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№ 7 (83), 2022

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 12 (88), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Goncharov P.K. Modern Political Culture: Contents, Formation, Typology

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Seleznev P.S. Memorial Discourse as a Tool to Maintain the Prestige of the Russian Statehood in the XVI Century

Potseluev S.P., Konstantinov M.S. On the Problem of Historical Amnesia in the Aspect of «Competence-Based» Approach in the Study of National History

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Putina O.V. Traditional Spiritual and Moral Values as the Basis of Civic Identity and Intercultural and Interreligious Dialogue

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Anikin D.A., Batishchev R.Yu. Civil Religion of Modern Russia: the Issues of the Interactions Between State and Orthodox Communities

Rodionova M.E., Eremenko I.V. Comparative Analysis of Representation of Russian Political Parties in Social Networks

Kasymov R.Sh. Models of Intraparty Democracy of Russian Political Parties

Zyong Wan Lin. Political Interest of Vietnamese Students in Connection with the War Between Russia and Ukraine – Interview 2022

Morugina I.N. Features of the Impact of Strategic Communication of Political Actors on the Process Agenda Formation

Jin Yang. Characteristics and Frontiers of Political Propaganda Research in China – Based on Statistics and Analysis of Relevant Literature from Central Chinese Journals from 1992 to 2022

Dankova V.V. Youth Policy of Modern Parliamentary Parties

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Karatueva E.N. Implementation of the Principle of Subsidiarity in State and Municipal Administration (on the Example of the Federal Republic of Germany)

Podolskiy V.A. Comparison of the Social Policy Systems Efficiency

Prokhorov D.V., Rassadin A.A., Omelkovich A.V. Prospects for the Development of Innovative Political and Legal Instruments in the Digital Economy

Bashlaeva M.S. Management of External and Internal Information Policy as an Effective Management for Forming the Image of the State

Mosakova E.A., Nikiforova A.Y. Development Trends of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Russia in the Context of the Pandemic of a New Coronavirus Infection (СOVID-19)

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Tsygankov P.A., Slutsky L.E. Western Discourse on Russia's "Hybrid War Against Democracy": New Wine in Old Bottles

Vankovska B. Heading Towards a Global NATO: Piquing China?

Ma Shiyuan, Chen Jing, Chen Di, Zhang Huiqin, Soslan Betrozov. Features of European Media Coverage of the Pandemic in China

Pakhrutdinov Sh.I. Strengthening Regional and International Cooperation to Ensure Security and Stability in the Central Asian Region

Tushkov A.A., Smotryaeva K.S., Amelchenko A.Ya. Special Report of the Economist Magazine Dated October 8, 2022: Russian Interpretation of the English Forecast

Belikova E.A., Egorov I.S. Prospects for the Resumption of the Qatari Diplomatic Crisis in the Light of the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

Tuskov A.A., Somova I.Yu., Nekhorosheva A.N. On the Problem of the Involvement of Foreign Non-Governmental Organizations in the Destabilization of the Autonomous Regions of the People's Republic of China

Zhambaeva U.B. Tibetan Buddhism in the Political Context of the Min Dynasty

Kolykhalov M.I. The Concept of the International City in World Politics

Smirnov N.M., Popov S.I., Gusarskaya T.A. The Relevance of the Solution of the Transnistrian Conflict in Modern Conditions, Possible Scenarios

Ashmarina A.A. Migration Policy of the European Union: Conceptual Framework and Prospects for Development in a Changing Reality

Levandovsky N.V. US and NATO Influence on the Formation of the European Union's Foreign Policy

Abdrakhimov L.G. The Legal Aspect of National Security in China

Wang Junqi. China-U.S. Counter-Terrorism Settlement Mechanism

Kapustin A.S. Review of Practices of Counteracting the Propaganda of the International Terrorist Organization DAESH (Prohibited in the Russian Federation)

Romachev R.V. Proxy Intelligence and Classification of Intelligence Actors on the Example of the US

Tamundele Jean-Baptiste Ngay. Russian-African Relations: Moral Values as the Basis of Public Diplomacy?

Tlezhukova D.M. The Role of the International Organizations Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in Ensuring Regional Security in Central Asia

Hu Rong. US-Iran Security Game and Chinese Countermeasures

STUDENT SCIENCE

Saparbekova D.S. The Media is an Important Tool of Dialogue Between the Government and Society

Bratkovskaya D.V., Rogova Ya.D., Gorbenkova E.I. The Role of the UN in the Settlement of International Conflicts: Ways and Tools

Kuziura Yu.S., Rychkova A.L. The Role of Sport as a Tool of "Soft Power" in the Politics of the Asia-Pacific Countries

Loktionova D.V., Myasnikov V.S., Stakhno E.V. Analysis of the Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic Factor on the Economic Stability of the Republic of Korea

Melnikova M.M., Zainullina P.R., Goryachev D.R. China's Regional Policy: the Case of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the Autonomous Region of Tibet

Martsinkevich K.A., Volzhanin D.A., Litvinenko D.V. Russian-Japanese Relations: Prime Minister's Course and Prospects for Recovery

Our authors № 12-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.001

P.K. GONCHAROV Doctor of sociology, Professor Professor of Law Institute of Russian Transport University (MIIT), Moscow, Russia

MODERN POLITICAL CULTURE: CONTENTS, FORMATION, TYPOLOGY

The notion of political culture is one of the key and relatively new ones in political science. In spite of the great attention paid by scientists to the research of this phenomenon, not all of its manifestations have acquired adequate reflection in scientific and educational literature. The target of the article is to give a complex idea of the main components of modern political culture and their specifications as well as of the diversity of its typological manifestations in modern world.

Key words: political culture, political values, political conscience, formation of political culture, social purpose of political culture, functions of political culture, typology of political culture.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.002

P.S. SELEZNEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Dean of the Faculty international economic relations Financial University under the Government Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MEMORIAL DISCOURSE AS A TOOL TO MAINTAIN THE PRESTIGE OF THE RUSSIAN STATEHOOD IN THE XVI CENTURY

Within the framework of the present study, the question of the practice of using the memorial discourse as a tool to ensure the prestige of the Russian statehood during the period of its full-fledged formation as a centralized system in the 16th century is revealed. The purpose of the work is to assess the content and role of the corresponding memorial regime in maintaining the prestige of the Russian state in the designated period. The author comes to the conclusion that within the framework of the official and official historical narrative during the period under study, memorial frameworks were publicly set, substantiating the ideas of Russia's spiritual and political continuity in relation to Byzantium and Rome, its religious leadership and messianic destiny, as well as the rights to own the territories of Lithuania and Poland. The latter involved, among other things, the formation of the concept of "debt of memory" in the form of an obligation to return the lost lands as ancient Russian princes, and in the future, the possessions of the Byzantine emperors. At the same time, through the introduction of a number of figures of memory, the Lithuanian statehood was stigmatized and deprived of prestige. It should also be emphasized that the rationale for the prestige of Russian statehood was syncretic (both secular and religious) and, in fact, was more addressed to the domestic audience than to foreign politicians.

Key words: politics of memory, memorial discourse, Russian statehood, prestige, Rurikovich.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.003

S.P. POTSELUEV Doctor of Political Sciences, professor of Department of Theoretical and Applied Political Science, Institute of Philosophy and Social & Political Sciences, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

M.S. KONSTANTINOV Candidate of Political Sciences, associate professor of Department of Theoretical and Applied Political Science, Institute of Philosophy and Social & Political Sciences, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

ON THE PROBLEM OF HISTORICAL AMNESIA IN THE ASPECT OF «COMPETENCE-BASED» APPROACH IN THE STUDY OF NATIONAL HISTORY

The subject of the study presented in the article is historical unconsciousness, which is fixed, in particular, in sociological studies among Don students. Accordingly, the purpose of the work was to identify the specifics of historical amnesia in the student mind and determine the key factors of this amnesia based on the empirical data obtained in the course of a series of questionnaire surveys concerning key events in national history, as well as the topic of the current political crisis in Ukraine. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the concept of a large narrative of historical memory (P. Ricoeur, P. Nora, J. Le Goff, etc.), as well as the concept of historical amnesia, developed in the works of D. Rubio, M. Kundera, Z.S. Gevorkyan, N.I. Shestova and other authors. The methodological basis of the study was three questionnaire surveys conducted among students of universities in the Rostov region by employees of the Southern Federal University and the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2015 (N=718), as well as employees of the Center for Socio-Political Research of the Southern Federal University in 2014 and in 2020 (N=751). As a result of the study, it was found that a significant factor in the amnestic effects in youth consciousness is historical (humanitarian) education, built according to the competence-based approach with its focus on instrumental rationality. According to the authors, such treatment of history correlates with the concept of historical memory, in which the opposition “history vs. memory". Subjecting this approach to criticism based on modern authoritative historians (P. Nora, J. Le Goff), the authors interpret historical amnesia as a general weakening of historical memory, suggesting the loss of at least one of its main elements: collective memory (commemoration), scientific historiography and politics of memory.

Key words: historical memory, historical amnesia, big narrative, competence approach, commemoration, memory politics.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.004

O.V. PUTINA Postgraduate student at the Department of Management in the Sphere of Interethnic and Interfaith Relations of the Faculty of Public Administration of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov; Specialist of the Center for the Prevention of Religious and Ethnic Extremism in Educational Organizations of the Russian Federation of the Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia

TRADITIONAL SPIRITUAL AND MORAL VALUES AS THE BASIS OF CIVIC IDENTITY AND INTERCULTURAL AND INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

The article raises the question of traditional Russian spiritual and moral values as the basis of the civic identity of the peoples of Russia and intercultural and interreligious dialogue both on the territory of Russia and abroad. Based on the methods of political and legal analysis, the author explores legal acts, mechanisms for regulating social relations, including political ones, including the activities of state power at the international level.

The diversity of the national composition and religious affiliation of the population of Russia, the historical experience of intercultural and interreligious interaction, the preservation and development of the traditions of the peoples living on its territory are the common property of the Russian nation, serve as the basis for strengthening Russian statehood, a factor in promoting its spiritual and moral values abroad. Given the fact that the struggle for cultural influence continues to intensify on the world stage, one of Russia's priorities in international relations is to uphold, within the framework of international and regional organizations, the importance of universal human values and international humanitarian cooperation. The Russian Federation and the Russian world abroad are increasingly perceived as the guardian and protector of traditional spiritual and moral values, the spiritual heritage of world civilization based on the accumulated experience of respect for foreign culture, faith, and customs.

Key words: spiritual and moral values, civic identity, intercultural dialogue, interreligious dialogue, state national policy.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.005

D.A. ANIKIN PhD of Philosophy, Assistant Professor of Theoretical and Social Philosophy Department of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; Associate Professor of the Department of History and Theory of Politics of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Saratov, Russia

R.YU. BATISHCHEV Junior Researcher of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov, Russia

CIVIL RELIGION OF MODERN RUSSIA: THE ISSUES OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN STATE AND ORTHODOX COMMUNITIES

This article examines the peculiarities of the formation of civil religion in contemporary Russia through the interaction, including institutional, of the state with religious orthodox actors. It notices that civil religion is initially connected with the commemorative practices existing in a given society, as it tries to construct a new collective identity by referring to the past. In Russia, civil religion is closely connected with commemorative practices emanating from various religious institutions, the strongest influence among which are Orthodox actors, above all the Russian Orthodox Church.

The methodology of the politics of memory analysis in this article is based on its principled multi-actor nature, the absence of state monopoly on the translation of historical representations. In recent decades, in contrast to the state, the Russian Orthodox Church has taken a more articulate position on a number of issues, influencing the formation of the state memorial agenda. This penetration has also had institutional forms – through the institution of education and the institution of military service (realizing the function of political socialization). The activity of the Church in issues such as medieval commemoration, remembrance of victims of political repression, and war commemorations is noted.

