital services to regulate migration processes, and also points out the possibilities of their modernization in order to implement policies in the field of adaptation and integration of migrants. The author believes that the Russian Federation has made significant progress in this area, however, it is necessary to make additional efforts to digitalize the migration sphere.

Key words: migration, digitalization, digital service, development, economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.020

M.B. PONYAVINA Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation PhD, associate to Professor, Moscow, Russia

EFFICIENCY OF STATE EDUCATION POLICY

The article considers the features of assessing the effectiveness of state policy in the field of education on the example of a number of European countries. The paper outlines the fundamental differences between the academic and economic efficiency of the assessment of state educational policy from a methodological, organizational and political point of view.

Key words: educational system, state educational policy, humanitarian education, efficiency of educational policy, assessment of the effectiveness of state policy in the field of education.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.021

I.L. MOROZOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of State Management and Political Science, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch of RANEPA, Volgograd, Russia

HISTORICAL REMEMBRANCE AS A GEOPOLITICAL CATEGORY

Considering the current trends of the international geopolitical process, including the aggravation of the interstate confrontation for military-political and economic domination, complicated by the increasing competition of non-state actors, the growth of terrorist threat, uncontrolled migration flows from the "global South" macroregion to the "global North" macroregion, the author studies the features of the historical remembrance of the Russian society and the influence of the political elite on the formation of the historical memory of the people. Political elites of different States in different historical periods have always sought to control and transform the historical remembrance of their people as the most important component of mass political consciousness in order to prevent the formation of potentially dangerous ideologies for themselves, able to start the processes of protest self-organization of society according to the network principle. To achieve this goal, information methods could be used, such as the destruction of the people's idea of their history as a whole process, the opposition of some fragments of historical remembrance to others, the distortion of the historical events interpretation and the distraction from the "inconvenient" facts of history. The task of developing a national idea is of increased relevance for Russia in the context of the current geopolitical confrontation with the competing actors of the international system and the designated internal social conflict caused by the decline in living standards and uneven distribution of national income among segments of society. The author proposes to build a national idea of modern Russia around three interrelated ideologies: Eurasianism, patriotism, and traditionalism.

Key words: historical remembrance, geopolitics, Ancient Rus, information war, propaganda, patriotism, national idea.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.022

A.I. MURAVYKH D.Sc. (economics), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

E.G. NIKITENKO Major General, Cand. Sc. (History), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

THE AGONY OF THE COLLECTIVE WEST

The article analyzes the crisis of the Western world order system. The contradiction between the vital interests of developing countries, primarily Russia and China, and the critically important interests of the collective West has become extremely acute. The West's reaction to the military operation in Ukraine generated the formation of a complex sanctions trigger, including value-informational, financial, energy, food, logistics and migration aspects. This trigger leads to the launch of crisis phenomena that destroy the pro-Western world order. The foundation of the financial power of the West is collapsing – trust in the dollar and the euro. Having chosen Ukraine as an instrument of struggle against Russia, the ruling elite of the West did not calculate that in the process of this struggle the main "pain points" of the Western world order are revealed and its disintegration begins. The agonizing collective West is using its full potential against Russia, constantly increasing the likelihood of the outbreak of World War III.

Key words: the collective West, interests, sanctions, trigger, crisis, the world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.023

V.V. PYZH Doctor of Political Science, Head of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines named after V.U. Ageevets, "P.F. Lesgaft National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health"; expert of the Commission on Defense and Security Issues Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States, St. Petersburg, Russia

YU.V. STRUTINA Master's student "National State University physical culture, sports and health named after P.F. Lesgaft", St. Petersburg, Russia

POLITICIZATION OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES: HISTORY AND PROSPECTS

The article reveals the content of the concept of international sports movement, which is both an important social factor of social development and a political factor affecting international relations. As the requirements for the practical solution of the social problems of modern society increase, there is an urgent need to study and explain the social phenomena occurring in certain areas of people's life, in certain social communities and social institutions. Political and ideological mobilization and politicization of such social institutions as sports, art, media, religion and others is becoming an integral feature of big politics, and this determines the relevance of this topic. In this series, sport has a special position due to the cumulative ability to influence the minds of billions of people.

Key words: physical culture and sport, international sports movement, Olympism, instrument of political influence, state management of the sphere of physical culture and sports, political conflict in sports.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.024

I.V. SURMA Candidate of Economics Sciences, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ph.D. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia

A.S. KHARLANOV Doctor of Economics, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of World Economy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Member of the Council of Rectors of Russia, Member of the Council of Rectors of the Northwestern Federal District, doctoral student of the Military Academy of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE MODERN MILITARY-POLITICAL DOCTRINE OF JAPAN AND THE FORMATION OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

The military-political doctrine of Japan underwent serious changes after the end of the Cold War, when the American factor was dominant in its defense policy. Tokyo gradually began to focus more and more on its own interests when making decisions, which did not always correspond to Washington's policy. The authors note that by continuing to rely on the alliance with the United States in ensuring military security, Japan has become more active as an ally, supporting American policy in the region and the world. At the same time, Tokyo sought greater independence within the union, increasing its ability to cope with security threats and protect its interests on its own. Japanese-American allied cooperation developed in parallel with the successful development of Japan's defense capabilities, which together influenced the development of the geopolitical situation in the region. The article shows that the Japanese-American Alliance is one of the key factors in the evolution of the modern security architecture of the Asia-Pacific region. The authors also identify three possible options for implementing the security system of the Asia-Pacific region: from the impossibility of creating an analogue of the European Union or the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in the Asia-Pacific region, to the development of integration and the establishment of a stable situation within individual subregions: in Southeast, Northeast and South Asia, in the South Pacific and the development of dialogue throughout the Asia-Pacific region, moving on to the formation of a multipolar regional security architecture. Considering possible collective security structures, taking into account the peculiarities of the Asia–Pacific region, the authors conclude that the most likely structure from a practical point of view is one in which the security of the region as a whole will rely on a partner network of multilateral organizations and dialogue forums.

Key words: Asia-Pacific region, Japan Self-Defense Forces, Japanese-American allied cooperation, collective security, military-political doctrine of Japan, AUKUS, sectoral and corporate sanctions, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.025

F.P. FURMAN Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the State University of Maritime and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarova, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF RUSSIA'S GEOPOLITICS

In the article, the author analyzes the nature of geopolitical changes in Europe as a result of two significant historical events – the First World War and the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The role of geopolitical miscalculations in the occurrence of these international and state-national crises has been studied. It is noted that the revolutions in a number of countries and the collapse of four empires – the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman – in the first case, and the “quiet revolution” – in the case of the collapse of the Soviet Union, had the greatest impact on the territorial and political transformations. Geopolitical changes in Europe became the basis of a new interwar system of international relations in the first case, and the formation of a new geopolitical impasse in the modern system of international relations in the second case. The article also identifies and identifies the key reasons for the collapse of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact, and identifies the geopolitical processes and consequences of these historical events.

Key words: World War I, geopolitical changes, empire, THE USSR, revolution, Warsaw Pact Organization, new European states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.026

N.S. KULESHOVA Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHZHAN CHEN`I Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE REVIVAL OF THE RICK MECHANISM? (ANALYSIS OF INDIA'S NEUTRAL POSITION IN THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT)

The article analyzes India's position in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, which is especially important in connection with the formation of India as a new center of regional and global influence. The identified problems and trends of India's foreign policy course, the mechanism of the revival of the RIK in the current political moment actualize this issue especially for the Russian side. The obtained result of the study suggests that India maintains the trends of a neutral position. The forecast of the dynamics of the implementation of the RIC mechanism also depends on the diplomatic means of India's strategy and the involvement of other major countries associated with it, primarily on China's position.

Key words: political interaction, international relations, international security, conflict, Quad, Russia, China, India, strategic triangle, polycentricity, geopolitical influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.027

M.F. UTKINA Teacher of the Department of English No. 6, Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Deputy Dean for Master's and International Cooperation Faculty of Management and Politics, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

HABITUS, CULTURAL AND SYMBOLIC CAPITAL OF THE BRITISH POLITICAL ELITE AS RESOURCES OF SOCIAL REPRODUCTION

The political elite, regardless of the form of government and political regime, plays a central role in the management processes of the state and determining the political program for the further development of society. The process of political elite reproduction, namely the identification of factors, channels and mechanisms of recruitment, attracts the attention of researchers, as it sheds light on which political forces are responsible for the implementation of domestic and foreign policy of the state. In connection with the above, the study of British political elites is relevant and is of particular interest in terms of the possible potential for future mutually beneficial cooperation. The article is devoted to the study of the specific habitus, cultural and symbolic capital of the British political elite, which serve as resources of its self-reproduction. Using P. Bourdieu's sociological theory of habitus and capital, the author identifies the main components of the cultural and symbolic capital of the British establishment, which explain the dominance of the British political elites as an agent in the field of politics. The author concludes that the cultural and symbolic capital of the British political elite is expressed in the presence of qualifications, educational diplomas, titles, elite sports, normative pronunciation. The obtained results help to understand the specificity of the British political elite. The presented analysis proves the thesis that it is impossible to exist a fully egalitarian society with "potentially equal opportunities" and the inevitability of the emergence of dominant agents – political elites.

