№ 8 (36), 2018

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 8, Issue 8 (36), 2018.

CONTENTS

THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Ubilava I.D., Shulenina N.V. "Sovereign Democracy" as an Alternative to Liberal Democracy (Polyarchy or Diarchy?)

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Koshkin A.P., Evseev V.O. Problem of Political Management and Political Consulting in Process of Inter-State Integration
  • Ivanova E.A., Iglin D.A., Popov S.I. Game Community as an Address of Political Impact: Some Aspects
  • Ryadskaya V.S. History and Prospects of Women's Political Leadership in the Russian Federation
  • Ogorodnova A.M. Risks of Professional Communication Politicians and Journalists
  • Potapov D.V. Technologies of Political Transformation: Prospects of Counteraction for the Non-Western Type States
  • Allayarov O.E. Online Space in the Era of Globalization
  • Eremina A.R. Medical Management as a Tool of Proof of Intervention of Russia in the Policy of Other Countries

ELECTORAL POLITICAL SCIENCE

  • Bazhan E.I. Institute of Referendum in Italy: Theory and Practice
  • Lazebnik A.G. Transformation of Political Values on the Example of the Elections of 2015 to the UK Parliament

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

  • Santos Rodríguez Pitra Dias Dosh Modern Institutions and Technologies for Combating Religious Terrorism

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF THE GLOBALIZING WORLD

  • Muravykh A.I., Nikitenko E.G. Network Forseight Threats of the Global War
  • Koryshev M.V., Ivanova E.P. From the Dialogue Between Countries Towards the Dialogue Between Cultures (Based on the H. Münkler’s paper New European Security Architecture? Strategic and Political Contemplations)
  • Dubrovina O.Yu. Regions of States and Their Participation in the Processes of Globalization and Regionalization
  • Martynovа M.Yu., Shulenina N.V., Belyaeva V.P. Arctic Vector of East Asian Policy
  • Krutko A.A. Foreign Policy Approaches of the USA and Russia to the Construction of the World Order
  • Zhurbina N.E. Political Problems of Settling Labor Migration in Europe

Our authors № 8-2018

THEORY OF POLITICS

I.D. UBILAVA post-graduate student at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples ' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

N.V. SHULENINA Candidate of Sciences (philosophy), Associate Professor at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples ' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

"SOVEREIGN DEMOCRACY" AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO LIBERAL DEMOCRACY (POLYARCHY OR DIARCHY?)

The article analyzes socio-political factors determining the functioning of the liberal democratic political systems (polyarchy) in Western States. The paper also analyzes the principles on the basis of which it is possible to form a "sovereign democracy" as an alternative model of democracy for the Russian state.

Key words: sovereign democracy, liberal democracy, polyarchy, diarchy, Western States, Russian state.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

A.P. KOSHKIN doctor of political Sciences, head of the Department of political science and sociology Russian economic University by G.V. Plekhanov, Moscow, Russia

V.O. EVSEEV doctor of economic sciences, professor Faculties politics and sociology Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEM OF POLITICAL MANAGEMENT AND POLITICAL CONSULTING IN PROCESS OF INTER-STATE INTEGRATION

This article discusses the direction of political management in the process of inter-State integration. It says that without a consensus between labor and capital, without creating its financial platform, independent of the FED, integration processes will be faced with difficulties. The aim of the research was to study the role of political management in the development of integration processes in the post-Soviet space. Methods: the work is based on systematic analysis of statistical information that reflects the dynamics of integration processes, on methods of content analysis of scientific literature. The result: submitted, including graphic showing the dependencies problem directions of integration processes. In conclusion it is said that without the integration consensus political management of the ruling parties from parliamentary parties and management organizations of civil society, integration processes will be confronted with systemic contradictions.

Key words: political management, integration processes, civil society, problems of integration.