The influence of such specific memorial discourses as "Tsarebozhism" and Orthodox Stalinism, which go beyond the official discourse of the Russian Orthodox Church, but which have an impact not only on the historical consciousness of the faithful Russians, but also partially on the state memorial agenda, is considered separately.

Key words: civil religion, patriotism, politics of memory, Russian Orthodoxy, war commemorations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.006

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Mass Communication Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

I.V. EREMENKO PhD in Philosophy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communications and Media Business, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REPRESENTATION OF RUSSIAN POLITICAL PARTIES IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

The material of the article draws attention to the analysis of communication tools for creating an effective image of Russian political parties in social networks at the end of 2022 (Vkonrakte, Telegram, YouTube, Ok.ru) using the example of the New People and LDPR parties. The analysis began with a brief description of the main direction of the parties, the activities of the parties in electronic and media resources as a political PR tool were considered, the target audience was analyzed, as well as the communication channels of the leaders of the parties, the most active in social networks. The work of the party in the regions is revealed. The conclusion is made about the high importance and role of social networks as main channels of communication of Russian political parties in the 21st century.

Key words: communication channels, political PR, media politics, LDPR, New People, Nechaev, Davankov, Avksentievam Airapetyan, Zhirinovsky, Slutsky, Khovansky, Maddison.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.007

R.SH. KASYMOV PhD Candidate of the Department of Political Science, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

MODELS OF INTRAPARTY DEMOCRACY OF RUSSIAN POLITICAL PARTIES

Political parties use the mechanisms of intra-party democracy to ensure the legitimacy of their leadership and demonstrate broad support for party policies. There are different models of intra-party democracy. Based on the ability of party members to influence the choice of party leaders and party politics, one can single out a centralized model of intra-party democracy and a decentralized model of party democracy. Russian parties use both models, depending on party goals and the availability of appropriate resources. Since 2009, United Russia has been actively introducing elements of a decentralized model of internal party democracy. This party uses the mechanism of primary elections open to all citizens of the Russian Federation to select candidates for elections at various levels. The Communist Party, in turn, uses a centralized model for selecting candidates. The decision to nominate a candidate is made by the party committee, and approved by the party congress. The choice of a decentralized model is associated with an attempt by United Russia to increase the visibility of candidates, the desire to recruit new leaders and test electoral technologies before the start of the official election campaign.

Key words: political parties, intraparty democracy, preliminary elections, primary elections, primaries, party congress.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.008

ZYONG WAN LIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INTEREST OF VIETNAMESE STUDENTS IN CONNECTION WITH THE WAR BETWEEN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE – INTERVIEW 2022

The article conducted a survey of students about the degree of interest in political and military events between modern Russia and Ukraine. Using the results of a social survey of Vietnamese students studying in Vietnam and in the Russian Federation to determine the degree of political interest of students in this event. Let's consider the factors influencing this level of interest, thereby creating a basis for assessing the feeling of participation in political activities of Vietnamese students studying at home and abroad.

Key words: Students, political consciousness, interest, Vietnam.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.009

I.N. MORUGINA Postgraduate, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

FEATURES OF THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION OF POLITICAL ACTORS ON THE PROCESS AGENDA FORMATION

This article discusses the features of the influence of strategic communication of political actors on the process of forming the agenda. It is indicated that power and the struggle for power underlie politics, which is competitive in nature and, accordingly, they play a central role in political communication. It is concluded that the features include: firstly, the very strategic nature of this type of political communications; secondly, the need to ensure the political legitimacy of certain political actors in the process of setting the agenda as part of the implementation of strategic communication; thirdly, the need for adequate political opposition through strategic communications on the part of political actors in the process of forming a strategic or tactical agenda.

Key words: political process, political communication, political subject, political agenda, strategic communication.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.010

JIN YANG Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CHARACTERISTICS AND FRONTIERS OF POLITICAL PROPAGANDA RESEARCH IN CHINA – BASED ON STATISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF RELEVANT LITERATURE FROM CENTRAL CHINESE JOURNALS FROM 1992 TO 2022

This article explores the characteristics of Chinese scholarly research on political propaganda. The author analyzed 53 relevant articles in central Chinese journals from 1992 to 2022. The article conducted statistics and analysis according to the indicators: research topics, case countries for propaganda analysis, political events for propaganda analysis, and years of article publication. With the help of statistics and analysis, the paper reveals the characteristics, frontiers and development trends of Chinese academic research in this field.

Key words: political propaganda, propaganda technology, computational propaganda, social bots, algorithms, social networks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.011

V.V. DANKOVA Graduate student, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

YOUTH POLICY OF MODERN PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES

The article examines the specifics of the youth policy of modern parliamentary parties. The main directions of youth involvement in the socio-political practices of Russian society are given, the value orientations of Soviet and Russian youth are compared, the role of youth self-government bodies is considered, attention is paid to the targets of political parties in relation to the younger generation based on the analysis of the composition of the deputy corps and the staff of the State Duma factions of the VIII convocation. The purpose of this study is to determine the place and role of young people in the activities of political parties today.

Key words: youth, youth policy, parliamentary parties, political activity.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.012

E.N. KARATUEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY IN STATE AND MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY)

The principle of subsidiarity, based on the distribution of powers between different levels of government, assumes that management can be effectively carried out at the lowest possible level. The intervention of higher structures is advisable only if it is impossible to independently solve problems at a lower level.

Each management level should have its own competencies to exercise its own and delegated powers. In accordance with the existing management pyramid, it is possible to distinguish supranational, state, regional and municipal levels. Moreover, the latter is the basic unit of the structure of public power. In this context, the distribution of powers between the State administration and local self-government is of particular interest from the point of view of the effectiveness of the tasks assigned to them.

Among European countries, it is the Federal Republic of Germany that most fully implements the principle of subsidiarity in the distribution of powers between different levels of government.

Key words: the principle of subsidiarity, public administration, local self-government, municipality, community.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.013

V.A. PODOLSKIY Candidate of Political sciences, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Political Science, State Academic University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

COMPARISON OF THE SOCIAL POLICY SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY

Introduction: several types of social support systems have developed in the world, which differ both in their architecture and in their tasks and effectiveness. Existing approaches to comparison most often compare models and tasks, so the comparison of efficiency is valuable. Aims and goals: the article examines the structure and functions of social support systems in Germany, France, Britain, USA, Russia and China, the cost of their operation and performance. Methods: The article uses a comparative-historical approach, analysis of institutions, statistical data and legal documents. Results: The social support system in the United States can be considered to be the least effective, for it consumes the largest amount of resources and provides a weaker result than other developed social support systems. The British and German systems may be considered the best, but they are built on different principles and also have their own weaknesses. Conclusions: for the development of the social support system in Russia, both the positive experience of Germany and Britain should be considered, as well as the shortcomings of these systems, and also the problems associated with the provision of social support in the United States.

Key words: social policy, social insurance, pensions, benefits, allowances.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.014

D.V. PROKHOROV Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Samara National research university named after Academician S.P. Koroleyva, Samara, Russia

A.A. RASSADIN Postgraduate student of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Samara National research university named after Academician S.P. Koroleyva, Samara, Russia

A.V. OMELKOVICH Student of the department of national and world economy Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE POLITICAL AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY

The article discusses and presents the results of research in the context of the creation and development of modern technologies, as well as an analysis of the reaction of society, which caused great prerequisites and digital conditions for their implementation and application in all areas of the socio-economic life of society. In the course of scientific and technological progress and, as a result, the processing of a large amount of information, the role of questions about the emergence of new or changes in existing rules of law in the field of the digital economy, such as, for example, online meetings of members of societies, protection of the rights of subjects in the processing of big data, the emergence of RID in the digital space and IT.

Key words: political system, big data, law, state, digital economy, innovative technologies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.015

M.S. BASHLAEVA Associate Professor of the Department of State and municipal government and political science Karachay-Cherkess State University named after W.D. Alieva, Karachaevsk, Russia

MANAGEMENT OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL INFORMATION POLICY AS AN EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT FOR FORMING THE IMAGE OF THE STATE

The article deals with the main problems of forming a positive image of the modern Russian state, as well as national strategies of "soft power" in the foreign policy of states, where the increasing role of flexible factors and the strengthening of the influence of "soft" instruments of influence on the system of international relations are noted, an analysis is made of their role in the implementation foreign policy of Russia. The main approaches, resources, goals and results of the use of "soft power" by states at the present stage are analyzed. In the modern world community, the competitiveness of a country is significantly influenced by the information resources that they have and the reputation these countries have. Today, more and more often in the official statements of the political leadership of the country, in the speeches of public figures and major entrepreneurs, there is concern that an unfavorable image of Russia is being formed abroad. Increasingly, in the course of such discussions, it is proposed to create a single state system that would coordinate all image-building activities. However, the implementation of such a decision requires a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms for forming/adjusting the country's image, as well as its components, identifying the key actors involved in these processes and understanding the experience of other states in this direction. Moreover, the difficulty of adequately reflecting the processes taking place in Russia to the global audience is due to the fact that it is a super-community – a multinational and multi-confessional state.

Key words: external and internal state information policy, "soft power", "hard power", "balance of power", image, image policy, institutionalism, ideology of the state, social level of development of society, axiological system, mentality of the nation, culture of the country, creative country's potential.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.016

E.A. MOSAKOVA Сandidate of Economics, Associate professor, Associate professor at the Department of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

A.Y. NIKIFOROVA Masterˈs student, at the Department of Global Processes, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PANDEMIC OF A NEW CORONAVIRUS INFECTION (СOVID-19)

Introduction. Nowadays one of the major problems of the world economy is the decline in the level of the entrepreneurial activity in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. One of the solutions to this problem is the expansion of SMEs, which contributes to the creation of new jobs, improving the living conditions of the general population, as well as increasing GDP.

Materials and methods. Methodological basis of the research is composed. of general cognition methods: evaluation, synthesis, comparison, inductance and deduction, rising from the abstract to the concrete as well as systemic – structural approach. Special methods of investigation such as acquisition of scientific treatises, information gain and economics and statistics analysis were applied during the research.

Results of the study. The main problem of SMEs at the beginning of the pandemic was the inability of its subjects to transfer their activities to online in a short time, as well as to diversify it in response to the new economic reality.

Discussion. The study of the monthly dynamics of the main indicators during the entire period of the pandemic reflects the fall of such indicators as the number of SMEs and the number of employees. But at the same time, the number of types of manufactured products remained at a relatively stable level during the reporting period. Such multidirectional dynamics of indicators demonstrate that enterprises were forced to “reorient" and "differentiate" their products.

Conclusion. The pandemic has significantly aggravated the existing problems in the development of Russian SMEs, and the existing system of state support for SMEs has proven to be low in its effectiveness: the measures of state support for SMEs were effective enough to fulfill only one goal – to preserve employment. Therefore, the question of a cardinal update of the state policy in the field of SME support is risen.

Key words: entrepreneurship, small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs), business processes, the pandemic of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), diversification, employment, digitalization.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.017

P.A. TSYGANKOV Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

L.E. SLUTSKY Doctor of Economics, Head of the Department of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

WESTERN DISCOURSE ON RUSSIA'S "HYBRID WAR AGAINST DEMOCRACY": NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES

The article analyzes the popular Western discourse about the "hybrid war of Russia" against the global West and its allies who are on the "right side of history". As a result of the study, it is shown that the widespread use of this discourse by Western media, analytical centers and official representatives of NATO and the EU indicates that it is given the role of an important ideological tool in the struggle for all-round deterrence and weakening of Russia. At the same time, in essence, the discourse under consideration is not much different from similar narratives that were used by the West against Russia in the past.

The authors rely on a wide range of diverse sources. The debate about the "hybrid war" is presented mainly through the analysis of publications in academic journals and monographs, as well as speeches by statesmen. The conclusions concerning the peculiarities of the discourse of "hybrid wars of Russia" are illustrated by references to NATO and EU documents, materials, comments and interviews of military and civilian experts, articles in scientific periodicals and other academic publications.