Key words: Britain, political elites, cultural capital, symbolic capital, habitus, reproduction of elites.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.028

N.V. KOVALEVSKAIA Associate Professor, Ph.D. in political Sciences Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

I.V. ORLOV Student, St. Petersburg State University School of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE FORMATION OF THE "HYBRID WAR THEORY": CONCEPTUAL AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS

This article deals with the theoretical understanding of the strategy of "hybrid warfare" and its application to international conflicts. "Hybrid warfare" as a relatively young theoretical concept gained conceptualization at the beginning of the 21st century after many years of discussions in American scientific publications on the specific non-military features of the "4th generation war", among which the struggle in the information space was considered to be the leading one. On the practical side, this discussion corresponded to events throughout the 1950s and 2010s, when Western states expanded the use of non-military methods in numerous conflicts and wars on the planet, forming by 2015 the understanding of "hybrid warfare" enshrined in NATO strategic documents.

The relevance of this research work is conditioned by the fact that when characterizing a number of conflicts both in the historical section and in the analysis of modern times, there is a widespread use of the term "hybrid war", which has not been conceptualized scientifically so far and, as a result, causes fierce discussions in the international and political science.

Key words: hybrid warfare, information warfare, aspects of hybrid wars, hybrid threats.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.029

D.V. BORTSOV 2nd Secretary of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russia, Researcher of Candidate Degree in Political Science, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN THE USSR

The author analyzes the emergence and main stages of the Soviet economic diplomacy evolution applying methods of aggregation, dating and evaluation of available sources in the field of history, political science and economics. The stages of transformation of organizational forms of the economic branch in the Soviet diplomatic service as well as the formation of the national school of personnel training are studied. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of Soviet foreign trade during the mentioned historic period with breakdown to separate time intervals are accumulated and analyzed with reference to key state and international events as well as strategy of country leaders. Also author describes positive and negative factors influencing on direction and growth rate of foreign economic activities and economic diplomacy at that time as well as highlights key specific features of foreign trade area of the USSR throughout its development. The author also identifies the historical features of the USSR political and socio-economic systems which prevented the active promotion of national products to foreign markets. The state economic policy, the approaches of the country's leadership to foreign economic issues and the implementation of economic diplomacy activities are consistently considered with a focus on the perception of its importance. The international situation that took place is studied with focus on its influence on Soviet state economic policy and priorities in relations with key foreign partners. The circumstances of introduction of new or localization of existing tools of economic diplomacy are described with highlighting of their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the process of changing the attitude of diplomats to this issue.

Key words: russian economic diplomacy, Soviet economic diplomacy, economic diplomacy in the USSR, foreign trade in USSR, evolution of economic diplomacy, history of economic diplomacy, Russian diplomatic service, export promotion, diplomatic support of the economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.030

A.Yu. MALININ Postgraduate student of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Federal Research Sociological Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE CRISIS OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLICS IN 2021: THE PARTY DIMENSION

The question of the role of political parties in the system of power is acute both in the scientific and applied environment, because in most countries of the world the activities of political parties affect the lives of the majority of the population. The powers and responsibilities of political parties are highest in parliamentary republics, and not just a small part of researchers agree that this form of government is the most democratic and, accordingly, many countries should strive to transition to the same government. However, the article puts forward the idea that parliamentary republics, with their inherent dominance of the role of political parties, have a number of shortcomings. As a proof of this idea, several examples of political crises in such countries are given, based on the analysis of which it is concluded that the powers of political parties may need to be limited in order to prevent such crises, in which, due to the lack of desire of several parties to agree about forming a government, common people are hurt. However, at the same time, the article clearly states that parties should be one of the key actors in the formation of various institutions of power, since it is parties that represent and protect the interests of society.

Key words: political parties, parliament, parliamentary republic, foreign parties.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.031

MAO SHUO Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A NEW ERA IN CHINA'S DEVELOPMENT AND PROFOUND CHANGES NEVER SEEN IN THE LAST HUNDRED YEARS

"Profound changes not seen in the last hundred years" is an important statement put forward by the Communist Party of China as a reaction to the current state of world development, which determines the course of development of the state, the key tasks associated with this course, and acts as a guiding motive in determining domestic political strategy. It is also an assessment of the path of development of the world and an important strategic judgment in the framework of building a community with a common destiny for mankind. Since its inception, the "profound changes unseen in the past hundred years" has been the subject of concern and discussion within China and abroad, ranging from active support to cautious waiting. Today, with the emergence of new international challenges such as the coronavirus pandemic, the emergence of new international issues such as global governance, and the continued development of digital technologies, discussions about “unprecedented changes” have not only not stopped, but have become more acute, causing an active response from all over the world and becoming an important reference point for observing the situation in the world for an increasing number of people. Practice shows that this assessment of the situation, put forward by the Communist Party of China, is correct and scientifically substantiated, and is of great importance for the development of different countries of the world and all mankind. This important statement about the world situation in the new era, put forward by the CCP following the concept of "peace and development" and necessary for understanding the current world situation, is China's contribution to the process of achieving world peace and global development.

Key words: China, new world order, profound changes unprecedented in a hundred years, new era, socialism with Chinese characteristics, foreign policy, China's foreign policy strategy, geopolitics, special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.032

HAN SHIYING PhD Candidate, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN-CHINESE MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION IN THE XXI CENTURY

This paper aims to do a comparative analysis on the results of a study regarding issues in military-technical cooperation between Russian and Chinese scientists. The two nations have seen active interactions, deepening mutual trust, and a new level of bilateral national defence and safety cooperation.

Nonetheless, disagreements exist on some issues. For example, scientists have different opinions about the decline of military-technical cooperation. But in general, most scientists are optimistic of the deepening future Sino-Russian cooperation, and believe that the issues above have limited impact on the grand scheme of bilateral cooperation. Considering how international situations are shaping, one can assert that cooperation will continue between the two large powers on national defence and safety.

Key words: Russia, China, military-technical cooperation, arms trade, prospects of cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.033

HUO DONG Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, M.V. Lomonosov, China

POLITICAL ASPECTS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SPHERE OF SECURITY WITHIN THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION

This article reveals the peculiarities of political cooperation between Russia and China in the context of SCO development. The author also conducts a comparative analysis of similarities and differences of political guidelines of China and Russia on the issue of security within the SCO. For example, for the Russian side it is the protection of its southern borders, and for the Chinese side it is the maintenance of stability in the internal territories of the country, in connection with which the topic of research is relevant. It was concluded that this partnership can become the basis of a new regional security structure.

Key words: Russia, China, security, region, cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.034

YU LAN PhD student at the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

DISCOURSE POWER AND POLITICAL IDEOLOGY IN THE PROCESS OF PRC MODERNIZATION

Recently, China has been focusing on the study of discursive power in academia. Today, China seeks to actively participate in global governance as a power. According to the leadership of the PRC, to provide not only to explain their experience of modernization, but also to disseminate their own ideas about themselves and their future.

But it is so difficult for many countries to understand each other because of the difference in mentality, they do not allow one and the same way of development of the country to be interpreted in the same way. The ideological conflict of the 20th century is the best example of this.

The PRC is one of the few countries that has managed to carry out colossal modernization transformations on the basis of active information and ideological work to maintain its own national uniqueness and specificity. Therefore, the author analyzes the role of political ideology in the process of China's modernization, as well as the emphasis of Xi Jinping's ideological work in the new era – the construction of discursive power.

Key words: chinese model of modernization, political ideology, discursive power, global governance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.035

I.A. DROZDOV Postgraduate student, St. Petersburg State University, Center of Patriotic Education and Preventive Work of the State Budgetary Educational Institution “Baltic Coast”, teacher-organizer, St. Petersburg, Russia

RAKHMAN KHASHIMI MATIAR Master student, St. Petersburg State University, RNIC for the Leningrad oblast, project manager, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.V. FEDOROV Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Legislative Assembly of the Leningrad oblast, assistant of the deputy of the Legislative Assembly, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.D. SHARAGINA Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Brokeree Solutions, content manager, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE FACTOR OF CHINA ECONOMIC INFLUENCE IN DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY OF KAZAKHSTAN

In this article, the authors attempt to analyze the thesis of Kazakhstan's growing dependence on China and the prospects of the Sino-Kazakh partnership.