E.A. IVANOVA Ph.D. in Political Science, Senior Lecturer, Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

D.А. IGLIN Master of Political Science, Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

GAME COMMUNITY AS AN ADDRESS OF POLITICAL IMPACT: SOME ASPECTS

Creation of a stable political and communicative connection between the sphere of politics and the gaming community seems to be quite a complex and complex task. There is a stereotyped attitude to computer games and players. It is necessary to abandon the established stereotypes, which do not reflect the real, for the effective construction of this connection, which are used when mentioning computer games. The game community is a stable addressee of political influence.

Key words: politics, political influence, social group, game community, computer games, gamification.

V.S. RYADSKAYA postgraduate student, South-Russian Management Institute – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF WOMEN'S POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article deals with the problems and prospects of women’s political leadership in the Russian Federation. Historical aspect of the formation of women's leadership in Russia acts as a link and the fundamental factor of modern trends in gender changes in the political environment. The article presents main historical stages of development of women's political influence in the political sphere and causes of the historical gender inequality. The author suggests ways of improving gender relations with the aim of developing women's political leadership in the Russian Federation, including elimination of all barriers to women's access to political leadership.

Key words: leadership, political leadership, women’s leadership, gender stereotypes, gender inequality, power.

A.M. OGORODNOVA postgraduate department of Sociology and Political Science, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University «LETI», St. Petersburg, Russia

RISKS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION POLITICIANS AND JOURNALISTS

In the article within the framework of the ideas of P. Bourdieu's social analysis and the social constructionist direction of the communicative theory, the problem of conflict interaction in the professional communication of politicians and journalists is discussed. The research hypothesis is that the professional tasks to be performed by each of these groups necessarily include a basic discrediting attitude toward the other party as a condition for their professional self-identification, giving the latter a character of negative self-identification. The paradoxical moment of this identification process is the increase of professional and reputational risks for both politicians and journalists. To test the hypothesis, in particular, a content analysis was conducted of interviews published on the portal Mediajobs.ru with leaders and leading specialists of the largest Russian media with the aim of identifying the administrative attitudes affecting the organization and conduct of professional communication between journalists and political actors. The results of content analysis make it possible to assert that the requirements for journalists from the side of media leaders when preparing materials with the participation of representatives of the authorities potentially contain a shift in risk precisely towards a conflictual interaction between them.

Key words: politicians, journalists, professional communication, risks of professional interaction.

D.V. POTAPOV post-graduate student, Department of world politics and international relations, Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia

TECHNOLOGIES OF POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION: PROSPECTS OF COUNTERACTION FOR THE NON-WESTERN TYPE STATES

Transition of the developed democratic States to “postdemocracy” has become one of the main causes due to which the democratic transit has lost its attractiveness for the non-Western States. More and more concepts stipulate that the promotion of non-Western States from authoritarianism to democracy is the only possible paradigm of transformation of their political regimes. The study of this paradoxical situation has led the author to the conclusion that the concept of democratic transit is not a scientific theory, but an ideological construct based on the political myth of the "exclusivity" of the United States. The article shows how the implementation of this ideological construct was (and is) carried out by the United States with the help of forced democratic transit technologies. The article identifies preconditions and prospects of application of financial and economic, military, power, propaganda and information and psychological technologies. The author comes to the conclusion about rather low efficiency in modern conditions of "politics of nonviolent action" and "soft power": many non-Western type states have learned how to counteract such methods by developing their own counter-technology. The article substantiates the provisions that: a) "symmetrical response" to propaganda and information-psychological technologies of forced democratic transit leads only to an increase in the probability for the US applications of financial-economic and military-power technologies; b) the only real prospect of an "asymmetrical" response to the ideological construct of democratic transition and its supporting technologies is a national ideology. The article reveals the role of ideologemes as the "building material" for the formation of ideology. The author substantiates conclusions that: a) in modern conditions, the transformation of political regimes should be interpreted as a result of the struggle of ideologies, both, "universal," such as globalism and nationalism, and "local," reflecting the specific values of the individual social groups; b) perspective technologies of transformation of political regimes, capable of neutralizing the US technology of forced democratic transit, are the development and introduction into the public consciousness of ideology as a chain of successive ideologemes; c) the analysis of transformations can be carried out on the basis of comparative evaluation of the "power "of ideologies and" adequacy " of ideologemes in the space of political communication.