The article is structured as follows. The first part traces the genesis, evolution and various interpretations of the concept of "hybrid warfare". The second section is devoted to the analysis of arguments about the "hybrid war of Russia". In conclusion, conclusions are drawn according to which the widespread discourse about the "hybrid war of Russia", with all its external novelty, is an attempt to substantiate the idea of Moscow's eternal aggressiveness.Keywords: Russia, West, NATO, European Union, hybrid war, hybrid threats, democracy, autocracy.

Key words: Russia, West, NATO, EU, hybrid war, hybrid threats, democracy, autocracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.018

B. VANKOVSKA Professor of political science and international relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia

HEADING TOWARDS A GLOBAL NATO: PIQUING CHINA?

The article aims at deconstruction of the idea of “global NATO”, or better multiple NATOs across the globe. For quite some time the North Atlantic Alliance had been spreading its reach, including political influence, military equipment, manpower, bases, intelligence, etc. mostly towards Russia’s borders – until it hit the wall. It is logical to assume that the Ukraine war has already been in the cards in Washington; yet it is hard to say if it was THE plan or just a possibility due to the West’s underrating Russia’s readiness to respond. After the Madrid summit the key strategic question is how far to the east would (future) global NATO go. No matter how much the general public is focused on the developments in Ukraine and their (un)intended damages (in terms of economic recession, inflation, energy crisis, etc.) on the collective West, that war is just a prelude to a more important clash – in Asia-Pacific, and probably on a global scale. The (next) key rival is China, i.e. the power that has factual potential to be not only a superior economic giant, but also a power that may actively re-shape the new international order.

Key words: NATO, China, global security, Ukraine, militarization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.019

MA SHIYUAN Doctorate, Associate Professor, English Department, Beijing International Studies University Lecturer, Peking, China

CHEN JING Master, Associate Professor, French Department, Beijing International Studies University, Peking, China

CHEN DI Ph.D. Saint Petersburg State University, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, Department Media Lingustics Senior lecturer, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ZHANG HUIQIN Russian Department, Doctorate, Professor, Beijing international Studies University, Peking, China

SOSLAN BETROZOV Ph.D. Lawyer of the Bar Association of St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia

FEATURES OF EUROPEAN MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE PANDEMIC IN CHINA

Objective: the purpose of this work is to identify trends and specifics in the media coverage of European countries (UK, Germany, France, Russia) of the situation with COVID-19 in China; the need to strengthen the responsibility of the media in relation to the published information, their independence and objectivity.

Methods: the authors used the method of content analysis of the text of various publications of European countries: Great Britain (5 sources), Germany (4 sources), France (5 sources) and Russia (4 sources).

Conclusions: the nature of the information provided by the national media is influenced by foreign policy factors, reflects the relations between European countries (in particular, Great Britain, Germany and France) and China, and indicates the presence of rivalry and conflict of interests between them.

The panic over COVID-19, which has become one of the most prominent topics in Western media coverage, and the "information epidemic" caused by it may significantly reduce citizens' trust in real objective information from official sources and become a factor of increasing general anxiety in society.

In a time of global panic, the media becomes a manipulative tool designed to distract the public's attention from their own immediate problems by focusing their attention on the problems of others.

Mistrust and fear. Perhaps this is what the pandemic crisis has taught us best. This lesson should be followed by another – how to cope with them, despite contradictions and cultural differences, economic interests and long-standing grievances.

It seems that in this matter, the media can and should become a unifying, binding force that makes it possible to achieve a common goal. It is necessary to realize that it is inadmissible to spread rumors and panic to avoid responsibility, especially in the context of one's own powerlessness in the fight against the epidemic.

Linguistic and comparative methods of analysis allowed the authors to determine the target settings of the publications. The results of the analysis allow the authors to assert that the European mass media not only express political stereotypes of the image of China and the Chinese government, but also promote them in the eyes of public opinion through the dissemination of anxiety, fear and panic. An analysis of the peculiarity of key publications showed the "mechanics" of such promotion. In the meantime, we are experiencing the full spectrum of mistrust and fear. Hopefully, one day – put them behind us.

The article is of interest to a wide range of researchers and the reading public.

Key words: coronavirus, European media, pandemic in China, epidemic control, Chinese experience, media coverage.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.020

Sh.I. PAKHRUTDINOV Doctor of political sciences, professor, member of the Association of Political Scientists of Russia, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

STRENGTHENING REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ENSURE SECURITY AND STABILITY IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION

This article is devoted to the international cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of security and trade and economic relations. In order to achieve peace and sustainable development in Central Asia, the states of the region are pursuing an active foreign policy. The transformation of Central Asia into a zone of peace and good neighborliness is also defined as a priority of Uzbekistan's foreign policy. The relevance of the topic of this article lies in the fact that in today's era of increasing sources of global threats, ensuring the territorial security of Central Asia has become one of the main tasks facing the states of the region. The geopolitical and geostrategic importance of the Central Asian region has been growing in recent years, it is becoming an object of serious attention in the international arena due to the presence of a large amount of mineral resources, the conflict of strategic interests of the world's largest countries. When writing the article, methods of comparative analysis, theoretical and general logical methods were used. The article consists of an introduction, the main part, a conclusion and a list of references.

Key words: region, regional security, globalization, foreign policy, stability, security, sustainability, initiative, trade and economic, sustainability, factors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.021

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia

K.S. SMOTRYAEVA Director of the Institute of Language and Translation Technologies and Development of International Communication Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia

A.Ya. AMELCHENKO Student, Institute of Language and Translation Technologies and Development of International Communication Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia

SPECIAL REPORT OF THE ECONOMIST MAGAZINE DATED OCTOBER 8, 2022: RUSSIAN INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGLISH FORECAST

The paper analyzes The Economist magazine dated 08-10-2022, which suggests an “indisputable” global foreign policy and economic development forecast for 2023. The paper focuses on the energy sector, where 2023 will mark the end of the era of global pricing based on energy pricing. An alternative currency system is considered as the one that can shift the petrodollar from a leading position in the near future. The authors made their forecast of upcoming world events and their interpretation based on the mental and seemingly abstract symbols of a complex magazine cover design, which are associated with a single central inscription – “Regime change”. The cover of the special issue comprises several parts depicting aspects of economic and political activity where changes are definitely to occur. Therefore, the analysis made by the authors being Russian scholars is of particular interest, since the authors’ vision of events taking place differs from the one of The Economist magazine, which, in its turn, is one of the most trustworthy mouthpieces of British policy.

Key words: Rothschild, Great Britain, gas, oil, dollar, pound sterling, bitcoin, symbol.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.022

E.A. BELIKOVA Dr. Political Science, Assistant to the Department of State and Municipal Administration and Law, Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

I.S. EGOROV Applicant of the Department of Political Science of the East, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR THE RESUMPTION OF THE QATARI DIPLOMATIC CRISIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT

Russia's special military operation on the territory of Ukraine has already become a catalyst for a number of global and local changes both in geopolitics and world economy, including new impetus to many existing and potential regional conflicts: from Transnistria to Taiwan. At the same time, one of the key crisis points in the Middle East – the Qatari diplomatic crisis – continues to be frozen, however, a number of factors indicate that an open confrontation between the GCC countries can start again at any moment.

The main goal of the research is to discuss the premises for the resumption of the Qatari diplomatic crisis and analyze its possible scenarios. The authors point out that a new round of the crisis is inevitable, moreover, it may turn out to be deeper and not be limited to a hybrid and information war between Qatar and the "Arab Quartet" – Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Bahrain, but develop into a full-fledged military clash.

The article concludes that in case of implementation of any of the scenarios under consideration the influence of the United States on regional players will decrease.

Key words: Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatari diplomatic crisis, information war, conflict, special military operation, Russia, Ukraine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.023

A.A. TUSKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

I.YU. SOMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

A.N. NEKHOROSHEVA Student, Institute of language and translation technologies and the development of international communication University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

ON THE PROBLEM OF THE INVOLVEMENT OF FOREIGN NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DESTABILIZATION OF THE AUTONOMOUS REGIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

This article discusses an urgent topic – the influence of foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the ethnopolitical conflict potential of modern China, where the key point is their indirect and direct impact on the destabilization of autonomous regions. The balanced foreign and domestic political course of the Communist Party of China is aimed at key transformations in the field of socio-economic life of citizens and the formation of a new post-Westphalian world order. In these conditions, the PRC is affected by problems related to ethno-political conflicts. They fully characterize the entire multifaceted spectrum of the internal political process of the development of the state. Such conflicts as, for example, in the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China, the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, etc. are vivid examples of the maturation of conflict potential. It is based on religious, ethnic, political and territorial contradictions. Not the last place in their aggravation is occupied by foreign non-governmental organizations. This complex of problems, related to indirect and direct impact of NGOs on the destabilization of autonomous regions is the subject of the authors’ research in this article. The authors consider the relationship between indirect and direct intervention of foreign NGOs, as well as specific examples of two types of impacts – indirect and direct intervention. Due to the strict restriction of access of foreign NGOs to mainland China, direct intervention of foreign NGOs is being replaced by direct intervention of foreign governments. In this regard, it is concluded that various states are directly interested in destabilizing the internal situation in China in order to realize their political goals.

Key words: PRC, NGO, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, separatism, destabilizing events, Human Rights Watch, The Conservative Party Human rights commission, Free Tibet.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.024

U.B. ZHAMBAEVA Candidate of philosophical Sciences, associate Professor of Management in higher education, REU im. G.V. Plehanova» Ulaanbaatar branch; Adviser to the President of the Mongolian diplomatic Organization for peace and friendship, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia

TIBETAN BUDDHISM IN THE POLITICAL CONTEXT OF THE MIN DYNASTY

In 1267-1279, Khubilai fights for the real conquest of all of China. To begin with, Khubilai found himself the Commander-in-Chief Chinese Shetankze, then he decided to transfer the capital of his kingdom from Karakoram to China, namely to the place of the old capital Dasin, hereinafter referred to as Beijing. A new city is being built in the suburb of Dashin, which is called the great capital or Khanbalyk, in Chinese Dadu. Khubilai lacked religious fanaticism, but there was ethnic fanaticism. In this sense, it is much more interesting to identify the common stereotypical foundations of behavior associated with Khubilai’s psychology, and more so with the nature of the unconscious, which allow us to build a different order of ethnic structure, the basis of which can serve as an immanent sense of unity.

Key words: state, mentor, Buddhism, dynasty, politics, religion, legitimacy, emperor.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.025

M.I. KOLYKHALOV Candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal SIU RANEPA, Novosibirsk, Russia

THE CONCEPT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CITY IN WORLD POLITICS

In modern scientific discourse, a number of concepts of global cities are being developed – "international city", "global city", "global information city", "world city". The least specified in terms of identifying criteria and defining indicators is the category of "international city", which characterizes a wide range of urban centers that are comprehensively involved in international activities.

The purpose of the article is to explore the concept of an "international city", to determine the key features and criteria for classifying urban centers in this category, to identify key differences, and to propose basic indicators of selection criteria.

Key words: metropolis, international city, manufacturing city, gate city, transactional city.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.026

N.M. SMIRNOV Bachelor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

T.A. GUSARSKAYA Senior Lecturer of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

THE RELEVANCE OF THE SOLUTION OF THE TRANSNISTRIAN CONFLICT IN MODERN CONDITIONS, POSSIBLE SCENARIOS

The article presents the author's reflections and observations on the situation in Pridnestrovie, Ukraine and the world political arena, during the implementation of a special military operation for the denazification and demilitarization of Ukraine. Possible ways of solving the Transnistrian conflict in modern conditions are identified and analyzed.