China's confrontation with the United States and the growing geopolitical tensions in the world raise the issue of whether China can convert its economic power into a political leadership. Central Asia is a potential area for increasing Chinese political influence. Kazakhstan, as the largest economy in the region, is an object of particular interest to China's foreign economic expansion.

Despite the obvious benefits of this partnership for the Republic of Kazakhstan, its foreign policy is built on the principles of multi-vectorism and balancing between other key actors both in the region and on the world stage as a whole.

This article examines Kazakhstan's foreign policy strategy through Kenneth Waltz's structural realism. Thus, an important theoretical basis for this article is I. Wallerstein's concept of world-system analysis, as well as the works of R. Cogain and R. Gilpin. Kazakhstan's attitudes towards China, Russia, the United States and the European Union were analyzed using cognitive mapping based on public speeches of the influential politicians of Kazakhstan for 2013-2022. The results of the qualitative analysis were supplemented by quantitative measurements of the mentionability of the identified semantic categories. This approach allowed the authors to analyze in detail the consistently constructed image of China in the public speeches of Kazakhstan's leading politicians.

Key words: Kazakhstan, PRC, GDP, economic expansion, oil and gas sector, Central Asia, SCO.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.036

P.O. KAZAKOVA Graduate student Institute of Foreign Languages RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

DEMOCRATIC DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: THEORETICAL APPROACHES

The article presents various theoretical approaches to democratic deficit and the ways the term is used in discussions about European integration. It turns out that the idea is most often studied within institutional and socio-psychological paradigm. The wide variety of interpretations are intended to draw attention to the problem and the need for further research on ways how to overcome it.

Key words: deficit of democracy, democratic deficit, democratic legitimacy, European Union, European integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.037

A.YU. KOZHIEV Master of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

A.B. INHEEV Master of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

B.V. KLIMOCHKO Master's Degree from National Taiwan Chengchi University, Taipei, China

EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE. THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF METASCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL PROCESSES

The article presents the theoretical foundation of metascientific methodology, which is a logical continuation of political thought in the 21st century.

Using methods from various fields of science it becomes possible to increase the predictability of political phenomena, international political events, as well as to speed up the process of finding common political patterns. Currently, new areas of science are emerging, but the process of their formation and development is slow due to insufficient attention to these scientific areas on the part of the scientific community as a whole. Within the framework of metascientific methodology, it becomes possible to organically and systematically apply the achievements of new sciences to obtain holistic political knowledge.

Key words: methodology, science, international relations, international relations theory, metascientific methodology, convergent sciences.

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 3 (79), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Yanovsky O.S. Language, Intentions and Interpretation in Quentin Skinner's Methodological Research Program for the Intellectual History of Political Thought

Lazebnik A.G. Trajectories of Political Transformations: an Approach to the Study of Political Dynamics

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Ruban L.S. Who are we and How do we Survive in the Modern World without Losing Ourselves? (Problems of Socio-Cultural Evolution of Modern Russian Society)

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Egorov K.Y. Theoretical and Legal and Political Foundations Formation of a Federal State

Menshikov P.V., Yavuz Shefika Melisa Sabahattinovna. Political Communication in Hyperreal World

Valitova A.T. Fake News as a Political and Discursive Phenomenon of the Modern Era

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Ravochkin N.N. Political Management Practices Transformation in Digitalization Realities (Part 1)

Tushkov A.A., Sokolova D.P. Startup as a New Driving Force of Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Korea

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Dubrovina O.V., Dubina A.S., Rozhkova L.V. Un Reform and Development in the Post-Bipolar Era

Karpovich O.G., Shangaraev R.N. Impact of the Withdrawal of American Troops from Afghanistan on the Relations of the Usa and Europe

Koibaev B.G., Nadzharyan A.B. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Development of Civil Society in the Republic of Armenia

Avazov K.H. Socio-Psychological Aspects of the Formation of a Threat-Resistant Society

Wang Juntao, Wang Mingjun. The Attitude of the Largest Countries of the World to AUKUS

Emelianov A.I., Zueva P.A. Germany and the USA. Retrospective and Future Nature of Bilateral Cooperation

Komarevtseva N.S., Gayfutdinov R.I. Russia and Turkey in the Context of the New Turkic World

Smirnov A.N. «Coronavirus Geopolitics» of the Countries of the Vishegrad Group

Xiong Leping. Language Education as a Tool of "Soft Power" of China and Russia

Kovalevskaia N.V., Orlov K.V. The Problem of the Militarization of Space as a Global Problem of Humanity

Bortsov D.V. Development of Economic Diplomacy in the Russian Empire

Bahaduri A.F., Qasem Mohammad Arif. Afghanistan's Political Development after 2001

Ivanhcneko M.A. Party Political Systems in Russia and Argentina at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Mokrova E.M. US Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Activities

Тanimov Sh.M. Spiritual and Moral Mechanisms of Combating Missionaries in the Virtual World

Alimov A.V. Russian National Idea

Musieva D.M., Manuylova Yu.V. US Strategic Competition Against Russia and China on the Example of Ukraine and Taiwan Issues

Chen Zoni. “The Belt and the Road” in the Context of Modern Chinese Geostrategy

Tsymbal I.A. The Influence of a Modern International Context on the Perception by Russian Citizens of Foreign Countries

Chzhan Chen'i. Political Interaction between India and China in the Context of the Expansion of India's Influence

Chen Hanzhi. Analysis of the Mechanism of Formation of Russia's Foreign Policy in the Context of Political Elites on the Example of the Ukrainian Issue: Chinese View

Vlasov A.V. Assessing the Potential of BRICS in the Modern Political Arena

Novikova K.A. Analysis of the Chronology of Social Protests in the EU in the Period from 2005-2020

Tcoi S.V. Military-Political Factors as an Obstacle to the Integration of the DPRK and the Republic of Korea

Poungchingngam Katima. Economic Cooperation between Thailand and Russia: New Opportunities and Challenges

STUDENT SCIENCE

Protsenko A.L. To the Question of the Qualification of Authoritarian Regimes in the Modern World

Soktoeva A.B. Problems of Implementation of International Anti-Corruption Standards in the Russian Federation

Galanina D.S. Improving the Technological Capabilities of International Observation

Our authors № 3-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.001

O.S. YANOVSKY Lecturer, Department of Political Theory, School of Government and Politics, MGIMO, Moscow, Russia

LANGUAGE, INTENTIONS, AND INTERPRETATION IN QUENTIN SKINNER'S METHODOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT

The article is devoted to the specific aspects of Quentin Skinner's methodological approaches in the context of considering the problems of understanding and interpreting works in the field of political theory as historical phenomena created by historical agents. Skinner's methodology is simultaneously considered as part of the broad historical and historisophical methodological tradition of the Cambridge School of Intellectual History and the History of Political Thought, and in the context of the methodological paradigm of interpretive approaches in political theory. The Cambridge School and Skinner, in particular, were critical of the approaches that dominated Western humanities in the mid-twentieth century to consider works in the field of political thought as sacred sources of eternal truths, not subject to the influence of history of any external factors. Skinner, as one of the pioneers of the "linguistic turn" in political theory, challenged these approaches and, together with his colleagues, focused on creating an alternative, historically more sensitive methodological approach.

The article discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations of the Skinnerian approach to the study of the history of political thought, namely the importance of language as a tool for shaping the reality in which the author exists, and the mechanism for shaping reality by the author himself. Also it is important to understand the author's intention (intention) as the key to understanding the true meaning of the text. Thus, within the framework of the methodological paradigm proposed by Skinner, the research foundation is based on the "contextualism" of the author's activity. The author of a political text exists within a number of historically conditioned, dynamically developing restrictions that determine both the language available to him for expressing his ideas, and those intentions that were laid down at the time of their expression.

