№ 8 (60), 2020

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 10, Issue 8 (60), 2020.

CONTENTS

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLICY

Martynenko S.E. Theoretical Concept “Greater Eurasia” by Y. Kofner as an Example of Eurasian Paradigma Understanding in the German Political Science

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Artamonova Ya.S., Semenova V.I. State Policy of Production Management and the Problem of Social Inequality in the Digital Economy

Vorobiev G.V., Pirogov A.I., Маtveev O.V. А.N. Radishchev and A.I. Herzen as Founders and Ideologists of Revolutionary Democracy in Russia

Kopylov I.A., Маtveev O.V., Ushakov E.S. Some Aspects of Political Activity as a Phenomenon of Public Life

Semenova V.I. Modern Information Security Policy for Personal Data

Primova E.N. To the Question of the Peculiarities of German Cooperative Federalism

Karlakov V.S. Political Institutionalization in Russia in the 1990s: Stages, Main Features

Afanaseva D.A. Conceptual Model of Political Risk Analysis in the Agricultural Sector

Murtazin R.A. Features of the Transformation of Russian Political Elites after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

Shishlin P.A. The Prospects of a Possible Transition to a Presidential System in Iraq

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY

Nesterchuk O.A, Galkina G.M., Belyaeva V.P. Education as a Condition for Regional Development of Human Capital in Russia

POLITICAL REGIONALISM AND ETHNOPOLITICS

Ivanchenko V.S., Chimiris E.S. Russian Language in the Post-Soviet Space as a Political Factor

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

Kuminova M.R. Military Conflict on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovinia, and Evaluation of the Role of the International Community in its Settlement

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

Chaevich A.V. Russia in the Middle East: National Interests and Threats to National Security

Khopеrskaya L.L., Pshenichnaya N.Yu. Coronavirus: the Foreign Political Dimension

Zaslavsky S.E. Russian Party System: Current State and Dynamics of Development

Karatueva E.N. Environmental Disasters: Causes and Consequences

Khlopov O.A. Environmental Security in International Politics: Challenges and Threats

Dubrovina O.Yu., Plotnikov V.S. Cross-Border Cooperation: Features, Processes and Factors Affecting its Development

Makarov A.V. «Open Society» in the Educational Coordinate System

Bakanova A.S. The Evolution of Information Warfare as the Foreign Policy's Tool: Historical Aspect

Kudashev R.Sh. Problems of Formation of Supranational Institutions within the EEU

Kanoute Soumaila. Problems of Security in North Mali Since the Sahel Crisis in 2012

Stebneva A.V. Features of the Fight Against Terrorism in Syria under the Administrations of B. Obama and D. Trump

Kudratov А.М. Peculiarities of the Development of the Volunteer Movement in Uzbekistan

Khvaley A.A., Burygin A.A. Child Terrorism as one of the Main Trends in the Development of International Islamic Terrorism (on the Example of Ashbal Al-Hilaf)

Budnik A.I., Grigorieva T.V., Kan A.A. Environmental and Legal Problematic Aspects in the World's Ocean Development

Yan Jie, Czin' Zhu. Economic Interests of Russia and China in the Central Asian Region: Comparative Analysis

STUDENT SCIENCE

Kolevatov R.A. The Role of Solidarity in the Strategic Narrative of the Catholic Church in the Frames of Human and Military Security in the Eurasian Region

Our authors № 8-2020

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.001

S.E. MARTYNENKO PhD in History, Associate Professor, Theory and History of International Relations Department, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL CONCEPT “GREATER EURASIA” BY Y. KOFNER AS AN EXAMPLE OF EURASIAN PARADIGMA UNDERSTANDING IN THE GERMAN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The article is devoted to the analysis of the approach of German political science to the problems of Eurasianism on the example of a theoretical paradigm prepared by a Russian-German political scientist and historian in the field of international relations, editor-in-chief of the portal "Eurasian Studies" Yuri Kofner in the framework of the research project of the Russian Council on International Affairs (RIAC). The research carried out by J. Kofner touches upon extremely topical aspects of modern international relations in the post-Soviet space. The author examines the economic, cultural and partly political plane of the integration process taking place in recent history in the post-Soviet space, finding convincing arguments both for its expediency and historicity. As for us, we would like to subject the paradigm of the respected author to a secondary historical and political analysis, focusing on both key factors that cannot be questioned and on a number of provisions that seem to us controversial in the light of the the global political agenda transformation. In the course of the study we were guided by the methodological basis of the historical and political sciences: the historical-analytical method, the method of political analysis, as well as the method of comparison and the method of structural analysis.