Key words: political regime, transformation, democracy, democratic transition, transitology, the non-Western type state, technology, ideology, ideologeme.

O.E. ALLAYAROV lecturer at Gulistan State University, Gulistan, Republic of Uzbekistan

ONLINE SPACE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION

Today, in the era of globalization, the main indicator of the state of the human society is the spread and development of network forms of communication and interaction between people. In this article, global Internet and its role in the formation of a network community are considered as the main factor of transformation of modern society. The article pays special attention to the informational and technological aspects of the development of modern society as a result of which an overwhelming part of the planet inhabitants become active users of the global networks. Against this background, it looks relevant to study new processes, taking place in the society and made possible only by social and communicative capabilities of the Internet. The article highlights the main properties of the global Internet as a social and communicative environment as well as makes an assumption about the formation of a new type of social interaction, in particular, the emergence and development of the modernized network community.

Key words: Internet space, globalization, social communication, communicative environment, social environment, Internet, modernization of society, horizontal social interaction.

A.R. EREMINA student of the Moscow state Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) of the MFA of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL OF PROOF OF INTERVENTION OF RUSSIA IN THE POLICY OF OTHER COUNTRIES

The article describes features and prospects of media manipulation as a tool to influence the policies of different countries. The author notes that the media, through which manipulation is carried out, has recently been undergoing a transformation due to the rapid development of technologies, and gaining more and more opportunities to influence the mass consciousness. The article also discusses specificity of using media manipulation on the example of Russian interference in the 2016 elections in the United States and Brexit and concludes that this tool is very popular at the present time and continues to strengthen its position.

Key words: media manipulation, political conscience, Internet, social network, Russian interference, Brexit, elections in the United States.

ELECTORAL POLITICAL SCIENCE

E.I. BAZHAN PhD student, Dimplomatic Academy of Russian Foreign Ministry, Moscow, Russia

INSTITUTE OF REFERENDUM IN ITALY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

In this article the legal status of referendum as well as practice of holding referendums in Italy are analyzed. The task of the paper is to reveal how referendums influence the political process. The determinants of successes and failures of the Italian referendums are examined in the context of an interparty competition within a specified time horizon. In the conclusion, prospects of evolution of the developing institute of referendum in Italy are investigated concerning factors affecting the evolution of the Italian political system.

Key words: Italy, party system, opposition, referendum, government, abrogative, quorum, legislation, Constitution.

A.G. LAZEBNIK Master of Humanities, Department of political science and international relations of the Russian State Social University, Russia, Moscow

TRANSFORMATION OF POLITICAL VALUES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTIONS OF 2015 TO THE UK PARLIAMENT

This research looks at the transformation of the political values in the UK. The author’s goal is to determine the direction of this transformation. This has been done by under taking content analysis of the political programs, belonging to parties from parliament electoral cycle – 2015 (Labour party, The Conservative and Unionist Party, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party, United Kingdom Independence Party, Green Party of England and Wales). This electoral cycle appeals because of the Brexit, which has started after the elections. The aspects explored are the main topics (categories) in the parties’ programs. The author compares categories with frequencies of their mention and determines the share of each category in parties’ programs. Linking the share of categories in programs with voting results, the author concludes about the importance of some categories. The mostessential category is«immigration». Reduction in the electoral support of Liberal Democrats (whose «immigration» – share is low) andgrowth in support of United Kingdom Independence Party (whose «immigration» – share is the highest one) allow to conclude: there is the transformation of political values in the UK from left-wing liberal and social democratic to right-wing conservative ones.

Key words: immigration, transformation of the political values, right-wing parties, electoral behavior, parliamentary elections in the UK, content analysis, Brexit.