Key words: Quentin Skinner, Cambridge School, intellectual history, history of political thought, interpretative theories, intentions, contextualism, history of political thought, linguistic turn.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.002

A.G. LAZEBNIK Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

TRAJECTORIES OF POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS: AN APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF POLITICAL DYNAMICS

The article offers a new approach to the consideration of transformations of political regimes. It is invited to consider groups of countries on the basis of the common path of political transformation they are taking. This will allow to develop a new explanatory model of transformation, as opposed to existing fragmented explanations. The proposed approach is based on the idea of common patterns of behaviour in similar living circumstances as reflected in structural indicators. Countries undergoing various phases of regime transformation can be differentiated by trajectory. Seven consecutive trajectories have been identified, the analysis of which allows us to allocate indicators correlating with the movement towards "democracy", "semi-democracy" and "non-democracy". These trajectories are divided into two types: trajectories of "democratization" and trajectories of "autocratization".

Key words: transformation of the political regime, trajectory of political transformation, democracy, autocracy.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.003

L.S. RUBAN Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Head of the Department of Research of International Cooperation Issues Institute of the Socio-Political Researches of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

WHO ARE WE AND HOW DO WE SURVIVE IN THE MODERN WORLD WITHOUT LOSING OURSELVES? (PROBLEMS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL EVOLUTION OF MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY)

The article examines the process of self-regulation in modern Russian society, the formation of the identity of social individuals, their goal-setting and the formation of the life ideal and principles of social interaction, taking into account the changing reality that is currently in a turbulent state. The problems of socio-cultural evolution of modern Russian society in the context of socio-cultural modernization and the evolution of value criteria and norms are considered, their study is carried out using the methods of system analysis. The methodological basis of the research is the socio-cultural (anthroposocietal) approach. The author conducted a content analysis of specialized scientific works and publications in the media in the context of comparing the largest philosophical, psychological and sociological positions of Russian researchers, namely the dispositional theory of self-regulation of social behavior of the individual, developed by Professor V.A. Yadov, and studies of this profile made at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the concept of Academician V.S. Stepin. the active nature of man and the research of socio-cultural modernization in the process of socio-cultural evolution of modern society as an integral organism of the Center for the Study of Socio-Cultural Dimensions of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the leadership of the corresponding member. Lapina N.I., studies of personality and its value world and norms in modern Russian society, as well as the study of mentality and identity formation of social individuals in the process of development of modern Russian society and socio-humanitarian sciences in long-term research projects of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This comparison shows that together these studies reveal a holistic picture of the socio-cultural evolution of modern Russian society with an emphasis on its socio-cultural modernization.

Key words: the process of self-regulation in society, identification of social individuals, goal setting and formation of the life ideal and principles of social interaction.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.004

K.Y. EGOROV Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy" Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL FOUNDATIONS FORMATION OF A FEDERAL STATE

The article examines the theoretical, legal and political foundations of the formation of a federal state. The basic provisions that are directly related to the formation and development of various models of the federal structure are investigated. The features of the formation and development of the federal structure on the example of the Russian Federation are analyzed and conclusions on the research topic are formulated.

Key words: federal structure, state, democracy, federal subject, autonomy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.005

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

YAVUZ SHEFIKA MELISA SABAHATTINOVNA Assistant, Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN HYPERREAL WORLD

Since the second half of the 20th century, political communication has been studied by specialists from various fields: sociologists, political scientists, psychologists, philosophers, and PR specialists. At the core of communication lie mechanisms aimed at the forming a system of ideological values and behavioral models of society. In the modern hyperreal world, in the face of modified public perception of communication, new factors need to be taken into account when developing a political communication strategy. One should pay attention to the increase in the volume of information, results of the digital revolution, as well as new communication trends generated by New Media.

Key words: political communication, manipulation, asymmetric communication, nowledge-value society, communication channels, digital transformation, infobesity, simulacre.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.006

A.T. VALITOVA Postgraduated student, Saint Petersburg state university, Saint Petersburg, Russia

FAKE NEWS AS A POLITICAL AND DISCURSIVE PHENOMENON OF THE MODERN ERA

Fake news influences public opinion, changes the political, economic, social situation in the world. This article analyzes the phenomenon of creation and wide distribution of fake news. The article attempts to systematize and define the typology of fake news, conspiracy theories were classified as fake news, despite the fact that they are essentially fake news, the problem is more extensive than that covered in this article and requires further research. The problem of spreading fake news through social networks is separately taken out, and separately included in the typology, despite the fact that this is more of a technical issue of spreading disinformation, however, through social networks and instant messengers, the flow of disinformation spread by users who do not verify information, but spread it has increased among your close contacts. Knowledge and ability to distinguish fake news from the truth will help to avoid negative consequences in political, social and economic processes.

Key words: Fake News, Post-truth, Social media, Misinformation, Disinformation, Clickbait, Mimic content.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.007

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies, Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences, Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TRANSFORMATION IN DIGITALIZATION REALITIES (PART 1)

The rapid penetration of digital technologies into all spheres of public life could not but have an impact on the practices of political management. The current situation associated with the metamorphoses that have taken place in political management in certain empirical contexts is unique for comparative analysis. In this part of the article, the author examines the research approaches and assessments that have developed in the scientific community regarding digitalization. Arguments are given in favor of "positive" and "negative" views on digitalization. It is proved that digitalization has created qualitatively new and at the same time very heterogeneous conditions for the implementation of political management practices around the world. New tools that power actors have acquired due to digitalization have been studied. Practical examples of the use of advanced technologies of political management are given.

Key words: political management, power, digitalization, society, interactions, political participation, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.008

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

D.P. SOKOLOVA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

STARTUP AS A NEW DRIVING FORCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The authors of this article investigated a fairly new and promising phenomenon for the Republic of Korea – a startup. The relevance of the study is due to the markedly decreasing influence of the activities of South Korean big business on the socio-economic progress of South Korea in the current conditions of the world economy. The authors of this study described the mechanism of the South Korean startup ecosystem. Based on statistical data, the prospects and relevance of the startup ecosystem were proved, and its impact on social and economic development was analyzed.

Key words: Republic of Korea, South Korea, startup, socio-economic development, small business, large business, chaebol.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.009

O.V. DUBROVINA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

A.S. DUBINA Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University Penza, Russia

L.V. ROZHKOVA Doctor of Sociology, Head of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University Penza, Russia

UN REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE POST-BIPOLAR ERA

The Second World War led to the realization by peoples all over the world of the devastating consequences of military conflicts and the need for dialogue and cooperation between countries, so 77 years ago the United Nations was created, which showed both strengths and weaknesses. The UN is recognized as an important actor influencing international processes in the field of socio-political development of the participating countries. In the first forty years of its existence, the organization demonstrated high achievements in ensuring world order and ensuring security, but subsequently these successes were gradually minimized. New and new problems were brewing in the functioning of the UN, the authority of the organization was declining due to the arbitrariness and violation of the principles of the international community of the participating countries, to which the UN has been helplessly turning a blind eye for many years. Perhaps the problem lies in the obsolescence of the organization, since there have been drastic changes in post-bipolar conditions and the original goals do not correspond to modern reality. Among other things, there is a noticeable lack of equality in the process of distributing the constitutional bases of the institute, at the same time there is a discrepancy between some provisions of the Charter and the socio-economic and political processes actually taking place in the international arena. The way out of this situation lies in reforming the UN with the participation of the main persons of all peoples and states at an international conference with the provision of obligations for their equality.

Key words: international relations, international organization, UN, universal Institute of Peace and Security, General Assembly, Security Council, society, state, constitutionalism, democracy, equality.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.010

O.G. KARPOVICH Doctor of Law, Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Vice-Rector, Director of the Institute for Contemporary International Studies of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

R.N. SHANGARAEV Candidate of economic sciences, Associate professor of the Chair of public administration in foreign policy of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

IMPACT OF THE WITHDRAWAL OF AMERICAN TROOPS FROM AFGHANISTAN ON THE RELATIONS OF THE USA AND EUROPE

The adoption by the President of the United States of America Biden of the decision to withdraw American troops from Afghanistan with a clear underestimation of the immigration of armed forces by the Taliban movement strengthened the fears of European leaders regarding the interests and is not inclined to take into account the opinion of partners, including NATO.

Key words: USA, Europe, NATO, Afghanistan, international relations, Taliban.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.011

B.G. KOIBAEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

A.B. NADZHARYAN Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

Civil society institutions, and above all non-governmental organizations, play an important role in the formation and development of democratic tendencies in modern States. The study of various aspects of the activities of non-governmental organizations is an important scientific direction in modern political science. The authors of the article attempt to investigate the activities of formed non-governmental organizations in the modern Republic of Armenia. On the basis of a variety of empirical material, the development and functioning are considered, as well as the role and influence of non-governmental organizations in the development of civil society in the Republic of Armenia is revealed. The authors note that the activities of the formed non-governmental organizations in modern Armenia are quite contradictory.