Key words: conflict, Transnistrian conflict, Transnistrian Moldavian Republic, PMR, Transnistria, special military operation, Ukraine, Russia, Moldova, Moldova, Romania, OSCE, United States, European Union.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.027

A.A. ASHMARINA Assistant lecturer at IMOMI of Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

MIGRATION POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN A CHANGING REALITY

The article deals mainly with the modern migration policy of the European Union with an emphasis on the conceptual component. Purpose of the work: to identify the main directions of the EU policy in the field of migration in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the features of regulating the migration processes of a united Europe at the supranational level. Using a systematic approach and a case-study method, the author highlights the main directions of the EU migration policy, and also concludes that it is difficult to develop a common EU migration policy due to the conflicting national interests of European countries.

Key words: migration policy, migration, migration flows, European Union, legislation, trends, prospects.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.028

N.V. LEVANDOVSKY Lecturer of the Military Training Center, Moscow State Linguistic University; Postgraduate Student of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

US AND NATO INFLUENCE ON THE FORMATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S FOREIGN POLICY

The article analyzes the EU's long-standing desire to gain strategic autonomy from the United States and NATO in the field of defense and foreign policy. Various initiatives aimed at shaping the ideological frame of the collective identity of the EU, including attempts to form an independent European army, have led to contradictory results. The reality of today shows that institutionally NATO, being the core of the liberal world order of the collective West, has an obvious advantage representing a mature mechanism capable of mobilizing member states in order to broadcast the political will of the United States. NATO's identity has historically developed along the path of expansion, being the driving impulse of the collective West. This identity blocks the EU's attempts to gain its independence, subordinates its interests to the goals of the United States. During the transformation of the global world order the ambitions of the United States continued to grow turning the whole world into a "zone of American responsibility". Against the background of the strategic confrontation policy between the United States and Russia and in the future with China, Europe has regained for Washington the importance of an unconditional ally and an outpost in the struggle to preserve its former power and hegemon status in the ending its existence unipolar world, a special element in the implementation of a new policy of containment of Russia. The discourse of confrontation with Russia, which arose against the background of the special military operation, allowed NATO to overcome centrifugal tendencies within the alliance, stop the formation of strategic autonomy of the EU not only in the military, but also in the economic sphere and also turn the European Union into a key informational, economic and military formation of the American proxy war with Russia. The author also reflects on the degradation of European elites and their fundamental misunderstanding of Russian views on world politics.

Key words: foreign policy, strategic autonomy, NATO, USA, proxy war, containment, EU, Russia, Strategic Compass, national security, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.029

L.G. ABDRAKHIMOV Candidate of science degree, PFUR, Moscow, Russia

THE LEGAL ASPECT OF NATIONAL SECURITY IN CHINA

The article examines the legal aspect of national security of the PRC within the framework of officially published public documents. The author notes that in the PRC the legal provision of the national security system is based on the strengthening of political stability, with a clear hierarchy of other areas of national security (literally translated as "state security"). At the present stage of China's development the emphasis is placed on updating the existing legal acts, on creating a legal framework and legal institutions to respond to new challenges and threats to national security, such as: sanctions, cyberthreats, activities of non-governmental organizations, COVID, etc.

Key words: PRC, national security, state security, legal provision of national security, national interests, threats to national security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.030

WANG JUNQI Ph.D. student, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CHINA-U.S. COUNTER-TERRORISM SETTLEMENT MECHANISM

This article attempts to explore the legal issues of the basic theory, basic principles, international legal framework and relevant procedural issues of international cooperation in counter-terrorism investigation, as well as the importance of international cooperation in counter-terrorism investigation, problems and main directions for improvement in the future in the light of cooperation international organizations and countries in the counter-terrorism investigation. To achieve the goal of the study, this paper uses a combination of methods of historical analysis, normative analysis, empirical analysis and comparative research. Based on the analysis of legal problems in the organization, the main procedures and the main issues of international cooperation in the field of combating terrorism, this article proposes ideas for solving problems by accelerating the implementation of a normative international platform, building a perfect international system of cooperation in the field of combating terrorism, rationalizing the use of investigative measures and the establishment of an effective intelligence-sharing mechanism.

Key words: international counterterrorism, investigative cooperation, mechanisms for cooperation in the fight against terrorism, anti-terrorism laws, terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.031

A.S. KAPUSTIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

REVIEW OF PRACTICES OF COUNTERACTING THE PROPAGANDA OF THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION DAESH (PROHIBITED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)

The author conducted a review of studies that examined the basic aspects of the propaganda of the international terrorist organization Islamic State (hereinafter – DAESH) on the Internet, as well as considered effective and ineffective counteraction practices.

The purpose of the study is to identify effective practices of countering the propaganda of the international terrorist organization DAESH. During the analysis, the risks and factors of the effectiveness of propaganda impact on Internet users were identified.

The study was carried out based on materials from secondary sources.

The result of the study was the identification of approaches to effectively counter the propaganda and recruitment activities of DAESH.

Key words: terrorism, DAESH, propaganda, recruitment, Internet.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.032

R.V. ROMACHEV General director intelligence agency "R-Techno", Moscow, Russia

PROXY INTELLIGENCE AND CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE ACTORS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE USA

The article provides a definition of proxy intelligence, a classification of intelligence actors on the example of the United States. The activities of the main US intelligence actors are briefly considered. The intelligence service is defined as a service that is provided by both state intelligence actors and non-state actors.

Purpose: to give a definition of proxy intelligence, to determine the meaning of "intelligence service" in the political process, to classify intelligence actors using the example of the United States. Briefly review the activities of the main US intelligence actors.

Methodology: the analysis of the activities of both US state intelligence actors and non-state actors was carried out. The history of the interaction of non-state intelligence actors with state intelligence actors and authorities has been studied. The intelligence product proposed by the authors was studied. Specific organizations involved in US intelligence activities have been studied. The paper uses methods of studying documents, content analysis and a comparative method. The methodological basis of the work is the source study analysis.

Result: thanks to the study, it was found that the United States in its political activities actively resorts to the help of non-state intelligence actors, and private intelligence companies in particular. Their role, contribution and significance in the development of foreign policy decisions are established. The "intelligence service" is systematized precisely as a service provided by intelligence actors to their customers.

Practical significance: the findings became the basis for the development of practical recommendations for the Russian authorities on building communication and business relations with Russian private intelligence companies.

Based on the results obtained, a curriculum and a course of lectures in the direction of "Political Science", a master's program "Information and Hybrid Wars" at Moscow State University were prepared.

Key words: outsourced intelligence, contract intelligence, hired intelligence, private intelligence, intelligence actors, corporate intelligence, dark intelligence, hybrid warfare, hybrid intelligence, non-classical warfare, proxy warfare, proxy intelligence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.033

TAMUNDELE JEAN-BAPTIST NGUAY Postgraduate student of Kazan (Privolzhsky) federal university, Kazan, Russia

RUSSIAN-AFRICA RELATIONS: MORAL VALUES AS THE BASIS OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY?

In the sphere of interstate relations, a huge role is played by moral imperatives that determine the international agenda. The pursuit of the common good can be considered the main goal of a fair foreign policy, since the system of value orientations corresponding to it is creative in nature and enduring, while social injustice, dictate from the powerful of this world, encouragement of radicalism and extremism, lead to an imbalance and subsequently result in violence, war crimes, oppression, the war of "all against all".

The purpose of this article is to try to formulate a system of principles and approaches on the basis of which today there is a revival of full-fledged and comprehensive relations (in the field of social and economic development, scientific, technical and political cooperation) between Russia and the countries of the African continent.

We consider the reference points of the comfort zone in modern Russian-African relations to be the values of trust and humanism recognized by the world community, on the basis of which the current vector of Russian diplomacy seems to be built. It is no coincidence that in the title of the article we put the thesis about moral values as the basis of public diplomacy, which in the context of our study can be called a high mission - a real "new gospel" with which Russia addresses the peoples of Africa.

Of course, in our study, we will also turn to the trail of foreign policy relations established between Africa and Western countries, taking into account the difficult history of these relations. Turning to the events taking place on the African continent today, and to those that preceded them many decades ago, one involuntarily asks difficult questions. What is historical memory? How much has Africa and Africans changed? What was irretrievably lost, and what, on the contrary, was found? What is the main idea, the missionary role, the very “new gospel” that Russia brings to the peoples of the African continent, who had previously been “evangelized” and experienced the brunt of colonial oppression? Finally, what real means does Russia have to effectively "preach" high values in the field of diplomacy, and are these means sufficient to ensure sustainable and mutually beneficial cooperation with African countries in the long term?

Key words: public diplomacy, Central Africa, Russian-African relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.034

D.M. TLEZHUKOVA Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Political Parties and social movements of the Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO) AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY ORGANIZATION (CSTO) IN ENSURING REGIONAL SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

This article examines the activities of the SCO and CSTO international organizations in the field of security in the Central Asian region. The author educed the threats for stability and security in Central Asia, described the fundamental principles of organizations and their methods of struggle against the threat, gave an appraisal of CSTO and SCO in resolving crisis situations. The author concludes that it is necessary to increase the potential of operational forces, pay more attention to preventive measures against attempts to destabilize the political situation. CSTO is considered as the organization for military and security cooperation. SCO is related with cross-border criminal issues, such as extremism, terrorism, drug trafficking.

Key words: Russia, Central Asia, Central Asia, China, security, threats, Afghanistan, SCO, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, CSTO, Collective Security Treaty Organisation, terrorism, extremism, integration, collective security system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.035

HU RONG Head of Human Resources, Shanghai Fuxing Bund Commercial Co, China

US-IRAN SECURITY GAME AND CHINESE COUNTERMEASURES

The ongoing ferment of the Iranian issue has not only become a trigger for a new round of crisis in the Middle East, but also has a profound impact on China's economic, political and strategic interests. After the United States launched the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq and the beginning of the "Arab Spring", especially after the signing of the "Iranian nuclear agreement" in 2015, Iran quickly rose in the Middle East and became one of the major powers. The rise of Iran not only harms the interests of Israel and Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, but also threatens US hegemony in the Middle East. In this context, in order to curb the growth of Iran's influence in the Middle East, it is necessary to exert all possible and maximum pressure on Iran, including military containment of Iran. A military confrontation between the US and Iran begins. Based on the analysis of literature, historical analysis, comparative analysis and case analysis, this article examines the history of the military confrontation between the United States and Iran. The "heating" of the Iranian issue is also connected with how China in the new era can actively act on the world stage, play the role of a responsible large country. Therefore, an in-depth study of Iran's predicament and the proposed countermeasures are of clear theoretical significance and far-reaching practical significance.

Key words: Iranian predicament, US-Iranian relations, Iranian issue, Trump administration, situation in the Middle East, military confrontation, economic sanctions.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.036

D.S. SAPARBEKOVA Master's student of the Faculty of Journalism of the Russian Academy of Sciences and GS, Moscow, Russia

THE MEDIA IS AN IMPORTANT TOOL OF DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY

The article is devoted to the problems of modern mass media in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is noted that the issue of adopting a new law on the media is currently on the agenda. In order to prepare it on the portal "Opening of the NPA", the draft Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Mass Media". It is planned to expand the status of a journalist, consider the concept of "Internet advertising", transition to funding through grants subsidizing traditional media such as newspapers and magazines. The necessity of training a professional pool of journalists is emphasized, taking into account the most important strategic tasks facing the state.

Key words: mass media, Kazakhstan, journalist, state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.037

D.V. BRATKOVSKAYA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

YA.D. ROGOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.I. GORBENKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE UN IN THE SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS: WAYS AND TOOLS

Over the years, the United Nations has played an important role in preventing international crises and resolving protracted conflicts. The UN conducted complex operations related to the establishment and maintenance of peace and the provision of humanitarian assistance. In the modern realities of world politics, new threats and conflicts have arisen, which, in the context of the globalization process, undermine the security and stability of entire regions and groups of countries. Today, interstate conflicts are still one of the leading factors of instability in the international space, which pose a threat not only to the participants in the conflict, but to the entire world community. That is why the main task of the UN, as the largest and most authoritative international organization in the modern world, is to maintain international peace and security through the cooperation of the member states of this Organization.