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

SANTOS RODRÍGUEZ PITRA DIAS DOSH post-graduate student, Moscow Humanitarian University (Moscow state University), Moscow, Russia

MODERN INSTITUTIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMBATING RELIGIOUS TERRORISM

The article is devoted to the world experience of counteraction to the religious terrorism at the institutional level. Primarily considered is the experience of such countries as the USA, France, Israel and Sweden, also analyzed are the initiatives of the European Union as a whole. The author shows that religious terrorism is a complex phenomenon that engulfs society as a whole therefore, effective counteraction to religious terrorism involves a set of measures aimed at the opposition to the already formed terrorist groups and at the prevention of radicalization of the population. The author comes to the conclusion that any modern system of combating religious terrorism is characterized by integral approach and is not limited to the use of hard power, no less important are the tools of soft power allowing to counteract religious terrorism as ideology in information space.

Key words: religious terrorism, terrorist organizations, counter-terrorism policy, state safety, radicalisation.

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF THE GLOBALIZING WORLD

A.I. MURAVYKH D.Sc. (economics), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

E.G. NIKITENKO Major General, Cand. Sc. (History), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russia, Moscow

NETWORK FORSEIGHT THREATS OF THE GLOBAL WAR

The article proposes to organize a network foresight of the threat of a global war. The theoretical and methodological aspects of this complex systemic problem are considered. Financial-economic and environmental-resource conditions and threats of a global war are analyzed. The cardinal evolutionary change in the unipolar pro-American world order is a necessary condition for ensuring national security and socio-economic development of Russia, as well as a condition for maintaining international stability, ensuring security and developing the world community as a whole.

Key words: global war, threats, network foresight, world order, national interests, security, development.

M.V. KORYSHEV candidate of science, associate professor of the Department of German philology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

E.P. IVANOVA doctor of science, head of Romance philology Department department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

FROM THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN COUNTRIES TOWARDS THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN CULTURES (Based on the H. Münkler’s paper New European Security Architecture? Strategic and Political Contemplations)

Today Germany’s intellectual life mainly draws upon the monthlies whose focus is primarily on intellectual elite. Of particular interest among them is an intellectual review Merkur that is mostly concerned with a wide variety of philosophical, historic, and cultural issues. Among its authors is Herfried Münkler, Professor of Humboldt University of Berlin and member of the Federal Academy for Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The paper is based on the Herfried Münkler's article New European Security Architecture? Strategic and Political Contemplations that was published in July 2018 in Merkur. He writes about radical changes the European security policy could introduce in relation to destroying unipolarity, with the USA as the dominant power, the rise of the two nations on the international arena: Russia and China, and subsequent rise of the European Union, with the redistribution of power within the EU. His ideas are closely associated with his scientific investigations and today’s discussions on security policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The paper also discusses what role the NATO has been playing in constructing the today’s security architecture. It particularly focuses on the local threats Europe is facing that are also described by H. Münkler: Balkan-Caspian arc of instability, the Middle East and Africa (region of the Maghreb and Black Africa), and the goals the key international actors (particularly, FRG and France) pursue to stabilize the situation in these regions. Finally, it draws a conclusion that Russia will play a beneficial role in the European security architecture and reveals the points of convergence between H. Münkler’s ideas and those discussed in the Germanic studies in Russia.

Key words: security policy, European Union, Russian Federation, China, dialogue of cultures, Russia-Germany relations, Russia-France relations, H. Münkler.

O.Yu. DUBROVINA PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor of International Relations, the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

REGIONS OF STATES AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCESSES OF GLOBALIZATION AND REGIONALIZATION

In the article the author considers the concept of regions, analyzes their participation in the processes of globalization and regionalization. The problem is very relevant. Globalization and regionalization bring the regions of states to the international scene. These processes require scientific research. Based on the relevance, the goal of this work is to show a qualitative transformation of the concept of region, to reveal the role of regions of states in the processes of globalization and regionalization. The main task is to show that they can simultaneously be objects and subjects of both globalization and regionalization.

In the process of research, the author used system methodology to make the object of research appear as an integral, complex system of international regional relations and cooperation. In the work the following results were achieved: the concept of region is defined, proceeding from the subject of scientific research; it is shown that regions of states can be both objects and subjects of both globalization and regionalization. In the course of the research, the author came to the following conclusion: a region (subnational or sub-state region) is the part of the state, endowed with a certain status for carrying out administrative functions, located between the state and local level of power and not empowered as a subject of international law.