Key words: Republic of Armenia, civil society, non-governmental organizations, Soros Foundation, “Velvet Revolution”.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.012

K.H. AVAZOV PhD in Political Sciences, Head of the Chair for humanities and economic sciences at the Regional Center for Retraining and Advanced Training of Public Education Workers of Surkhandarya region, Termez, Republic of Uzbekistan

SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE FORMATION OF A THREAT-RESISTANT SOCIETY

The article presents the results of the research conducted by the authors on the problems of the influence of destructive ideas and groups on the individuals, the state, and the society. The research was also conducted on the formation of assertive behavior and culture of information consumption among young people, the article also presents conclusions and practical suggestions on these issues. The place and role of the state in the formation of a threat-resistant society is indicated.

Key words: threat, risk, societies, factors, geopolitics, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.013

WANG JUNTAO Political candidate Sci., Associate Professor Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

WANG MINGJUN Student of the Graduate School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

THE ATTITUDE OF THE LARGEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD TO AUKUS

This article is devoted to the recently created Trilateral Security Partnership Alliance (AUKUS). The appearance of the alliance caused a contradictory reaction in the world. The article analyzes the attitude and positions of some countries expressed towards the alliance and its purpose. The author examines the goals and priorities of the alliance, the attitude of the international community to the formation of the alliance. According to the study, the attitude of most countries to this union can be divided into three categories: positive, skeptical and neutral attitude. The purpose of the study is to analyze and compare various theories and opinions about the creation of the AUKUS alliance. Empirical research methods, search and analysis of information from mass media, analysis and comparison of data, comparison and generalization were used in the work.

Results. Summing up, AUKUS is a new combination of the "special relationship between the United States and Great Britain" and the alliance between the United States and Australia, as well as the alliance of the so-called "Anglo-Saxon democratic countries", emphasizing ideological antagonism. This is an alliance based on subjective assumptions and aimed at common goals in the field of defense. In fact, we can say that this is an alliance for the collective containment of China and Russia. AUKUS has a serious risk of nuclear proliferation. All this shows that the motivation of the United States, Great Britain and Australia to provoke a "new cold war" was undisguised.

Conclusions. Despite the positive attitude of some countries, the author nevertheless comes to the conclusion that the creation of AUKUS reflects the revival of Cold War thinking, which will inevitably stimulate the escalation of the regional arms race, and this will seriously jeopardize peace, security and stability in the Asia-Pacific region.

Key words: AUKUS, trilateral partnership, cooperation, security and defense, nuclear weapons, regional peace and stability, USA, Australia, United Kingdom.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.014

A.I. EMELIANOV PhD (Political Science), Associate Professor Head of the Department of Theory of Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University Moscow, Russia

P.A. ZUEVA Student, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

GERMANY AND THE USA. RETROSPECTIVE AND FUTURE NATURE OF BILATERAL COOPERATION

The article presents a study of the main issues in the bilateral relations between Germany and the United States in the XXI century, provoked by external and internal factors. The main purpose of the work is to study the relevance of the US-German bilateral relations for the two actors of the world politics, as well as to identify the main causes of the emergence of crisis phenomena in the partnership of Germany and the United States and to predict the dynamics of the situation in the future. Based on the research conducted by the author, the decline in the activity of American-German contacts is confirmed against the background of a decrease in mutual trust and respect. The author notes that it is impossible to quickly restore the former quality of relations between Berlin and Washington, even with the change of the political elite of both powers.

Key words: foreign policy, Germany, Europe, European Union, import, international relations, NATO, Nord Stream-2, USA, Transatlantic partnership, export.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.015

N.S. KOMAREVTSEVA PhD in Political Science, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Actual International Problems Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

R.I. GAYFUTDINOV Graduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Philosophy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA AND TURKEY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW TURKIC WORLD

This article considers the results of the long-term consolidation of the Turkic world as a new geopolitical reality. An analysis of this process allows us to define it largely as a result of Ankara's foreign policy. The article discusses the role of Turkey in the transformation of the Turkic-speaking space into a full-fledged union. The subject of the study is the prospects, conceptual foundations and main vectors for the development of the project of a union Turkic world as a self-sufficient subject of world politics, as well as its role in the context of Russian-Turkish relations. The Turkic project is assessed in the context of the national interests of the Russian Federation.

Key words: Turkic world, Turkey, Russia, Pan-Turkism, Organization of Turkic States, summit.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.016

A.N. SMIRNOV Candidate of Sciences (Political), Senior Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

«CORONAVIRUS GEOPOLITICS» OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE VISHEGRAD GROUP

Pandemic COVID-19 has become a difficult test for the countries of the Visegrad Group. It was the tragic cause of numerous human losses and economic losses, but at the same time gave a new impetus to subregional cooperation in the fight against the infectious threat and its consequences. Since the end of 2020, the pledge of victory over the disease has become a mass vaccination. The main conditions for its conduct are beyond the resource potential of the Visegrad states and transfer the medical and social problem to the sphere of geopolitics. The behavior of the group member countries marked a whole range of approaches to solving an arisen problem. The most unequivocal position was occupied by the Poland authorities that use for vaccinations exclusively drugs approved by Brussels. In Hungary initially existed a flexible approach to the problem of vaccination funds, which corresponded to the pragmatic installations of the government of Viktor Orban. The beginning of mass vaccination in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, on the contrary, was accompanied by a series of scandals and fierce internal political confrontation. The conflicting parties here were not simply supporters and opponents of using the Russian vaccine, but carriers of various views on the strategy of relations with Moscow.

Key words: Visegrad Group, Coronavirus, pandemic, vaccination, Sputnik V, Russia, medicine, politics, geopolitics, international relations, EU, domestic political conflict.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.017

XIONG LEPING Ph.D., Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, China

LANGUAGE EDUCATION AS A TOOL OF "SOFT POWER" OF CHINA AND RUSSIA

This article considers language education as a tool of "soft power" of the state. In the context of globalization, there is a tendency to intensify intercultural communication and educational exchanges, foreign language skills play a key role in the process of cultural interactions. In this regard, language education in any country acquires a topical importance, serving as a link with the outside world. Successful organization of language education, active promotion of the study of national languages abroad and high-quality training attract foreign students, form goodwill between the peoples of different countries of the world, contribute to interstate contacts on the basis of mutual trust and understanding. Thus, language education can be a lever of foreign policy influence, has a huge potential impact on the public opinion of the world community, and acts as an effective tool of "soft power" of the country. China and Russia in the 21st century began to support cultural and educational projects, try to attract foreigners around the world to study their national language. Two countries enter the international market of educational services, thanks to the measures taken both countries have achieved success in "soft power". However, the West views China and Russia's performance differently and tries to limit the "soft power" of the two powers. Meanwhile, China and Russia continue to use language education to spread their "soft power" around the world and further develop their humanitarian cooperation.

Key words: soft power, language education, China, Russia, influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.018

N.V. KOVALEVSKAIA Ph.D. in political Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

K.V. ORLOV Student, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF THE MILITARIZATION OF SPACE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM OF HUMANITY

In the context of the transition to a new political and digital order, to the development of innovative industry and disruptive trends, there are growing concerns about changing the principles of warfare geography, which will be divided not only into familiar forms, front and rear, economic and ideological confrontation, the struggle in the information continuum, and in the future will seriously expand to outer space. The leading space powers are actively developing concepts for conducting combat operations in space, and news about the creation of the latest means of space weaponry is becoming more and more frequent. In this context, it is especially relevant to analyze the balance of power in this area and the prospects of using space as a battlefield in future world conflicts. Earth is not the most peaceful and peaceful place in the universe, only today there are about thirty wars of varying intensity on the entire planet and nothing indicates that in the near future anything will change towards the normalization and stabilization of inter-country relations. On the contrary, tensions between states, especially between the great powers, are growing, which may sooner or later lead to open armed conflict and confrontation. However, even the great military powers such as Russia, China and the United States can not afford to get involved in a global war, because the prospect of complete destruction restrains them from full-scale war with nuclear weapons, they use military force only locally, in particularly difficult cases, when other ways to solve the problem is not possible. In this regard, one of the arenas of such a war could also become space.