Key words: Russia, EAEU, SCO, Eurasianism, economics, politics, civilizational analysis.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.002

YA.S. ARTAMONOVA Doctor of Political Science, Associate Professor, Department "Social Relations, Advertising and Public Relations", Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Moscow, Russia

V.I. SEMENOVA Candidate of Political Science, Department of State and Municipal Management, Moscow Economic Institute, Moscow, Russia

STATE POLICY OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AND THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY

Currently, there is a growing contradiction between the goals of social policy, state regulation of the economy and the modernization of production. The purpose of this article is to study the main causes of existing contradictions and find the main ways to solve them. To achieve this goal, the task of comparing production indicators for the main areas and analyzing trends in state policy in relation to each of these areas was performed. It also identified the place of national projects in the potential development of the Russian economy and their role in improving the quality of life of the population. In this study, the comparison method and the inductive method were used. As a result, we proposed regulatory measures that the state can take at this stage of Russia's development in order to solve the problems not only of modernizing production, but also of stabilizing the social system and minimizing social inequality.

Key words: production management policy, social inequality, knowledge-based production, public investment, digital economy, management model, modernization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.003

G.V. VOROBIEV Candidate of Sciences (philosophy), Associate Professor, Chair of social sciences and public administration, Moscow State Regional University, Moscow, Russia

А.I. PIROGOV Doctor of Sciences (philosophy), Professor at the Chair of philosophy, sociology and political science, National Research University “Moscow Institute of electronic technology,” Moscow, Russia

О.V. МАTVEEV Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of history, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation; Professor of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

А.N. RADISHCHEV AND A.I. HERZEN AS FOUNDERS AND IDEOLOGISTS OF REVOLUTIONARY DEMOCRACY IN RUSSIA

The article raises the problem of the ideology of Russian revolutionary democracy in the XYIII-XIX centuries. It considers the socio-political views, programs and literary works of A.N. Radishchev and A.I. Herzen, reveals their firm ideological positions, and assesses their contribution to the development of the revolutionary and democratic thought in Russia.

Key words: ideology, program, autocracy, serfdom, democracy, revolution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.004

I.А. KOPYLOV Candidate of Sciences (political sciences), Associate Professor, Chair of politology, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

О.V. МАTVEEV Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of history, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation; Professor of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Е.S. USHAKOV Doctor of Sciences (philosophy), Professor at the Chair of politology, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

SOME ASPECTS OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY AS A PHENOMENON OF PUBLIC LIFE

The article considers some aspects of political activity as a specific sphere of activity that has its own distinctive features. The article focuses on its structure, types and means used by political actors in achieving their political goals, as well as some features of their manifestation in modern Russian society.

Key words: political activity, politics, subject of political activity, political process, political interest, professional politician.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.005

V.I. SEMENOVA Candidate of Political Science, Department of State and Municipal Management, Moscow Economic Institute, Moscow, Russia

MODERN INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY FOR PERSONAL DATA

Personal information security in the Internet space is becoming more and more difficult to ensure. What was previously perceived as the advantages of the Internet, now raises big questions and gradually turns into disadvantages. When developing a management strategy in the field of information security, it is very difficult to draw the line where the security of the state ends and the security of personal data in the information environment begins. In this regard, new approaches to understanding the security of personal data in the digital space are needed.

Key words: information security, personal data, state policy in the field of information security, national security, cyberattack, cybercrime.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.006

E.N. PRIMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, leading researcher Research Institute of the Academy of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

TO THE QUESTION OF THE PECULIARITIES OF GERMAN COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM

The article analyzes some, in the author's opinion, important characteristics that give German federalism a number of features which lets call it corporate. The main attention is focused on substantiating the thesis according to which the peculiarity of German corporate federalism, in contrast to Russian and some other national types of federalism, where the division of jurisdictions or competencies is carried out on the whole range of issues, in Germany it is carried out primarily in the legislative sphere. In it the key place is occupied not so much by legal norms, principles and procedures governing the competence of the federation and the lands, but by the identification and coordination of principles, forms, methods of mutually beneficial cooperation between them. At the same time, it is shown that in the FRG the power of the federation is derived from the will of the lands, and not vice versa.