At the regional level, regionalization can develop in two ways - through localization and isolationism. The simultaneous participation of regions in globalization and localization leads to a glocalization of international interaction.

Opening the interstate borders, globalization facilitated the activities of the sub-state regions in the world stage, thereby stimulating their activity, and the sub-state regions themselves stimulate the development of globalization and the transparency of borders.

Key words: globalization, regionalization, regionalism, regions of states, state, international relations, international cooperation, international communication, sub-state regions, glocalization, transparency, border of states.

M.Yu. MARTYNOVА Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and International Relations, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

N.V. SHULENINA Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

V.P. BELYAEVA deputy director for teaching and educational work, the State Budgetary Educational Institution of Moscow «School №97», Moscow, Russia

ARCTIC VECTOR OF EAST ASIAN POLICY

The article is devoted to the study of the content and approaches to the analysis of the arctic policy of China, South Korea and Japan through the prism of Russia's economic and geopolitical interests. The author summarizes the information, expert assessments of the activities of the three East Asian countries in the region, describes the key elements of Russia's dialogue and cooperation with these countries on the development of the Arctic zone. The analysis showed that despite the existence of a conflict of interest on a number of issues in the development of the Arctic, a basis has been created for mutually beneficial relations between Russia and the leading East Asian countries in the region. At the same time, the Russian state needs to step up efforts to improve the model of regional cooperation with interested countries to protect and promote their rights and interests.

Key words: politics in the Arctic, Russia, China, Republic of Korea, Japan.

A.A. KRUTKO Doctoral student of the Department of International Relations Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

FOREIGN POLICY APPROACHES OF THE USA AND RUSSIA TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD ORDER

The international political reality that developed in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries is characterized not only by the negative consequences of the collapse of the USSR, but also by the increase in the economic potential and political influence of the new centers of world growth, to which the BRICS and the SCO primarily belong. Transformation of the system of international relations, the transition to the principle of multicentricity causes increased scientific interest and numerous discussions of scientists and practicing politicians. The purpose of this article is to consider the actual theoretical constructs and foreign policy approaches of the US and Russia to an understanding of the world order. In particular, the US National Security Strategies 2002, 2006, 2010, 2015 and 2017, the Concept of Russia's Foreign Policy 2000, 2008, 2013, 2016, as well as the political statements of the leaders of these states on the issues of the world order have been analyzed. It is shown that despite the change of US presidents, the purpose of the foreign policy of that country continues to be the preservation of the model of a unipolar world under the slogan "America is in the first place". The United States, through military and "soft" instruments, is implementing a foreign policy designed to ensure the preservation of a monocentric world order and American world leadership. Russia's foreign policy is oriented towards building a new polycentric model of the world order. This model includes three basic elements: the United Nations as guarantor of global strategic stability; a network of regional organizations interacting with the United Nations to ensure regional stability; bilateral relations between states, based on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression and non-interference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, peaceful coexistence and other universally recognized principles of international law.

The author comes to the conclusion that the concept of "world order" proves to be one of the most effective research tools of modern political science, allowing to disclose the motivation of the activities of major foreign policy actors, including modern states, global and regional interstate associations.

Key words: world order, unipolar, bipolar, multipolar models of the world order, centers of power, multi-centered world, national security strategies of the United States, concepts of Russia's foreign policy, principles of international law.

N.E. ZHURBINA Phd. in History, Voronezh State University, Faculty of International Relations, Chair of Regional Studies and Economies of Foreign Countries, Voronezh, Russia

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF SETTLING LABOR MIGRATION IN EUROPE

Labour market globalization and establishment of the European economic space have enabled a free movement of the European citizens across the European Union with different goals, including for the purpose of employment. But if the European migration policy in the 20th century had an aim to overcome the lack of low-qualified and qualified workers, in the 21st century European countries have to attract more highly-qualified migrants who can help in the economic development and innovations. The article analyzes the main problems and tools of the labour migration regulation in Europe at the present time.

Key words: migration, labour migration, European economic development, migrant workers.

   
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