Key words: global problems of humanity, militarization of space, ban on militarization of space, space weapons.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.019

D.V. BORTSOV Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences; MGIMO MFA of Russia; 2nd Secretary of the Ministry Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA of Russia), Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

The author analyzes the emergence and main stages of the Russian economic diplomacy evolution applying methods of aggregation, dating and evaluation of available sources in the field of history, political science and economics. The stages of transformation of organizational forms of the economic branch in the Russian diplomatic service as well as the formation of the national school of personnel training are studied. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of Russian foreign trade during the mentioned historic period are accumulated and analyzed. Also author describes positive and negative factors influencing on direction and growth rate of foreign economic activities and economic diplomacy at that time as well as highlights key specific features of foreign trade area of Russia throughout its development. The state economic policy, the approaches of the country's leadership to foreign economic issues and the implementation of economic diplomacy activities are consistently considered with a focus on the perception of its importance. The author also identifies the historical features of the Russian political and socio-economic systems which prevented the active promotion of national products to foreign markets. Contribution of separate politicians to development of foreign trade and national export – either country leaders or heads of specialized departments responsible for foreign economic area throughout the abovementioned period – is investigated with estimation of its results. The international situation that took place is studied with focus on its influence on state economic policy and priorities in relations with key foreign partners. The impact of foreign commercial agents’ activities on the condition and transformation of the political and economic landscape in Russia is analyzed. The circumstances of introduction of new or localization of existing and already used in other countries tools of economic diplomacy are described with highlighting of their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the process of changing the attitude of diplomats to this issue: from complete denial of participance in foreign economic activities to gradual acceptance and final inclusion in the circle of key priorities of the diplomatic service.

Key words: russian economic diplomacy, economic diplomacy in the Russian Empire, evolution of economic diplomacy, history of economic diplomacy, Russian diplomatic service, export promotion, diplomatic support of the economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.020

A.F. BAHADURI Lecturer Department of Political Science and International Relations, law and political science faculty Badakhshan University, Faizabad, Afghanistan; PhD student in political science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Comparative Political Science RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

QASEM MOHAMMAD ARIF Postgraduate Student at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, RUDN, Moscow, Russia

AFGHANISTAN'S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER 2001

A dignified and prosperous life is one of the long-standing desires of people. For this, a person created a political institution called government, the purpose of which was to establish order in society. Historical research shows that the distribution of power in political systems took place in various forms, and people were inevitably subjected to the actions of an authoritarian system. In the course of these processes, representatives of authoritarian systems mainly pursued their own personal goals, and the transformation of traditional (authoritarian) systems was an inevitable part of political modernization. With the advent of democratic systems, people's expectations of the system have increased. Perhaps the reason lies in the role of the people in the choice of the political system and its officials. In democracies, people monitor government, and government officials are required to respond to people's inquiries.

How did these changes take place in Afghanistan? What is the meaning of political development after a long period of authoritarian regimes and the establishment of a democratic state after the ouster of the Taliban in Afghanistan? Has the political system been modernized in this country? The results show that the country's political development is directly related to the emergence of a democratic government after the collapse of the Taliban regime in that country. But the country also faced significant challenges. This study is aimed at analyzing the essence of political development in modern Afghanistan.

Key words: political development, structure, political system, government, democracy, Afghanistan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.021

M.A. IVANCHENKO English Department №1 Lecturer MGIMO, Moscow, Russia

PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA AND ARGENTINA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY

This article introduces the problems and features of the development of political systems in Russia and Argentina at the beginning of the 21st century. Both countries experienced complexities, economic crises that occurred at the end of the 20th century. For each country, the political system is a global space that links government and society and at the same time enhances the development of the political socialization of citizens and the developing participation in the political life of all spheres of society. A comparative analysis of the systems of Russia and Argentina, as the basis for the development of any democratic state, has been carried out. The features of the political system are excluded, as an institution with multi-party system of political power. Party systems reflect the alignment, influence and reflection of power, interaction with legitimate authorities, representative authorities, and leaders of countries. The determining factors in the development of political systems are considered, in conditions specific to Russia and Argentina, in which political systems evolve and function.

Key words: political system, multi-party system, the party of power, opposition, legitimacy of elections, crisis of political power, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.022

E.M. MOKROVA Senior lecturer at English Language Department № 6, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

US INTERSTATE OIL & GAS COMPACT COMMISSION ACTIVITIES

There is a great number of lobbying structures in USA directly connected with the US government: think tanks, councils, associations, ethnic lobby groups. Relations between US lobbying groups and legal authorities are unique due to the special system of organization and regulations. According to various studies US lobbyism is of corporate character and is used in defense, energy, banking and even pharmaceutical industry. The article considers Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission activities, a non-lobbyist organization providing interests of US oil and gas industry on a governmental level.

Key words: lobbyism, Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission, US foreign policy, US foreign course.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.023

Sh.М. ТANIMOV Independent researcher of the Republican Center of Spirituality and Enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

SPIRITUAL AND MORAL MECHANISMS OF COMBATING MISSIONARIES IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD

This article is devoted to the study of the place and role of spiritual security, including its cultural-historical, informational-psychological, religious, ideological, scientific, educational and other components) as one of the complex components of national security. The author analyzes the spiritual and moral mechanisms for combating missionaries.

Key words: missionary work, religion, threat, societies, youth, national security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.024

A.V. ALIMOV Postgraduate student of the Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN NATIONAL IDEA

The article examines the need to develop a Russian national idea as the main condition for the unity of the state community. The article consists of two parts. The first examines the ontology of the national idea, its ethnogenesis. It is proved that the historical code of Russia is laid down by passionaries of different eras. Variants of patriotism for the internal (spiritual) and external (organizational) content of the national idea are proposed. During the period of contradictions between liberalism and conservatism, it is proposed to integrate the concept of empiriomonism into the system of public administration. The second part explores patriotism as a basic element of mental and organizational experiences in creating a strong state. In the course of the study, two ways of reform in the education system are proposed: transformation of the system-active approach into a humanistic paradigm supplemented by the acmeological principles of Christian existentialism, based on the cultural values of Orthodox civilization; step-by-step modeling of the education system (V.B. Titov). In conclusion, it is proposed to institutionalize the Russian world in order to exercise control over the key areas of the formation of national consciousness: culture, education, the media.

Key words: national idea, Russian world, patriotism, humanistic paradigm, passionarity, existentialism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.025

D.M. MUSIEVA Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Yu.V. MANUYLOVA Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

US STRATEGIC COMPETITION AGAINST RUSSIA AND CHINA ON THE EXAMPLE OF UKRAINE AND TAIWAN ISSUES

The article deals with the issues of interstate confrontation between the largest powers of our time, namely the United States of America with the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, on the examples of the Ukraine and Taiwan issues. The purpose of this study is to prove that the actions of Russia and China in the international arena are aimed at establishing a polycentric world order, that is contrary to the interests of the United States. During the study, methods of historical and comparative analysis, a prognostic method, a systematic approach, content analysis of the media and strategic documents, and a number of other general scientific methods were used. Based on the analysis, the authors reveal that the current events in Ukraine are part of a general attempt to transform the current global order, that can be continued in the Indo-Pacific region as a clash between the United States and China.

Key words: strategic competition, Ukraine issue, Taiwan issue, global order rebalancing.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.026

CHEN ZONI Postgraduate Student at the Chair of European studies, Faculty of International Relations and World Politics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

“THE BELT AND THE ROAD” IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN CHINESE GEOSTRATEGY

Since the end of the Cold War, changes in China's neighborhood have made China's traditional geostrategy inadequate in the face of the new geopolitical landscape that has taken shape since the Cold War. This article discusses and analyzes the relationship between China's security space, traditional strategies, and national security, which will allow to determine the relationship between the "Belt and Road" and China's geostrategy.

Key words: China, geopolitics, Belt and Road, geopolitical tradition, national security, geopolitical space.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.027

I.A. TSYMBAL Graduate student, Department of Sociology and Psychology of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF A MODERN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT ON THE PERCEPTION BY RUSSIAN CITIZENS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES

The article analyzes the importance of studying the reflection of symbols in the understanding of the modern political map of the world, studies the trends in the formation of perception of states, the course of foreign policy changes and relationships, and the creation of a space of symbolic representations. The classification of the most important factors influencing the perception in the mass consciousness of the images of both one's own country and other countries of the world has been formulated and outlined. It is noted how, in the process of forming the images of foreign countries, about which Russian respondents are not sufficiently aware, the transfer of characteristics of the political or economic union to which these countries are included is manifested. The process of correlating the components of a complex image of other countries with their own country by Russian citizens when trying to formulate a set of characteristics of foreign states is considered. The most significant countries in the system of international relations are classified as new centers of growth or centers of power, in one area or another opposing the global domination of the United States. The process of constructing images of foreign countries under the influence of a number of situational factors – the most significant events that influenced public opinion – has been carefully studied. It is shown how the authorities and the media use these events in the formation of national-state identity. The data of current public opinion polls support the reasoning about how situational factors influence the formation of images of "friend countries" and "enemy countries" in the mass consciousness. Based on the analysis of international content, conclusions were drawn about the duration of the influence of stable and changeable factors and the risk of transforming the images of countries under the influence of these factors.