In this article, the authors explore the methods, strategies and tools that the UN uses in the course of its activities to resolve international conflicts. The subtleties and differences in the concepts of the Organization's peacekeeping activities are analyzed.

Key words: international relations, international terrorism, international economy, United Nations, UN, international conflicts, war, international law, settlement methods, peacekeeping mission, security, modern threats.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.038

YU.S. KUZIURA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.L. RYCHKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE ROLE OF SPORT AS A TOOL OF "SOFT POWER" IN THE POLITICS OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC COUNTRIES

In the near future, the Asia-Pacific region will remain one of the priority areas for the development of cooperation for Russia. The Russian "Turn to the East" is due to the actual concentration of the new political and economic center of the world in the Asia-Pacific region, its formation as a dynamically and steadily developing region, as well as common territorial borders. Building good neighborly relations in the Asia-Pacific region is an important task for our country, in solving which it is useful to turn to the concept of "soft power": its direct application, as well as an analysis of its use in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region.

The authors considers professional international sports to be an important tool of "soft power". In the article, he examines the effectiveness of the use of "sports diplomacy", characterizes its implementation by individual states of the Asia-Pacific countries, and also concludes that the impact of sport on international relations is significant as a way to "soften" the foreign policy situation.

Key words: international relations, foreign policy, Asia-Pacific, China, Japan, Korea, Russia, soft power, sports, diplomacy, sports diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.039

D.V. LOKTIONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

V.S. MYASNIKOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.V. STAKHNO Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC FACTOR ON THE ECONOMIC STABILITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The well-being of the state economy is always threatened; the conditions of the modern global market are far from ideal, which means that the prosperity of both external and internal economic systems of any country depends on the measures taken by its leadership, responding to the emergence of new and new threats. There is no doubt that the most devastating and striking disaster for global economic stability in the 21st century has been the Covid-19 pandemic. No country can boast that the epidemic has not contributed to and affected its economic policy. A significant actor in the Asia-Pacific region – the Republic of Korea – is no exception; it is this state and its response to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on its own economic well-being that are at the center of this study.

The author of the article focuses on the implementation of the South Korean leadership of those steps that were a response to the economic crisis that was the result of the impact of the coronavirus epidemic. The degree of destructiveness of the impact of the pandemic on the well-being and functioning of the country's economic agenda is being studied.

Key words: international economy, international relations, economic crisis, economic threat, pandemic, covid, lockdown, economic stability, pandemic impact, Republic of Korea, Asia-Pacific.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.040

M.M. MELNIKOVA Master-degree student, Far Eastern Federal University, Ussuriysk, Russia

P.R. ZAINULLINA Master-degree student, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.R. GORYACHEV Student of the Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University Vladivostok, Russia

CHINA'S REGIONAL POLICY: THE CASE OF THE XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION AND THE AUTONOMOUS REGION OF TIBET

This article is focused on the issues of regional policy of the PRC, the subject of the study is the domestic policy regarding peripheral regions, and the object is the development of the Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet Autonomous Regions. The article analyzed the reasons for the current position of the above elements in the state system of China, as well as possible ways to resolve problematic aspects.

Key words: domestic policy of the PRC, autonomous regions of the PRC, regional policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.88.12.041

K.A. MARTSINKEVICH Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.A. VOLZHANIN Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.V. LITVINENKO Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

RUSSIAN-JAPANESE RELATIONS: PRIME MINISTER'S COURSE AND PROSPECTS FOR RECOVERY

International relations are an indispensable element of politics. Mutually beneficial cooperation helps countries to develop and strengthen their potential for influence. The events of 2022 put Russia at the disadvantage, not only the entire collective West, but also the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, rebelled against it. Japan, neighbor of Russia, with whom relations had been built for many years, severed the threads of contact that were too important for it in a larger way.

The object of the paper is Russian-Japanese relations, which came to a standstill after Yoshihide Suga came to power, and almost completely ceased to exist with the arrival of Fumio Kishida.

The first part of the study analyzes the policies of Yoshihide Suga and Fumio Kishida toward Russia and examines the problematic aspects of the interaction of these politicians with the Russian side. The second part deals with modern process of Russian-Japanese relations, examines problematic issues of interaction and prospects for restoration of contact between the countries.

Key words: International relations, Russia, Japan, Russia-Japan relations, Kuril question, Shinzo Abe, Yoshihide Suga, Fumio Kishida.

OUR AUTHORS

ABDRAKHIMOV L.G. – Candidate of science degree, PFUR, Moscow, Russia.

AMELCHENKO A.YA. – Student, Institute of Language and Translation Technologies and Development of International Communication Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia.

ANIKIN D.A. – PhD of Philosophy, Assistant Professor of Theoretical and Social Philosophy Department of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; Associate Professor of the Department of History and Theory of Politics of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Saratov, Russia.

ASHMARINA A.A. – Assistant lecturer at IMOMI of Lobachevsky State University Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

BASHLAEVA M.S. – Associate Professor of the Department of State and municipal government and political science Karachay-Cherkess State University named after W.D. Alieva, Karachaevsk, Russia.

BATISHCHEV R.YU. – Junior Researcher of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov, Russia.

BELIKOVA E.A. – Dr. Political Science, Assistant to the Department of State and Municipal Administration and Law, Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia.

BRATKOVSKAYA D.V. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

CHEN DI – Ph.D. Saint Petersburg State University, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, Department Media Lingustics Senior lecturer, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

CHEN JING – Master, Associate Professor, French Department, Beijing International Studies University, Peking, China.

DANKOVA V.V. – Graduate student, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

EGOROV I.S. – Applicant of the Department of Political Science of the East, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

EREMENKO I.V. – PhD in Philosophy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communications and Media Business, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

GONCHAROV P.K. – Doctor of sociology, Professor, Professor of Law Institute of Russian Transport University (MIIT), Moscow, Russia.

GORBENKOVA E.I. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

GORYACHEV D.R. – Student, Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

GUSARSKAYA T.A. – Senior Lecturer of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia.

HU RONG – Head of Human Resources, Shanghai Fuxing Bund Commercial Co., China.

JIN YANG – Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KAPUSTIN A.S. – Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KARATUEVA E.N. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

KASYMOV R.SH. – PhD Candidate of the Department of Political Science, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

KOLYKHALOV M.I. – Candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal SIU RANEPA, Novosibirsk, Russia.

KONSTANTINOV M.S. – Candidate of Political Sciences, associate professor of Department of Theoretical and Applied Political Science, Institute of Philosophy and Social & Political Sciences, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

KUZIURA YU.S. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

LEVANDOVSKY N.V. – Lecturer of the Military Training Center, Moscow State Linguistic University, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

LITVINENKO D.V. – Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

LOKTIONOVA D.V. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

MARTSINKEVICH K.A. – Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

MA SHIYUAN – Doctorate, Associate Professor, English Department, Beijing International Studies University Lecturer, Peking, China.

MELNIKOVA M.M. – Master-degree student, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

MORUGINA I.N. – Postgraduate, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

MOSAKOVA E.A. – Сandidate of Economics, Associate professor, Associate professor at the Department of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

MYASNIKOV V.S. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

NEKHOROSHEVA A.N. – Student, Institute of language and translation technologies and the development of international communication University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia.

NIKIFOROVA A.Y. – Masterˈs student, at the Department of Global Processes, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

OMELKOVICH A.V. – Student of the department of national and world economy Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia.

PAKHRUTDINOV SH.I. – Doctor of political sciences, professor, member of the Association of Political Scientists of Russia, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

PODOLSKIY V.A. – Candidate of Political sciences, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Political Science, State Academic University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia.

POPOV S.I. – Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia.

POTSELUEV S.P. – Doctor of Political Sciences, professor of Department of Theoretical and Applied Political Science, Institute of Philosophy and Social & Political Sciences, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

PROKHOROV D.V. – Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Samara National research university named after Academician S.P. Koroleyva, Samara, Russia.

PUTINA O.V. – Postgraduate student at the Department of Management in the Sphere of Interethnic and Interfaith Relations of the Faculty of Public Administration of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov; Specialist of the Center for the Prevention of Religious and Ethnic Extremism in Educational Organizations of the Russian Federation of the Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia.

RASSADIN A.A. – Postgraduate student of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of the Samara National research university named after Academician S.P. Koroleyva, Samara, Russia.

RODIONOVA M.E. – Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Mass Communication Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

ROGOVA YA.D. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

ROMACHEV R.V. – CEO of R-Techno intelligence agency, Moscow, Russia.

RYCHKOVA A.L. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

SAPARBEKOVA D.S. – Master's student of the Faculty of Journalism of the Russian Academy of Sciences and GS, Moscow, Russia.

SELEZNEV P.S. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Dean of the Faculty international economic relations Financial University under the Government Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

SLUTSKY L.E. – Doctor of Economics, Head of the Department of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

SMIRNOV N.M. – Bachelor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia.

SMOTRYAEVA K.S. – Director of the Institute of Language and Translation Technologies and Development of International Communication Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia.

SOMOVA I.YU. – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia.

SOSLAN BETROZOV – Ph.D. Lawyer of the Bar Association of St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

STAKHNO E.V. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

TAMUNDELE JEAN-BAPTISTE NGAY – Postgraduate student of Kazan (Privolzhsky) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

TLEZHUKOVA D.M. – Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Political Parties and Social Movements, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

TSYGANKOV P.A. – Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

TUSHKOV A.A. – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies Zhirinovsky University of World Civilizations, Moscow, Russia.

VANKOVSKA B. – Professor of political science and international relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia.

VOLZHANIN D.A. – Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

WANG JUNQI – Ph.D. student, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

ZAINULLINA P.R. – Master-degree student, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

ZHAMBAEVA U.B. – Candidate of philosophical Sciences, associate Professor of Management in higher education, REU im. G.V. Plehanova» Ulaanbaatar branch; Adviser to the President of the Mongolian diplomatic Organization for peace and friendship, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.

ZHANG HUIQIN – Russian Department, Doctorate, Professor, Beijing international Studies University, Peking, China.

ZYONG WAN LIN – Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 11 (87), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Kamenskaya G.V. Liberalism: Classic and Postmodern

Anoshkin P.P. The State and War in the Political Philosophy of N.A. Berdyaev

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Velikaya N.M. Ideological and Institutional Dominants of Consolidation of the Russian Society and State

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Petrov A.P., Pronchev G.B. Hybrid War Against Russia in the Context of a Special Military Operation for the Denaciification and Demilitarization of Ukraine (Analysis and Mathematical Modeling)

Yunusov F.A. Factors of Social Ill-Being and their Connection with State Policy in the Region (Udmurt Republic)

Brodskaya N.P. Artificial Intelligence – Personal Security Issues

Adams O.Y. Corruption Studies in People’s Republic of China: Theories and Approaches

Galieva S.I. The Role of Non-State Actors in Implementing State Policy of Crime Prevention

Magadiev M.F. The System of Interdepartmental Electronic Interaction (SIEV) in the Structure of the Electronic Government of the Russian Federation

Budaeva D.Ts., Donirova G.A. International (Inter-Ethnic) Consent of the Peoples of the Far Eastern Federal District: Historical and Political Aspect

Urokov B.A. Forming the Image of the Leader in the Public Service in the Conditions of the New Uzbekistan

Davydov V.N., Tuan Аnh Nguyen, Zotkina A.L. Social Networks as a Factor of Ensuring the Political Stability of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Samosyuk A.A. Trends in the Development of the Modern World Order as a Factor of Changing the Military Policy of the State

Gerasimenko A.A. The Main Channels of Dissemination of Information in the Media, Influencing Political Transformations in Modern Russia

Morugina I.N. Features of the Formation of the Political Agenda During the Election Campaign to the State Duma in 2021

Potapov D.V. Changing the Interpretations of Models of Political Regimes

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Karatueva E.N. Models of Interaction Between Public and Municipal Administration in Latin American Countries