Key words: Federal Republic of Germany, federation, subjects of the federation, types of federation, corporate federalism, lands, power, subjects of jurisdiction, division of competences.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.007

V.S. KARLAKOV Postgraduate of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONALIZATION IN RUSSIA IN THE 1990S: STAGES, MAIN FEATURES

The article is devoted to the study of political institutionalization in Russia in the 1990s. In the article, the author considers a political institution as an organization with a certain structure and set of functions, and formal rules that establish a certain nature of the relationship between actors. The main stages of political institutionalization in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union are determined: "institutional amorphousness", "democratic transition", "informal institutionalization". The political reasons that impede the formation of democratic institutional design are displayed. The author points out features of adaptation of Western political institutions to the Russian political conditions. In the article, the author identifies the economic and political reasons for the emergence of a group of large owners seeking to realize their goals bypassing the existing institutional agreements. "Informal institutionalization", according to the author’s opinion, was a consequence of the ineffectiveness of existing institutions.

Key words: stages of political institutionalization, institutional design, political institutions, disintegration of the USSR, democratic transition.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.008

D.A. AFANASEVA Postgraduate, Department of Political Science, Financial University, Moscow, Russia

CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF POLITICAL RISK ANALYSIS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

In the conditions of a modern market economy, political risk has become an inevitable factor in any financial and economic activity of organizations in the agricultural sector, seeking to get the maximum possible profit. In this regard, the role of rational risk assessment increases in order to further prevent it. The author offers an arithmetic model of political risk assessment using the simplest indivisible factors: political, economic and social origin.

Key words: political risk, agricultural sector, indicators of political risk, political risk assessment model.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.009

R.А. MURTAZIN National Research Mordovian State University named after N.P. Ogareva, Saransk, Russia

FEATURES OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN POLITICAL ELITES AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION

The relevance of the study is due to the fact that in any state at different historical stages in the development of the political process there is a problem of interaction between social structures (social strata), among which political elites can be distinguished. It is they who exert their influence on the political processes that determine the further development of the country. Of particular relevance is the study of the characteristics of the transformation of Russian political elites after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the article, the author considers the prerequisites for the formation of a new political elite in the Russian Federation, the process of formation of new elite structures. A separate consideration is worthy of the new format for recruiting the political elite after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

As a result of the research, тhe author concludes that in the 1990s, the Soviet mechanism for obtaining privileges and social statuses of the nomenclature order actually stopped working. He was replaced by the principle that the party nomenclature was gradually supplanted by the new elite of the country, which advocated democratic reforms. During the study, the following methods were applied: historical analysis, system analysis, comparative analysis.

Key words: political elite, transformation, state, power, The Russian Federation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.010

P.A. SHISHLIN PhD student, Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

THE PROSPECTS OF A POSSIBLE TRANSITION TO A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM IN IRAQ

Anti-government protests in Iraq in 2019 were marked by calls for changing the current parliamentary system in place since 2003 to a presidential one. The objective of this article is to identify prospects of such a change for post-Saddam Iraq. The author analyses the roots of this call, the advantages and disadvantages of a presidential system in theory and in practice for Iraq, the possibility of this change. The conclusion is reached that transition to this system for Iraq is not devoid of advantages in theory, but considering the current political circumstances is unlikely and might be detrimental to the democratic development of Iraq in practice. Alternative reform suggestions are made.

Key words: Iraq, political system, presidential system, consociationalism, parliamentarism, protests.

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.011

О.А. NESTERCHUK Doctor of Sciences (political sciences), Professor at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University); Professor at the Chair of political science and political management, Institute of Social Sciences, RANEPA, Moscow, Russia

G.М. GALKINA Postgraduate student at the Chair of national and federative relations, Institute of Social Sciences, RANEPA, Moscow, Russia

V.P. BELYAEVA Deputy Director for educational work of the State Budgetary Educational Institution of Moscow “School No. 97,” Moscow, Russia

EDUCATION AS A CONDITION FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN RUSSIA

The article examines the educational policy of modern Russia in the context of regional development and the development of human capital. Noting the existing differences in the socio-economic potential of the Russian regions, the authors emphasize the possibilities of solving the problem of balanced regional development in the educational environment as part of the implementation of the national project "Education" and improving other significant regulatory legal acts in the area under study. According to the authors, the most significant areas of implementation of the national project "Education" have been highlighted, allowing the most effective realization of the existing potential of the Russian regions.