Key words: political image of the country, mass consciousness, stable and changeable factors, situational and communicative factors, images of "friends" and "enemies".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.028

CHZHAN CHEN'I Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INTERACTION BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EXPANSION OF INDIA'S INFLUENCE

The article examines the interaction between India and China, analyzes the main trends of bilateral relations in the last decade. The study uses an integrated approach to identify a set of problems related to the formation of India as a new center of regional and global influence, which causes the formation of new directions in China's foreign policy strategies, and the issue of competition between China and RI in the region is also being updated. The obtained result of the study suggests that positive and negative trends in Sino-Indian relations are equally likely. The forecast of the dynamics of Sino-Indian relations depends not only on China's position, but also on India's diplomatic choice and the involvement of other major countries associated with it.

Key words: political interaction, security, Indo-Pacific region, territorial issue, Tibet issue, Pakistani factor, competition, NPT, UNSC, NSG, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Belt and Road, Africa, Middle East, Quad, Modi, RICK.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.029

CHEN HANZHI Intern at the Chinese Institute of International Studies, China

ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF RUSSIA'S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF POLITICAL ELITES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE UKRAINIAN ISSUE: CHINESE VIEW

The most important foreign policy decisions not only largely determine the fate of the country, but can also cause a number of chain reactions of the world order. The well-known scientist Bobo Lo believes that foreign policy depends on the consensus of the broad elite. For the implementation of scientific and rational foreign policy decisions by mature countries, especially powers with global influence, the process of making foreign policy decisions does not simply consist in organizing a meeting or making a decision directly by individuals, but usually has a formed mechanism for implementing foreign policy that corresponds to national conditions and interests. Diplomacy is a continuation of domestic politics. The study of the mechanism of formation of Russia's foreign policy requires an analysis of the mechanism of its internal regime. Any political system is the result of the activities of political elites, and the participants in this process include elite ideas and behaviors. This article examines the mechanism of formation of Russia's foreign policy in the Ukrainian issue from the point of view of Russian political elites.

Key words: political elites, the Russian Federation, foreign policy concept, foreign policy course, the situation in Ukraine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.030

A.V. VLASOV Postgraduate student of the Institute of Law and National Security Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL OF BRICS IN THE MODERN POLITICAL ARENA

The study examines the transformation of the existing world order, which resulted in the emergence of a group of countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). The global pandemic has become a global challenge for modern political reality, when the BRICS countries have shown not only their viability as a political tool, but also as a sustainable socio-economic space. The object of the study is interstate stable political and socio-economic communities. The subject of the study is the potential as a complex multi-component category that determines the viability and prospects of interstate entities. The purpose of the study is to establish the potential of the BRICS group of countries as a viable interstate entity. The result of the study is the establishment and objectification of the effectiveness and viability of the BRICS interstate education on the basis of public data of official statistics.

Key words: interstate education, regional powers, international financial institutions, global governance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.031

K.A. NOVIKOVA PhD student, European studies department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE CHRONOLOGY OF SOCIAL PROTESTS IN THE EU IN THE PERIOD FROM 2005-2020

Protests are one of the most important ways of political socialization and expression of the will of the population. The European Union laws do not restrict the right of citizens to peaceful demonstrations. Over the past decade, the level of such socio-political activity has increased significantly. The article analyzes the causes and trends of the protest movement in the EU including during pandemic situation.

Key words: public opinion, protest movement, European Union (EU), economic crisis, migration crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.032

S.V. TCOI Postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

MILITARY-POLITICAL FACTORS AS AN OBSTACLE TO THE INTEGRATION OF THE DPRK AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The purpose of the article is to analyze topical issues of the settlement of relations between North and South Korea in the context of the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. To do this, the following tasks are solved in the article. The possibilities of reunification of the two Korean states in the context of the transformation of the North Korean regime are considered. It is concluded that in the current conditions it is an unlikely scenario of development. The current events of recent times are analyzed, indicating an increase in the risks of destabilization of the military-political situation on the territory of the Korean peninsula. To solve these problems, general scientific methods (analysis, induction, historical method) and content analysis of public speeches and news publications on the topic were used. The result of the article is the conclusion about the long-term nature of the possible integration process, which will inevitably entail many obstacles and costs, starting from the current regime of the DPRK and ending with the economic and social planning of the development of the two states.

Key words: North Korea, South Korea, Korean peninsula, Pyongyang, Russia, reunification.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.033

POUNGCHINGNGAM KATIMA Postgraduate student at School of International Relations of Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THAILAND AND RUSSIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

The article is devoted to the current economic cooperation between Thailand and Russia. Its goal is to study Thailand's current challenges as well as potential opportunities for economic cooperation with Russia. The Neoliberalism and Linkage Theory are used as a conceptual framework in this study to examine the opportunities and obstacles of economic cooperation between the two countries. Qualitative research methodology is used in analyzing collected data. This article is on in-depth analysis of both primary and secondary data.

The findings suggest that the development of a free trade agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union is currently an opportunity to strengthen Thai-Russian economic cooperation. However, the obstacles to cooperation are the current regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union, Thai trade competitors in Southeast Asia, the Covid-19 pandemic affecting goods exports and travel, and Thai internal political problems and the implementation of Thailand’s foreign policies. The novelty of the article concludes that the role of governments and international organizations in promoting economic cooperation is significant. The opportunities and obstacles of bilateral economic cooperation in the present period are new initiatives and trade barriers that have arisen in addition to the previous ones. Furthermore, the data in this article is the most up-to-date information and viewpoints from the Thai side. The findings of this article are useful for people who are interested in Thailand-Russia economic ties.

Key words: Thailand, Russia, Economic cooperation, Eurasian Economic Union, Covid-19 pandemic, Opportunities, Challenges, Obstacles.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.034

А.L. PROTSENKO Master's Student at the Chair of history and theory of politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CLASSIFICATION OF AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AT THE PRESENT STAGE

Authoritarian regimes are one of the most common types of political regimes in the world. The aim of the study is to analyze the classification of authoritarian regimes and study their development at the present stage. The objectives of the study include an analysis of the features of various authoritarian regimes and the development of authoritarian regimes in the context of the spread of Internet technologies. As a result of the study, authoritarian regimes without elected authorities (military authoritarian regimes and monarchies), authoritarian regimes with elected authorities (personalist regimes, party regimes) and hybrid authoritarian regimes are distinguished. It is concluded that the active and uncontrolled use of modern Internet technologies negatively affects the existence of authoritarian regimes, and therefore many states with authoritarian regimes are trying to control this area (in particular, the concept of an internal sovereign Internet in China).

Key words: types of authoritarian regimes, autocracies, authoritarian regimes and the Internet, personalist autocracies, party autocracies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.035

А.B. SOKTOEVA Master's Student at the Institute of Public Administration and Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STANDARDS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article reviews the problems occurring in the process of implementation of international anti corruption standards with the emphasis on the experience of foreign countries. International anti-corruption conventions are based mainly on imperative international legal prescriptions that oblige states to implement them into national legislation upon entry into force of relevant international treaties. Often, these international legal acts contain their own implementing provisions that specify the norms of general international law. In conclusion the author sums up the experience of foreign countries which may be helpful for Russian regulation in the fight against corruption. Some novelties are proposed for the successful operation of the organizational and legal mechanism for fight against corruption.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption, anti-corruption standards.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.036

D.S. GALANINA Student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES OF INTERNATIONAL OBSERVATION

In the past decade, international election observation has spread to the Caribbean as part of a global trend among developed nations, indicative of their commitment to the liberal democratic tradition shaped by the post-Cold War international order. Developed countries see the need to note that they have achieved and are maintaining basic levels of democratic governance and stability. The question was whether the invitation of international election observers is evidence of a country's acceptance or readiness to accept and adhere to international electoral standards of "free and fair elections". In some cases, political rhetoric implies such acceptance without a real commitment to improving and ensuring the integrity of the electoral process. However, studies in the Caribbean have shown that countries consider it important to have this international seal of approval and demonstrate a commitment to achieving acceptable standards. In most cases in the Caribbean, elections in a given country will be observed by one large group of observers. As a general rule, international monitoring teams adhere to internationally agreed operating guidelines, but allow some leeway.

Key words: observation, developed countries, states, international relations, Caribbean, trends.