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Areshidze L.G., Krupianko M.I. Japan: the Art of United a Nation by Gift Exchange

Surma I.V. State Sovereignty vs Policy of Digital and Technological Neocolonialism

Grinyaev S.N., Medvedev D.A. Transformation of Institutions of Multilateral Cooperation in the Arctic in New Geopolitical Conditions

Karachin I.O. The Political Status of the Russian Language in the Countries of the Eurasian Economic Union

Chaevich A.V. The Role of the New Maritime Doctrine in Ensuring its National Security

Tushkov A.A., Voron-Kovalskaya A.O. Scenario of "Integration of Integrations" of Greater Asia: the Way from the Eurasian Chord to the Formation of a Comprehensive Pan-Eurasian Platform

Chimiris E.S. Russian and Western Soft Power Strategies. Implicit vs. Explicit Knowledge

Bychkova N.S. International Humanitarian Cooperation and Human Security in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Shangaraev R.N., Grishkina A.V. Challenges and Threats of Russia's National Payment System in the Context of Deglobalization

Tian Miao. The Direction of Xi Jinping's International Policy: the Essence and Main Problems

Musaev M.T. Factors of Development of the Spiritual and Ideological Threat to Missionary Work in the Context of Globalization

Serik Aman. The Role of the CSTO and the SCO in Ensuring the Security of the Countries of Central Asia

Arshad Ghulam Kader. Ethnic Politics in Afghanistan

Ermilov N.S. The Role of the UN Secretary General in Conflict Settlement

Kuzyakin A.G. The Regional Office for Europe as the Main Actor for Who in the Eurasian Region (Program of Work and Current Activities)

Chen Hanzhi. 20th CPC Congress and Personnel Policy in the Context of the New Central Steering Group

Chzhan Chen`I. Political Cold and Economic Heat: a Study of Sino-Australian Relations

Yazan Hearbake. Features of China's Geoeconomic Strategies on the African Continent

Abdrakhimov L.G. Processes of National Security Strategy Development in Russia and China

Tsakhilova L.M. Transformation of the Concept of International Security in Modern Geopolitical Conditions

STUDENT SCIENCE

Litvinenko D.V., Volzhanin D.A., Fayzulina A.A. Electoral Systems of the UK and France: Markers of Efficiency and Representativeness

Radionova E.A. The Role of the Privy Council in the Colonial Policy of Great Britain

Smetanin M.S. On the Question of Russia's National Interests in the Conditions of the Emerging World Order

Bakanina D.A., Baranova Y.V., Leonova A.A. Prospeсts and Challenges of Economic Integration of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus

Nozdrin A.A., Krazhan A.S., Shelest A.A., Tantcura M.S. Anti-Corruption Compliance Policy in the Representation of American and Western European Law

Jiang Shiwang. Language Policy of the Republic of Belarus

Our authors № 11-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.001

G. KAMENSKAYA Ph.D. (Political), Leading Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

LIBERALISM: CLASSIC AND POSTMODERN

Modern theories of gender diversity and the right of the individual to freely determine one's gender, as well as the BLM movement, which had a wide resonance in the United States and beyond, claim to be the heirs and continuers of the liberal tradition of fighting for freedom. However, in their essence they act as a radical denial of the heritage of classical Modernism in its understanding of freedom, purpose and meaning of history. The society of Modernity, with a belief in the unity of the historical destiny of mankind, is being replaced by a postmodern society that has abandoned metanarratives, putting forward the struggle for the rights of various kinds of minorities as the main political theme, the rejection of the concept of norms in culture and art, of universalization as such and, ultimately, of history, i.e. from the humanistic content of Modern.

Key words: liberalism, freedom, moral autonomy, Modern postmodern, sacral vertical, "risk society".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.002

P.P. ANOSHKIN Senior Lecturer of the Philosophy Department Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia

THE STATE AND WAR IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF N.A. BERDYAEV

This article presents the views of the famous Russian thinker N.A. Berdyaev on the development and functioning of the state under conditions of preparation and waging war.

The purpose of the article is to carry out systematization and reconstruction of N.A. Berdyaev's views on the problem of correlation of the state and war, to show its relevance and significance for modern political science and philosophy. In this regard, the author of the work shows the military sphere of state life, its meaning and purpose, outlines the classification of wars proposed by N.A. Berdyaev, examines the relationship of the nature of war with the socio-political system of the state, the war is shown as a being basis, the way of implementing state interests and goals, analyzes the main directions of state policy in preparation for war put forward by N.A. Berdyaev.

To write the article the author studied the works of N.A. Berdyaev, representatives of foreign and domestic political thought and modern authors devoted to the problems of war and state. An analysis of different approaches to understanding the problem was conducted. Philosophical methods, historical and logical methods, hermeneutic, normative-value, sociological, anthropological and others were used in the course of work on the article.

In this article, the author showed that N.A. Berdyaev's approaches to understanding the relationship between the state and war are largely identical to the Marxist and rationalist methodologies.

In addition, the article shows the most important aspects of the life of the state in the preparation and conduct of the war, which, practically, have not been discussed previously in the public press.

The systematization and reconstruction of Berdyaev's approaches to understanding of the state and war carried out by the author of the article allows using its results in further research.

Key words: state and war, military policy of the state, (war), peace, capitalism, world order, morality and justice.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.003

N.M. VELIKAYA Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Deputy Director of Science and Research, Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

IDEOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DOMINANTS OF CONSOLIDATION OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY AND STATE

Based on the results of the sociological monitoring "How are you living, Russia?" (1995-2022), the actual foundations of the political consolidation of Russian society are revealed, which is considered as providing consensus on the attitudes of political behavior and political goals of the state.

On one hand, the analysis of the ideological priorities of Russian society allows us to make a conclusion about the eclectic worldview of modern Russians. On the other, it also represents the reproduction of the system of political values.

It is shown that the efforts made by the state to construct the concept of the Russian world influenced the assessment of actions and trust in various state and socio-political institutions. At the same time, the maximum trust that society demonstrates in relation to the presidential power is associated with the personalization of power and is not coherent with the level of trust in other political institutions.

Key words: consolidation, ideology, values, political institutions, presidential power, political parties.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.004

A.P. PETROV Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Leading Researcher at Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

G.B. PRONCHEV Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor; Associate Professor of the Department of Modern Sociology at the Faculty of Sociology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HYBRID WAR AGAINST RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF A SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION FOR THE DENACIIFICATION AND DEMILITARIZATION OF UKRAINE (ANALYSIS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING)

The article is devoted to the problems associated with the hybrid war carried out by the collective West in the context of a special military operation for the denazification and demilitarization of Ukraine. In addition to purely military clashes, the collective West involves all non-military ("hidden") forms of warfare: covert involvement of third-party armed groups, economic and socio-humanitarian confrontation, media support, the use of destructive socio-political technologies, the use of the national issue.

The paper proposes a mathematical model of hybrid warfare combining military and non-military ("hidden") forms of confrontation between the two states. Three typical scenarios of hybrid warfare are considered: 1) an armed conflict with a full-fledged victory of one of the parties, 2) an armed conflict with a pyrrhic victory, 3) a cold war. Numerical experiments were carried out on the basis of the proposed model, showing that in the case of a military confrontation, the key variable in a hybrid war is a military resource, and in the case of a non-military one, state stability. In the latter case, low state stability leads to a decrease in both economic and military resources.

The article is of interest to specialists dealing with the problems of hybrid wars, mathematical modeling of socio-political processes.

Key words: hybrid war, mathematical modeling, hybrid war scenarios, information war, economic component of hybrid war, socio-humanitarian component of hybrid war.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.005

F.A. YUNUSOV Doctor of Sciences in Medicine, Professor Non-state educational private institution of additional professional education Russian Academy of Medical and Social Rehabilitation, Moscow, Russia

FACTORS OF SOCIAL ILL-BEING AND THEIR CONNECTION WITH STATE POLICY IN THE REGION (UDMURT REPUBLIC)

The article presents the main directions of the state regional policy in the Udmurt Republic in the context of the analysis of the factors of social disadvantage in the region. The essence of the concept of "social disadvantage" is defined. The factors of social ill-being in the Udmurt Republic are described. The analysis of regional programs of socio-economic development of the region in the field of health care and demography, family policy, prevention of negative social phenomena in children, adolescents and youth was carried out. The characteristic of regional specifics of social trouble in the Udmurt Republic is given. The problems of mismatch of indicators of social development, insufficient interdepartmental interaction of executive authorities, socio-political institutions and civil society in solving the problems of social development of the region are revealed. A set of measures is proposed to improve legislation in the field of public health protection, to introduce interdepartmental programs for the social development of the region, aimed at reducing the factors of social ill-being in the region.

Key words: social trouble, social problems, poverty, unemployment, family trouble, state policy, social programs, interdepartmental interaction.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.006

N.P. BRODSKAYA Cand. Of Science (Politics), Senior Researcher, Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE – PERSONAL SECURITY ISSUES

The study is devoted to the actual phenomenon of the modern world – artificial intelligence. The article deals with the problems of the formation and application of AI technologies in the modern social space and the possible risks of their application. Particular attention is paid to the impact of AI technologies on the formation of public opinion and political preferences based on well-known social platforms. The topical issue of the correct use of a large array of personal data in the context of the application of modern AI practices is touched upon. Some aspects of the concept of an universal basic income and the prospects for its implementation against the background of the introduction of AI technologies are analyzed.

Key words: artificial intelligence, AI technologies, deep learning, digital footprint, personal data, universal basic income.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.007

O.Y. ADAMS PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science at the Department of Global Studies, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CORRUPTION STUDIES IN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THEORIES AND APPROACHES

Corruption studies and assessment of anticorruption efforts remain high on the political and academic agenda in the PRC. Western academia offers a wealth of approaches to study of deviant political behavior, varying from the ‘rational choice’ theory to ‘corrupting’ influence of new economic actors. In China these and many other theories are necessarily augmented with the study of political culture in combination with a single-party political system’s conditions (including the question of its’ control), maintaining the high party moral standards and efficiency of ‘clean government’ system-building. Kenneth Jowitt’s ‘organizational approach to political culture’ and Andrew Walder’s theory of ‘communist neotraditionalism’ are among the most widely known.

Key words: corruption, international problem, political culture, organizational approach, PRC, CPC, "incorruptible government", theories of corruption, "communist neo-traditionalism".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.008

S.I. GALIEVA Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

THE ROLE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN IMPLEMENTING STATE POLICY OF CRIME PREVENTION

More active participation of non-state actors in implementing various directions of states' internal policies has been a trend of last decades. The article deals with the role of non-state actors in implementing state policy of crime prevention. NGOs, expert communities, mass-media, religious bodies, volunteer militia and private security companies have been identified as main non-state actors engaged in implementing specified state policy, and pecularities of their activities in crime prevention field have been analyzed.

Key words: crime prevention, state policy of crime prevention, implementation of state policy of crime prevention, non-state actors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.009

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration and National Security Institute of Law and national security of the Russian Academy national economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE SYSTEM OF INTERDEPARTMENTAL ELECTRONIC INTERACTION (SIEV) IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Currently, the Government of the Russian Federation is working on the state information platform "Electronic Government", which was created to ensure the efficiency of data processing and the organization of a system of interdepartmental electronic interaction. At the same time, this platform is constantly transforming and moving to a level that meets the requirements of the time. Artificial intelligence is used in building chains of interdepartmental interaction, and new elements of cooperation between departments are being built.

The article is aimed at assessing the system of interdepartmental electronic interaction (SIEV) in the structure of the electronic government of the Russian Federation, as well as identifying its shortcomings that hinder the work of the state apparatus of Russia.