Key words: education, educational policy, regional policy, regional development, human capital, national projects.

POLITICAL REGIONALISM AND ETHNOPOLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.012

V.S. IVANCHENKO Analyst of the Center for Social and Political Research Institute for Integration Development Research Russian Foreign Trade Academy Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

E.S. CHIMIRIS PhD in political sciences, 1st category analyst of the Center for Social and Political Studies, Institute for Integration Development Research Russian Foreign Trade Academy Ministry of economic development of the Russian Federation, associate professor of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE POST-SOVIET SPACE AS A POLITICAL FACTOR

The spread of the Russian language in the post-Soviet space has long become a significant factor in politics. Russia uses it as one of the instruments of its "soft power" and political influence in the former republics of the USSR. After the collapse of the Union, most of the new states began to distance themselves from the Russian language, replacing it with the national language or English. In a number of countries, the status of the Russian language is not only undefined, but a ban on its use has been introduced. Although the Russian language still remains an instrument of communication for national minorities and diasporas in the territories of the countries of the former USSR. The new states see a threat to their national identity and national languages in Russia's policy of supporting the Russian language abroad.

In this article, the authors set themselves the task of examining the current situation with the use of the Russian language in the post-Soviet countries. The authors put forward a hypothesis that the refusal to use the Russian language in the post-Soviet countries is associated with its value dominant. Whereas the instrumentalization of language learning leads to an increase in interest in it in Western countries. The data on the use of the Russian language in everyday communication, education and science are analyzed. The authors show that the use of the Russian language also depends on the age and education of the population. At the same time, the Russian language is being studied in Western European countries, and the authors provide data on the reasons why foreigners seek to learn it. The main challenges and threats that the Russian language faces in the post-Soviet space are identified. As a result, the authors come to the conclusion that Russia should move away from the value interpretation of the use of the Russian language in favor of instrumentalization, and show the benefits and advantages of language as a means of intercultural communication in the post-Soviet space.

Key words: Russian language, post-Soviet space, Russia, language policy, national identity.

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.013

M.R. KUMINOVA Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow, Russia

MILITARY CONFLICT ON THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINIA, AND EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN ITS SETTLEMENT

The objective of the article is to examine the specifics of the military-political conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina – the post-Yugoslav republic with the most complex ethnic composition of the population, and to assess the effectiveness of the international community’s work on resolving this conflict. A number of domestic and foreign authors are working on similar research tasks, including: B.A. Vasilenko [1], E.Y. Guskova [2; 3], K.V. Nikiforov [6; 7], Е.М. Primakov [8], N. Andjelic [13], S. Keil [14], M. Koinova [15], V. Mavi [16], S. Orlović [19], P.J. O'Halloran [18] and others. Conclusions: The international community played an ambiguous role in the development of the Bosnian conflict, in some cases contributed to its "unintended escalation" and could not prevent the beginning of the civil war in the republic. However, in the end, the most acceptable solution to the conflict was chosen: the creation of a multinational federation in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was enshrined in the Dayton Agreement. Domestic and foreign experts disagree on the assessment of this agreement, but in modern conditions for Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no acceptable alternative to multinational federalism as a form of government. Practical value: The results of the study concerning the experience of the federalization of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be used to select the best options for resolving ethnonationalist conflicts in other countries – provided that they carefully consider their national characteristics and interests (for example, in Ukraine). Social consequences: Implementation of political, economic and cultural interaction with Bosnia and Herzegovina should be based on clear ideas about the historical background that contributed to the formation of the current constitutional structure of the country. Neither should the excessive exaltation of the role of the Dayton institutions in the current development of Bosnia and Herzegovina, nor the downgrading of their importance. The impact of the study on politics should be in the formation of objective ideas about the specifics of the socio-political development of this part of the post-Yugoslav space. The work may be of value to workers in the sphere of international relations, as well as to students, graduate students, teachers of higher education, researchers and other people interested in issues of Balkan studies and problems of international politics.