OUR AUTHORS

ABBASOV O.T. – Senior lecturer of the department fundamental legal and social and humanitarian disciplines MFPU "Synergy", Moscow, Russia.

AGRBA A.A. – Ph.D. in culture studies, Senior lecturer аt the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

ARGUN L.L. – 1st category guide of State Historical Museum; Graduate student of the Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

ARSHIN K.V. – PhD in Philosophy, Scientific Secretary of Russian Potato Research Centre, Lyubertsy, Moscow region, Russia.

BAKHTIN G.O. – Postgraduate student of the Department of Theory and Philosophy Faculty of Political Science, St. Petersburg State University, Russia, St. Petersburg.

BELOV L.P. – Graduate student, North-West Institute of Management, branch of RANEPA; OOO «Gelios», CEO, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

BELYAKOVA T.M. – Postgraduate student of the Faculty of State Management of Moscow State University, M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

BORTSOV D.V. – 2nd Secretary of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russia, Researcher of Candidate Degree in Political Science, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

CHAN THI ZIEM CHAM – Master's degree at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Vietnam, Hanoi.

CHIBRIKOV A.O. – PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Global Processes, Direction of Geopolitics and Diplomacy, Moscow, Russia.

CHZHAN CHEN`I – Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

DROZDOV I.A. – Postgraduate student, St. Petersburg State University, Center of Patriotic Education and Preventive Work of the State Budgetary Educational Institution “Baltic Coast”, teacher-organizer, St. Petersburg, Russia.

FEDOROV A.V. – Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Legislative Assembly of the Leningrad oblast, assistant of the deputy of the Legislative Assembly, St. Petersburg, Russia.

FURMAN F.P. – Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the State University of Maritime and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarova, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

FURS V.A. – PhD of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy Academies of the State Fire Service EMERCOM of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

GONCHAROV V.S. – Graduate student of the Department of International Security and Foreign Policy of Russian foreign policy, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia.

HAN SHIYING – PhD Candidate, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

HUO DONG – Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, M.V. Lomonosov, China.

INHEEV A.B. – Master of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

KAZAKOVA P.O. – Graduate student Institute of Foreign Languages RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

KHARLANOV A.S. – Doctor of Economics, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of World Economy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Member of the Council of Rectors of Russia, Member of the Council of Rectors of the Northwestern Federal District, doctoral student of the Military Academy of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

KLIMOCHKO B.V. – Master's Degree from National Taiwan Chengchi University, Taipei, China.

KOVALEVSKAIA N.V. – Associate Professor, Ph.D. in political Sciences Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

KOZHIEV A.YU. – Master of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia.

KRYUKOVA E.V. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Sociology, Psychology of Management and History State University of Management, Moscow, Russia.

KULESHOVA N.S. – Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

MALAKHOV A.A. – Head of the Legal Department Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Potato Research Center named after A.G. Lorkh", Moscow, Russia.

MALININ A.YU. – Postgraduate student of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Federal Research Sociological Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

MAO SHUO – Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MASLOV K.V. – Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MAYSTAT M.A. – Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia.

MAZHNIKOV V.I. – Candidate of philosophy, associate Professor, associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow University for Industry and Finance «Synergy», Moscow, Russia.

MENSHIKOV P.V. – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

MOROZOV I.L. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of State Management and Political Science, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch of RANEPA, Volgograd, Russia.

MURAVYKH A.I. – D.Sc. (economics), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia.

NIKITENKO E.G. – Major General, Cand. Sc. (History), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia.

ORLOV I.V. – Student, St. Petersburg State University School of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

PONYAVINA M.B. – PhD, associate to Professor, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

PYZH V.V. – Doctor of Political Science, Head of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines named after V.U. Ageevets, "P.F. Lesgaft National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health"; expert of the Commission on Defense and Security Issues Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States, St. Petersburg, Russia.

RAKHMAN KHASHIMI MATIAR – Master student, St. Petersburg State University, RNIC for the Leningrad oblast, project manager, St. Petersburg, Russia.

RAVOCHKIN N.N. – Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia.

ROMANOV YU.A. – Сand. Sc. Sociology, Associate professor, East Siberian State University of Technology and Management, Ulan-Ude, Russia.

SHARAGINA A.D. – Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Brokeree Solutions, content manager, St. Petersburg, Russia.

SHVETSOVA L.N. – Senior Lecturer of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Synergy University, Moscow, Russia.

STRUTINA YU.V. – Master's student "National State University physical culture, sports and health named after P.F. Lesgaft", St. Petersburg, Russia.

SURMA I.V. – Candidate of Economics Sciences, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ph.D. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

UTKINA M.F. – Teacher of the Department of English No. 6, Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Deputy Dean for Master's and International Cooperation Faculty of Management and Politics, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

VNUK V.K. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social-Humanitarian Disciplines of Synergy University, Moscow, Russia.

YU LAN – PhD student at the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

OUR AUTHORS

ALIMOV A.V. – Postgraduate student of the Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia.

AVAZOV K.H. – PhD in Political Sciences, Head of the Chair for humanities and economic sciences at the Regional Center for Retraining and Advanced Training of Public Education Workers of Surkhandarya region, Termez, Republic of Uzbekistan.

BAHADURI A.F. – Lecturer Department of Political Science and International Relations, law and political science faculty Badakhshan University, Faizabad, Afghanistan; PhD student in political science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Comparative Political Science RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

BORTSOV D.V. – Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences; MGIMO MFA of Russia; 2nd Secretary of the Ministry Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA of Russia), Moscow, Russia.

CHEN HANZHI – Intern at the Chinese Institute of International Studies, China.

CHEN ZONI – Postgraduate Student at the Chair of European studies, Faculty of International Relations and World Politics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

CHZHAN CHEN'I – Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

DUBINA A.S. – Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University, Penza, Russia.

DUBROVINA O.V. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

EGOROV K.Y. – Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy", Moscow, Russia.

EMELIANOV A.I. – PhD (Political Science), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Theory of Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia.

GALANINA D.S. – Student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia.

GAYFUTDINOV R.I. – Graduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Philosophy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

IVANCHENKO M.A. – English Department № 1, Lecturer MGIMO, Moscow, Russia.

KARPOVICH O.G. – Doctor of Law, Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Vice-Rector, Director of the Institute for Contemporary International Studies of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

KOIBAEV B.G. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia.

KOMAREVTSEVA N.S. – PhD in Political Science, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Actual International Problems, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

KOVALEVSKAIA N.V. – Ph.D. in political Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

LAZEBNIK A.G. – Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MANUYLOVA Yu.V. – Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

MENSHIKOV P.V. – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

MOKROVA E.M. – Senior lecturer at English Language Department № 6, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

MUSIEVA D.M. – Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

NADZHARYAN A.B. – Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia.

NOVIKOVA K.A. – PhD student, European studies department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

ORLOV K.V. – Student, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

POUNGCHINGNGAM KATIMA – Postgraduate student at School of International Relations of Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

PROTSENKO A.L. – Master's Student at the Chair of history and theory of politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

QASEM MOHAMMAD ARIF – Postgraduate Student at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, RUDN, Moscow, Russia.

RAVOCHKIN N.N. – Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies, Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences, Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia.

ROZHKOVA L.V. – Doctor of Sociology, Head of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University, Penza, Russia.

RUBAN L.S. – Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Head of the Department of Research of International Cooperation Issues Institute of the Socio-Political Researches of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia.

SHANGARAEV R.N. – Candidate of economic sciences, Associate professor of the Chair of public administration in foreign policy of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

SMIRNOV A.N. – Candidate of Sciences (Political), Senior Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

SOKOLOVA D.P. – Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia.

SOKTOEVA A.B. – Master's Student at the Institute of Public Administration and Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia.

ТANIMOV Sh.M. – Independent researcher of the Republican Center of Spirituality and Enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan.

TCOI S.V. – Postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia.

TSYMBAL I.A. – Graduate student, Department of Sociology and Psychology of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

TUSHKOV A.A. – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia.

VALITOVA A.T. – Postgraduated student, Saint Petersburg state university, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

VLASOV A.V. – Postgraduate student of the Institute of Law and National Security Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia.

WANG JUNTAO – Political candidate Sci., Associate Professor, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

WANG MINGJUN – Student of the Graduate School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

XIONG LEPING – Ph.D., Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, China.

YANOVSKY O.S. – Lecturer, Department of Political Theory, School of Government and Politics, MGIMO, Moscow, Russia.

YAVUZ SHEFIKA MELISA SABAHATTINOVNA – Assistant, Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.

ZUEVA P.A. – Student, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia.

   
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