Key words: e-government, interdepartmental electronic interaction, digitalization, management information, information system, biometrics, development prospects.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.010

D.Ts. BUDAEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Management of the Buryat State University named after Dorji Banzarov Ulan-Ude, Russia

G.A. DONIROVA Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor Department of National and Federative Relations IGSU RANEPA, Moscow, Russia

INTERNATIONAL (INTER-ETHNIC) CONSENT OF THE PEOPLES OF THE FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT: HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL ASPECT

The article reveals the factors that had a significant impact on the formation of interethnic (interethnic) consent of the peoples of Transbaikalia and Buryatia at the stage of the first meetings of European pioneers and the autochthonous population. It is emphasized that the skills of sustainable interaction between the peoples of the studied regions, laid down during their initial contacts, have turned into skills for the stability of interethnic relations.

The paper states that the norms and standards of a calm perception of the dichotomy "We" and "They", originally laid down in Buryatia and Transbaikalia, were transferred to the southern part of the Far East. The main conductors of this process were the Cossacks, the plowed peasantry and the Old Believers, who lived for a number of centuries in Transbaikalia and Buryatia, and resettled to the East of the country as part of the migration policy of the Russian state in the second half of the 19th century.

The article concludes that the foundations of interethnic (interethnic) harmony, formed at the beginning in Transbaikalia and Buryatia and then transformed into the southern regions of the Far East, currently play a large role in maintaining the ethnopolitical stability of the Far Eastern Federal District, located in the area of geopolitical interests five foreign countries.

Key words: interethnic (interethnic) harmony, interethnic relations, Far East, Far Eastern Federal District, Transbaikalia, Buryatia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.011

B.A. UROKOV Head of department of the Republican spiritual and educational center of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

FORMING THE IMAGE OF THE LEADER IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NEW UZBEKISTAN

The article considers the image of the head of the civil service not as a mechanical set of unique features of the individual, but as a stereotyped image of the head, i.e. a fusion of its socially typical properties. When it comes to image, the obligatory presence of people who perceive this quality is implied. An image is an actively created idea of oneself among others. At the same time, the process of perception depends on the characteristics of both the bearer of the image and the social groups on which this impact is directed. Their relationship is a certain interaction, manifested in evaluating each other and changing any characteristics.

Key words: image, leader, head, function, society, democracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.012

V.N. DAVYDOV Candidate of political Sciences, associate Professor, Deputy Director of the Institute for modern policy of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

TUAN АNH NGUYEN Post-graduate student of the Department of Political Analysis and Management of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

A.L. ZOTKINA Master of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A FACTOR OF ENSURING THE POLITICAL STABILITY OF THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

The subject of the study is the analysis of the role of social networks as a factor in ensuring the political stability of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The authors of the article prove the importance of studying political stability in Vietnam. It was found out that social media is a communicative and information technology and analyzed the key trends in the functioning of social media as a mechanism of political stability in modern Vietnamese society. Having defined the concept and importance of this phenomenon, an example of the involvement of society in destabilizing political processes due to the use of social networks is shown. Based on the analysis of the degree of involvement of users of social networks, the central dilemma of political stability in modern Vietnamese society is proved.

The novelty of the research consists in the generalization of political science, sociological and psychological concepts of political stability, characterizing the impact of the media on the stability of the political system. Through the prism of the analysis of the information and communication subsystem of the Vietnamese political system, the necessity of systematically informing the population about the activities of state authorities, political forces and comprehensive objective coverage of the problems of society and their solutions is proved. The conclusions and recommendations of the study can be used in the activities of state and municipal structures for working with the media, and can also serve as a basis for adjusting the information policy of both state and public structures.

Key words: Vietnam, Internet users, social networks, political stability, involvement of respondents, stability of the political system, involvement of users of social networks, political processes, the role of social networks in political processes, information and communication subsystem of the Vietnamese political system, Vietnamese society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.013

A.A. SAMOSYUK Research Associate, Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN WORLD ORDER AS A FACTOR OF CHANGING THE MILITARY POLICY OF THE STATE

The article discusses the current aspects of the transformation of the modern world order from the perspective of changing the balance of power between key geopolitical players. The purpose of the article is to analyze the significance of the process of geopolitical changes and the evolution of the world order for the further development of the military policy of the Russian state. In accordance with this goal, the article solves the tasks of specifying the key trends in the development of the current military-political situation of the world, analyzes the factors of transformation of the world order, determines their significance for the evolution of the military policy of the state. Based on the apparatus of general scientific methods (analysis, system method, inductive-deductive approach), as well as the method of event analysis, the article examines the characteristics of the current military-political situation in the world, which is the starting point for the construction of the state's military policy. As a result, conclusions are drawn that the high risk-taking significance of modern geopolitical processes for ensuring the national security of the Russian state. The development of the world community is undergoing qualitative changes. With a considerable degree of confidence, it can be assumed that humanity is on the threshold of a new cycle of geopolitical transformation of the world order. This can lead to the chaoticization of the previously established system of international relations. Conceptualization of the military policy of the Russian Federation at the present time should be carried out taking into account the current trends of transformation of the modern world order, which is in a state of transit from a monocentric model (unipolarity) to a polycentric (multipolarity).

Key words: geopolitics, military power, national security, military-political situation, balance of power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.014

A.А. GERASIMENKO Graduate student, University of World Civilizations named after V.V. Zhirinovsky, Omsk, Russia

THE MAIN CHANNELS OF DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION IN THE MEDIA, INFLUENCING POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN MODERN RUSSIA

The rapid processes of digitalization are spreading to all spheres of human life, the political processes of modern Russia are also subject to these changes, so the question of the relevance of the influence of the media through various channels of information dissemination in the context of digitalization is quite acute. Of particular interest are the issues of the influence of Internet media on political transformations in the country, at present this area is in the process of development, but a certain practice of using Internet media in politics has already developed. However, this issue remains little studied, in particular, few works are devoted to the topic of the influence of Internet media on political processes. The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of information dissemination channels in the media on political transformations in the country. The objectives of the study are: analysis of information distribution channels in the media and determination of their degree of influence on the political transformations of modern Russia. The research methods used in solving the research tasks are as follows: analysis and synthesis, comparison and systematization, observation. According to the results of the study, it was found that television and the Internet have a significant impact on the political transformations of modern Russia, however, despite the fact that television has always been the leading channel for distributing information in the political sphere, in recent years, priorities have changed in favor of the Internet media. The conclusions obtained from studies of independent news agencies, Internet portals, communities and instant messengers made it possible to establish a high degree of influence on political processes in the country.

Key words: media, media functions, traditional media, online media, information distribution channels, political transformations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.015

I.N. MORUGINA Postgraduate, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

FEATURES OF THE FORMATION OF THE POLITICAL AGENDA DURING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN TO THE STATE DUMA IN 2021

This article discusses the features of the formation of the political agenda during the election campaign to the State Duma in 2021. It is noted that a change in the Constitution of the Russian Federation in terms of the terms of office of the President of the Russian Federation had a special impact on this process, as well as on the entire election campaign in 2021. In addition, the dominance of the official point of view in public discourse during this period did not contribute to the emergence of balanced and alternative options for solving complex problems as priority political issues. It is concluded that the main features of the formation of the political agenda during the election campaign to the State Duma in 2021 should include: firstly, the monopoly role of the presidency in its formation; secondly, the inability of political parties to independently influence the process of its formation; thirdly, the dependence of the political agenda on situational factors of its formation and the point of view of the executive branch on these factors.

Key words: politics, political agenda, election campaign, President of the Russian Federation, State Duma, political parties, executive power, political discourse.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.016

D.V. POTAPOV Postgraduate student of the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

CHANGING THE INTERPRETATIONS OF MODELS OF POLITICAL REGIMES

The article reveals the terminological meaning of the concepts and models of political regimes. The purpose of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the models and types of political regimes depending on the time, country and alignment of political forces. A variety of interpretations of political regimes reveals their significant transformation, political relations, political cooperation, complex and conflict strategies. The terms "republic", "democracy", "dictatorship" and "authoritarianism" appeared in literature in the middle of the 18th century, however, these terms often had a completely different meaning. Therefore, the comparison of changing interpretations and scientific discourse in the assessment of political regimes should contribute to the development of more accurate ideas about the directions of political processes in various regions of the world.

Key words: political regime, autocracy, totalitarianism, democracy, power, management.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.017

E.N. KARATUEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia

MODELS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PUBLIC AND MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

Local self-government in Latin American countries demonstrates the specific features of the interaction of the governing structures of the local political bureaucracy with public authorities. The continental and Iberian systems of local self-government formed in the countries of the region are expressed in building a centralized vertical of power relations at all administrative levels.

The article is devoted to the study of the process of evolution of democratic changes in the system of local self-government of the Latin American continent and the emerging hierarchy in state-municipal relations.

Key words: Latin America, public administration, local government, municipal government, mayor, alcalde.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.018

L.G. ARESHIDZE Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at ISAA Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

M.I. KRUPIANKO Doctor of political sciences, Leading researcher Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, Moscow, Russia

JAPAN: THE ART OF UNITED A NATION BY GIFT EXCHANGE

On the example of the traditional national Japanese custom of exchanging gifts with each other, the article discusses the features of the implementation of the social phenomenon of nation rallying. Such a tradition, rooted in the foundations of interpersonal relations in society, is woven from the ideals of Confucianism, Shintoism, Buddhism and, to a certain extent, Christianity. In many countries of the world, after natural disasters, earthquakes, fires, floods, various kinds of marauders begin to actively operate, there are rampant robberies of what the inhabitants still have in their destroyed houses, chaos and lawlessness ensue. There is nothing like this in Japan – there is not a single report of looting or robbery in the media.

Moreover, somewhere the owners of grocery stores even reduce the prices of food products, and the owners of vending machines selling food and water generally open them for general use. The Japanese help each other, bask together by the fires, fairly share food among themselves, give each other a place in the queue.

This behavior can be explained by the special nature of interpersonal relationships in Japanese society. Firstly, the Japanese feel they are "in the same boat", every Japanese knows that he is part of a single social system, a certain social group, which corresponds to a certain style of behavior in it. In Japan, it is not customary, for example, to demonstrate your condition or draw attention to your feelings – when you feel bad, hold on and do not show it. Secondly, the country has a low crime rate, an effective police force and a humane punishment system that tries to return the stumbled person back to normal society, and not harm him through punishment.

And the main thing, of course, is that the Japanese feel themselves to be a single people – not in words, not in slogans, but in deeds. A united, close-knit Japanese nation is psychologically accustomed to defending itself from the inside, using its traditional methods, trying to lend a shoulder to its neighbor in difficult times, express sympathy, and deliver, among other things, the joy of giving gifts. The donation mechanism is described in detail in this article.

Key words: unity of the nation, the formation of interpersonal relations, the tradition of taking care of each other, the ritual of exchanging gifts, the duty to express one's gratitude, New Year's cards "nengadze", set expressions when writing "nengadze", rules for exchanging gifts on special mourning occasions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.019

I.V. SURMA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; Ph.D. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences; professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia

STATE SOVEREIGNTY VS POLICY OF DIGITAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL NEOCOLONIALISM

The peculiarity of the definition of state and digital sovereignty is emphasized. The specifics of the state confrontation in the international arena are noted, which is manifested in its hybrid nature, and in the conditions of financial, technological and digital neocolonization of a significant number of countries of the world, the struggle for recognition of technical standards created by individual states and large corporations is unfolding on more technologically-oriented international platforms, which exacerbates the problem of ensuring the digital sovereignty of the modern state.

The intensive introduction of artificial intelligence technologies into international and socio-political practice, as well as technological solutions based on algorithms of self-learning neural networks, deserves special consideration.