Key words: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), post-Yugoslav states, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the international community, the Dayton Pace Agreement, multinational federalism.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.014

A.V. CHAEVICH Doctor of political science, associate Professor, Professor of the Department "Methodology of law and legal communication", Russian University of transport (MIIT), Law Institute, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA IN THE MIDDLE EAST: NATIONAL INTERESTS AND THREATS TO NATIONAL SECURITY

This article analyzes the main national interests of the Russian Federation in the Middle East region, focuses on countering the challenges and threats emanating from the middle East region for the security of our country, and examines various factors that cause instability and conflict in this region. The main focus is on key priorities in countering these threats to our security, primarily in countering international terrorism. The article considers Russia's economic interests in the Middle East region and concludes that it is necessary to intensify economic ties with the States of the region that are part of the national interests of the Russian Federation.

Key words: the middle East, Russia's national interests, threats to national security, international terrorism, religious radicalism, energy resources, national security priorities.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.015

L.L. KHOPЕRSKAYA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations of the Kirghiz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

N.Y. PSHENICHNAYA DSci., Professor, Deputy Director on clinical and analytical work of the Central research Institute of Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, Moscow, Russia

CORONAVIRUS: THE FOREIGN POLITICAL DIMENSION

The article substantiates the thesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has set new parameters for building the world order, putting forward life and health as the main values of modern society. If before the outbreak of the epidemic the main criteria for assessing states were economic power, military strength and the level of democracy, today the rating of a state is largely determined by its ability to withstand a pandemic, i. e. have effective control over the spread of COVID-19 in society, provide patients with the appropriate volume and level of medical care.

The dynamics of the pandemic clearly demonstrates the loss of the United States status as a global leader and the formation of a new system that includes four groups of states: the first group includes states that are capable of independently, without external assistance, to ensure the functioning of national health systems; the second group consists of states that recognize the lack of their own resources and openly seek help in the fight against the spread of coronavirus infection to states that have the necessary funds; the third group – states that deny the danger of a pandemic and fundamentally refuse to implement any special measures under the pretext of preserving the economy; the fourth group – the states of the «Western democratic core», declaring self-sufficiency in the fight against coronavirus, but objectively demonstrating the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from coronavirus infection. At the same time, instead of a fundamental reorganization of national health systems, they are focused on finding all sorts of ways to discredit the experience of China and Russia in the fight against COVID-19. The most frequently used instruments of discrediting are the media and NGOs funded by large international financial and industrial corporations.

Key words: international relations, world order, coronavirus, COVID-19 pandemic, health systems, epidemic control, humanitarian mission, medical assistance, medical diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.016

S.E. ZASLAVSKY Doctor of law, Professor of the Department of political science Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN PARTY SYSTEM: CURRENT STATE AND DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT

The article reveals the place and role of the party system in the political system of Russia, the main stages of the formation of the party system in Russia in 1990-2020, analyzes its current state and dynamics of development at the present stage, trends in changes in their resource base and political and organizational potential.

Key words: political parties, party system, participation in elections, Federal law “on political parties”.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.017

E.N. KARATUEVA Candidate of political science, associate Professor of the Department of management of socio-political processes and history of the Saint Petersburg state agrarian University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

The article discusses possible causes and consequences of global environmental disasters. The specificity of unintended and planned actions in relation to the environment is studied. The analysis of the largest environmental disasters in history and their classification is carried out. The role of the state in creating a system for preventing and combating ecoterrorism is assessed.

Key words: ecological disaster, accident, ecoterrorism, criminal negligence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.018

O.A. KHLOPOV PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH), Moscow, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS: CHALLENGES AND THREATS

Modern global crises, problems in the spheres of nature management, consumption and production of resources have brought up the issues of environmental safety, both at the national and international levels. The article analyses effective models for ensuring environmental safety, provides the results of scientific research in the theory and practice of environmental safety, sustainable development, the relationship between climate change and international political processes. The global climate regime is not sufficiently formed to mitigate these risks, and modern environmental challenges. The author provides analysis of a number of studies and recommendations focused to prevent the threats to environment and to carry out policy in the field of environmental protection, as well as the need for deep cooperation between states in order to solve environmental problems.

Key words: ecological security, environment, climate change, geopolitics, Paris climate agreement.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.019

O.YU. DUBROVINA PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor, coordinator of the National Union of Political Scientists of Russia, Moscow, Russia

V.S. PLOTNIKOV PhD in Social Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Siberian Transport University, Novosibirsk, Russia

CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION: FEATURES, PROCESSES AND FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPMENT

The article analyzes the phenomenon of cross-border cooperation in the context of globalization and regionalization, features, processes and factors affecting its development. Consideration of cross-border relations, as a result of the formation of a multi-level system of international relations, makes it possible to identify their nature arising from the processes of globalization and regionalization. The development of globalization leads to transparency and porosity of state borders, which means free movement of people, goods, services, capital, financial flows, etc., and regionalization develops the process of achieving the status of independence and legality (institutionalization) by regions, including in the sphere of international activity. Regionalization is the basis for cross-border cooperation.

The study of historical, legal, economic and geographical factors affecting cross-border cooperation allows us to identify its features.

Key words: cross-border cooperation, cross-border ties, international relations, globalization, regionalization, features, processes, factors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.020

A.V. MAKAROV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Administration and National Security, Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

«OPEN SOCIETY» IN THE EDUCATIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

The article is devoted to the disclosure of topical issues related to the introduction and development of key aspects of the concept of "open society" in the educational system of Russia. In the course of the study, an analysis was made of the tools for supporting this concept by the government of the country, as well as individual educational institutions and their associations. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the J. Soros Foundation "Open Society" whose active intervention and propaganda of Western values had a negative impact on the domestic education system. At the same time, a number of miscalculations and blunders of Western ideologists under the patronage of George Soros were noted, which did not allow irreparable damage to the scientific potential of Russia and its young generation.

Key words: education, open society, J. Soros, finance, TNK, banks, reflection, decline-rise, geopolitics, systems.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.021

A.S. BAKANOVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION WARFARE AS THE FOREIGN POLICY'S TOOL: HISTORICAL ASPECT

The article analyzes how the techniques of psychological and information warfare have evolved into the coherent system of information warfare. The study aims to reveal the factors that have brought about the development of strategic propaganda into the modern tool of foreign policy. As the research methods the systems and interdisciplinary approaches, comparative and historical analyses. The author concludes that the institutionalization of the contemporary information warfare's strategy has begun with the end of the Second World War and set-up of the bipolar model of international relations. The key role in the modern world order's formation has played the western information and propaganda policy.

Key words: information warfare, propaganda, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.022

R.SH. KUDASHEV Post-graduate student of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF SUPRANATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WITHIN THE EEU

At the moment, the Eurasian integration process is no longer developing at the speed that was set at the start of the project itself. Some internal problems within the framework of the Eurasian integration hinder the continuation of the same dynamics. One of the options for stabilizing integration is the formation of supranational institutions within the framework of the Eurasian economic Union, which, however, has not yet been fully implemented. In this regard, it is necessary to analyze some of the barriers that prevent the emergence of full-fledged supranational institutions. The study highlights two problematic aspects: political and institutional. In conclusion, it is concluded that the formation of supranational institutions in the EEU is important.

Key words: integration, supranational institutions, the Eurasian economic Union, the Eurasian economic Commission, the European Union.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.023

KANOUTE SOUMAILA Postgraduate student of the Department of Comparative Political Science, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Bamako, Mali

PROBLEMS OF SECURITY IN NORTH MALI SINCE THE SAHEL CRISIS IN 2012

The article examines the consequences of the security crisis. The Sahel region as a whole and, in particular, the north of Mali in general, today is experiencing an unprecedented, complex and multifaceted crisis. The region is affected by a number of consequences of the crisis, which are determined by such aspects as the lack of political, social and economic security. The urgency of this crisis stems from the growing threat of terrorism, violent extremism and banditry in the Sahel region in general and in northern Mali in particular.

Key words: Mali, Sahel, crisis, international community, security, terrorism, Azavad.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.024

A.V. STEBNEVA PhD student, Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM IN SYRIA UNDER THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF B. OBAMA AND D. TRUMP

A comparative analysis of the counter-terrorism activities of the administrations of B. Obama and D. Trump in Syria is given. The main differences in their approaches are revealed due to different internal political and geopolitical interests of groups of influence in the United States. These contradictions were reflected both in the official documents of American departments and manifested themselves directly in Syria.

Key words: terrorism, USA, Syria, Middle East, Barack Obama, Donald Trump.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.025

A.M. KUDRATOV Independent researcher at the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

PECULIARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT IN UZBEKISTAN

The article scientifically analyzes the features of the formation and development of the volunteer movement. The article also reveals the purpose of the volunteer movement in Uzbekistan, its legal foundations, forms of implementation, the main tasks in society. It was noted that the volunteer movement plays a special role in the formation and development of civil society in Uzbekistan.

Key words: volunteering, volunteering, deeds of the soul, UN, declaration, concept, freedom, kindness, humanity.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.026

A.A. KHVALEY Student at the Department of Political Science of the East in the Institute of Asian and African Studies of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A.A. BURYGIN Assistant of the Department of Political Science of the East at the Institute of Asian and African Studies of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CHILD TERRORISM AS ONE OF THE MAIN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC TERRORISM (on the example of Ashbal al-Hilaf)

The phenomenon of child terrorism is not new and currently has a certain history. Despite international legal acts, including the UN security Council resolution No. 2427 on "children and armed conflict" adopted in 2018, the illegal use of minors in armed conflicts and terrorist purposes has not yet been completely stopped.

Key words: terrorism, children, extremism, radicalism, young people, Middle East.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.027

A.I. BUDNIK Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

T.V. GRIGORIEVA Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. KAN Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS IN THE WORLD'S OCEAN DEVELOPMENT

Environmental safety in the World Ocean is the most important area of international maritime policy, the study of which has recently received considerable attention on the part of states and on the part of competent international organizations. However, behind the general awareness of the «most important», the World Ocean of the XXI century is going through the most difficult time in the ecological plan, which, of course, is associated with it is active used by humans. In this regard, the focus of this article is the analysis of not only environmental, but also related political and legal problems of the World Ocean's development. A classification of the existing problems arising in the process of the World's Ocean development was carried out, and the most problematic aspects in the study and World's Ocean development in the field of environmental safety were identified. At the end of the work, an analysis of possible legal measures for the implementation of control and prosecution of violators at the international level is provided to solve the problem of pollution of the World Ocean in the process of it is development.

Key words: World Ocean, international maritime law, environmental safety, marine pollution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.028

YAN JIE Master's student of the Institute of foreign languages, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

CZIN' ZHU Master's student of the Institute of foreign languages, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF RUSSIA AND CHINA IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

This article identifies and analyzes the economic interests of key geopolitical players in the Central Asian region. The author concludes that Russia and Central Asia have long maintained very close relations. For the Russian Federation, the interests of Central Asia are one of the most important conditions for ensuring its strategic security and economic development. China is also paying close attention to the region and strengthening ties there. The question of how to achieve a harmonious and mutually beneficial situation between these three parties should be considered by China, Russia and the countries of Central Asia.

Key words: Russia, China, Central Asia, economic interests.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2020.60.8.029

R.A. KOLEVATOV NRU HSE bachelor course, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF SOLIDARITY IN THE STRATEGIC NARRATIVE OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE FRAMES OF HUMAN AND MILITARY SECURITY IN THE EURASIAN REGION

The Catholic Church continues strengthening its international cooperation, notably through speeches of the pope and his engagement with both catholic and representatives of other denominations. Considering the dual function of the pope as the head of the sovereign state – the Holy See – and the leader of the catholic world, the global cooperation of Vatican is viewed in the frames of the strategic narrative of this particular congregation and the pope personally.

The goal of the study is to indicate the role of solidarity in the strategic narrative of the Catholic Church in the frames of human and military security at the present time.

The objectives of the study are:

1) To examine the theoretical basis of application of solidarity in Catholic social teaching.

2) To identify the factors affecting the application of the solidarity principle.

3) To determine the current application of the solidarity principle and perspectives of modernization of Catholic social teaching in application of solidarity as the basis of the Holy See’s international relations.

Historical genetic method and content analysis are used as methodology.

Despite differences varying from audience and aims of speech, the pontiff utilizes the same rhetorical techniques and frames for engagement with international community on matters of military and human security. Due to textual analysis three key frame themes of the pope’s speeches and epistles were identified: universal identity and values, shared responsibility, and calls to action.

Solidarity remains a key instrument of the Holy See’s foreign policy. However, pope Francis offers highly inclusive narratives aimed at building equal relations with both catholic representatives on other continents and with adherents of other denominations, unlike his predecessors who promoted traditional narrow narratives. Therefore, the Catholic Church via statements of the pope seeks to be a global actor who participates in sustaining military and human security.

Key words: Catholic Church, pope, solidarity, globalization, narrative, discourse.

   
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