Key words: Digital sovereignty, cybersecurity, NATO, artificial intelligence, technological sovereignty, Internet, Russia, state sovereignty, China, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.020

S.N. GRINYAEV Doctor of Technical Sciences, Dean of the Faculty of Integrated Security of the Fuel and Energy Complex of National University of Oil and Gas «Gubkin University», Moscow, Russia

D.A. MEDVEDEV Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science of MSLU, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF INSTITUTIONS OF MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE ARCTIC IN NEW GEOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS

The article discusses the impact of the growing geopolitical confrontation on the transformation of institutions of multilateral cooperation in the Arctic region. The authors attempt to identify and systematize the main trends of institutional changes in the region, as well as to determine the role and place of the Arctic Council in the new geopolitical conditions. The strategies of the key powers in the Arctic and their strategic aspirations towards international institutions in the region are also described, as well as the analysis of the influence of the geopolitical agenda on the nature of international cooperation in the region is carried out. In addition, the authors predict the conditions caused by the institutional crisis of the Arctic Council and other key regional organizations, including the strengthening of the role of non-Arctic states and the politicization of international institutions. It is stated that the legal provisions regulating the activities of the Arctic Council and their focus on excluding the influence of the political agenda on the functioning of the institute. Despite this fact, there is an intensification of the activities of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and, in this regard, the threat of militarization of the Arctic region, as well as the isolation of the largest Arctic power from representing its interests in the international stage, without the enforcement of its voting rights, decision-making within the Arctic Council and other regional organizations is not possible.

Key words: Arctic, international institutions, regional cooperation, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.021

I.O. KARACHIN Head of Staff, Communications Director-Agency for strategic initiatives; Candidate of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE POLITICAL STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

This article analyzes the political status of the Russian language in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. We are talking about the Russian language as the main way of interethnic communication within the Eurasian Economic Union. Based on a detailed study of the purpose of the creation of the EAEU, the main areas of interethnic communication, both official and unofficial interaction, were identified. During the analysis of the regulatory legal acts of the EAEU, the procedure for the use of language and language formalities in the presented area has been established. The author pays special attention to historical and political-social facts in the process of development of the EAEU, as a basis for forming the language environment.

Key words: Eurasian Economic Union, Russian language, interethnic communication, Russian Federation, EAEU.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.022

A.V. CHAEVICH Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Maritime Law and International Law, Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Law Institute, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE NEW MARITIME DOCTRINE IN ENSURING ITS NATIONAL SECURITY

This article analyzes the role of the Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation in 2022 as a strategic planning document defining the state policy in the field of maritime activities in ensuring its national security. The new Maritime Doctrine took into account important changes and new trends in the international situation that affect the interests of the Russian Federation in the oceans. The key provision of the Doctrine was the definition and classification of Russia's national interests, as well as the identification of the main threats and challenges to ensure it. In order to protect national interests in maritime activities, the Maritime Doctrine assumes the expansion of Russia's economic, research and naval presence in various areas of the World.

Key words: Maritime doctrine of the Russian Federation, national interests, vital interests, threats and risks to national security in maritime activities, military force, navy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.023

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.O. VORON-KOVALSKAYA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University, Vladivostok, Russia

SCENARIO OF "INTEGRATION OF INTEGRATIONS" OF GREATER ASIA: THE WAY FROM THE EURASIAN CHORD TO THE FORMATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE PAN-EURASIAN PLATFORM

In this article, the authors addressed an urgent problem – the policy of forming a comprehensive pan – Eurasian platform in the Eurasian space of Greater Asia. Increasingly, the attention of politicians and scientists is attracted by the Indo-Pacific region, which is considered to be more prospective than the Asia-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific region refers to the vast expanse of the sea, including the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Active attention caused by several factors: the growing influence of India on the world economy and the need for its incorporation into the processes of the Asia-Pacific region, the increase in maritime trade flows and the demand for transport routes of the Indian Ocean, the interpenetration of the spheres of influence of China and India. The concept of «Indo-Pacifica» reflects the increased geopolitical role of the Indian Ocean in global politics. Today, the Indo-Pacific region, especially, attracts the attention of three countries fighting for leadership in it: USA, China, India. India's interest in this region is conditioned by geographical and economic reasons, however, there are a number of factors preventing the state from succeeding in the issue of dominance. One of these factors is the need to compete with the stronger economies of the USA and China, which are also interested in their presence and control over the main processes.

Key words: APR, the concept of the «Indo-Pacific region», Indo-Pacific Economic Framework Strategy, USA, China, India, SCO, ASEAN.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.024

E.S. CHIMIRIS Candidate of Political Sciences, researcher, Department of Global Issues, INION RAN; director, Center for social and political studies, IIRIP VAVT, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN AND WESTERN SOFT POWER STRATEGIES. IMPLICIT VS. EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE

The article attempts to apply the typology of knowledge acquisition processes to the analysis of the features of the application of "soft power" methods by Russia and Western countries. Given the fact that the “soft power” tools are connected, among other things, with an attempt to influence the creation of a certain model of political culture in another country, the authors conclude that the reason for the differences in approaches to “soft power” lies primarily in the features social modeling methods. We take the concept of political culture of V.M. Sergeev and N.I. Biryukov, as a theoretical basis. Political culture includes ontology, values, and practices. It is also supplemented by a conceptual distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge, which allows us to propose a typology according to the type of transmission of political culture in the framework of the application of “soft power” policy. The authors conclude that the Russian “soft power” is primarily focused on implicit transfer of values, while the Western world focuses on the explicit transfer of practices. In the first case, the assessment of specific results is difficult due to the inability to operationalize the process of knowledge transfer, as well as to reliably identify the fact of obtaining knowledge by simple methods. A possible way out of this situation could be a reorientation of the Russian approach to “soft power” towards explicit translation of practices.

Key words: “soft power”, post-Soviet space, political culture, implicit knowledge, performance evaluation, Russia, USA, European Union.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.025

N.S. BYCHKOVA Lecturer, Faculty of Global Studie Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN COOPERATION AND HUMAN SECURITY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

The pandemic of the new coronavirus infection has had an impact on all spheres of human life and society, including the security sector. Since the COVID-19 pandemic is a biogenic challenge on a global scale, the purpose of the article is to identify possible tools to ensure human security in the context of the crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of the article are to analyze the essence of the concept of human security, its place in modern international relations; to identify the tools that would contribute to reducing the negative effects of the pandemic on human security at the international level. The analysis of documents and scientific articles made it possible to trace the formation and evolution of the concept of human security, to come to the conclusion that a possible tool for ensuring human security is the further development of international humanitarian cooperation on an equal and mutually beneficial basis. The article highlights the most significant barriers and negative factors hindering the development of international humanitarian cooperation to ensure human security in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The most significant negative factor is the lack of coordination of the efforts of individual States on a global scale.

Key words: human security, international humanitarian cooperation, COVID-19, pandemic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.026

R.N. SHANGARAEV Ph.D. (Economics), Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

A.V. GRISHKINA Master’s Degree Student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

CHALLENGES AND THREATS OF RUSSIA'S NATIONAL PAYMENT SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF DEGLOBALIZATION

Currently, the world economy is being reformatted. After the end of World War II, as world trade developed as part of the intensification of international relations, which occurred mainly due to the expansion of transport and logistics capabilities due to scientific and technological progress, the world economy became more and more global.

Key words: Russia, NPS, World, deglobalization, payment systems, sanctions, SWIFT.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.027

TIAN MIAO Ph.D., graduate student, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, RUDN, Moscow, Russia

THE DIRECTION OF XI JINPING'S INTERNATIONAL POLICY: THE ESSENCE AND MAIN PROBLEMS

The international policy built by Xi Jinping has a strong cultural basis for the development of the Chinese nation. Since 2013, the state has been actively taking the vector of its development in the international arena in the direction of optimizing economic, political, social and other relations. The simultaneous direction of development of the whole world must be correlated with the general prosperity of the state, preserving values and increasing its own power through the commitment of socialism with Chinese specifics.

The article presents a brief analysis of the origins of modern international policy with a focus on its reformation in the XXI century. The current principles of China's international policy are considered to form a conclusion regarding the chosen direction of Xi Jinping's international policy, which leads to the development of the state.

Key words: China, Xi Jinping, politics, development, international development, problems, prospects.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.028

M.T. MUSAEV Independent researcher Institute for Social and Spiritual Research at the Republican Center for Spirituality and Education, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPIRITUAL AND IDEOLOGICAL THREAT TO MISSIONARY WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

This article analyzes the ideas of the globalization of the missionary classification. The article also discusses the classification of the principles of classification of missionary mechanisms in the context of globalization on the basis of the relevant areas of the state and society, the features of the historical genesis of the basic concepts of missiology are actualized in modern discussions on missionary service. The article also notes that missionary work and proselytism are currently manifested as a form of expansion in accordance with geopolitical theory. The growing number of ideological platforms where missionary and proselytized movements have become more active in the XXI century makes it clear that the prevention and elimination of these movements is one of the most acute problems in a number of countries around the world.

Key words: globalization, spirituality, idea, ideology, missionary work, security, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.029

SERIK AMAN Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE CSTO AND THE SCO IN ENSURING THE SECURITY OF THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA

The article shows that increasing cooperation between such regional structures as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) could set new standards for military-political interaction and play a stabilizing role in the development of the situation in Central Asia, as well as would help form an effective partnership to respond to new challenges and threats in this region. It is emphasized that the most important priority for Russia remains the preservation of the sovereignty of the states - allies in the CSTO, the EAEU and the CIS, as well as their ability to independently make foreign policy decisions based on all geopolitical factors. The author states the fact that in the Eurasian space the process of creating socio-economic relations has actually begun according to the formula "prosperity in the unity of diversity", based on the principles of expediency, mutual assistance and mutual respect.

Key words: International security, SCO, Central Asia, CSTO, international relations, CIS, Russia, Regional security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.030

ARSHAD GHULAM KADER Postgraduate student of the department of history of state and law Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

ETHNIC POLITICS IN AFGHANISTAN

Given the ongoing war in Afghanistan, whenever the issue of "ethnicity" is raised, different opinions and ideas come to mind. On the one hand, there are many journalists such as Ahmed Rashid, as well as researchers such as and politicians such as Colin Powell and Yushka Fischer, who describe the conflict in Afghanistan as ethnic. On the other hand, most Afghan politicians always deny this important issue because of their origins and ethnic ties. Against this background, in this article I intend to discuss the concept of ethnicity and its implications for the structure of the future system of Afghanistan.

Based on the hypothesis that ethnicity is the dominant trend in the Afghan conflict, it can be said that the peace and government process that emerged at the Petersburg-Ben conference in November 2001 was based on an ethnic approach. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the ethnicity of each political actor. In contrast to this approach, I strongly recommend that efforts be made in rebuilding political institutions to avoid inciting ethnicity in the political arena. The practice of ethnocentrism and ethnic quotas in the future government of Afghanistan will exacerbate the fragile and critical situation in Afghanistan instead of promoting sustainable peace. In this article, my main argument is that ethnic groups cannot be seen as effective and useful sources of unity and solidarity in Afghanistan. We must not forget that ethnicization took place during the wars in Afghanistan, but the nation-building of the masses was always unsuccessful. It is not too late to curb the abuse of ethnicity in the political reconstruction of Afghanistan rather than promoting ethnicity as a "solution".

Key words: Nationality, Politics, Religion, Government, War, Afghan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.031

N.S. ERMILOV Postgraduate Student, Department of Foreign Regional Studies and International Cooperation, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Institute of Public Administration and Management, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE UN SECRETARY GENERAL IN CONFLICT SETTLEMENT

Conflicts arising at the global level are often of an international nature and are accompanied by the emergence of disagreements, which, according to the UN Charter, can only be resolved peacefully by the UN Secretary-General, guided by the exclusion of possible global threats, which is enshrined in the purposes of the UN Charter regarding the peaceful resolution of international disputes, the continuation of which could threaten the maintenance of international peace and security. The purpose of the study is to study the role of the UN Secretary General in conflict resolution. The objectives of the study include: to consider the functions of the UN Secretary General in conflict resolution, to systematize the main achievements of officials who held the post of UN Secretary General at different times. The research methods were analysis, generalization, systematization of scientific sources on the research problem.

The article reveals the capabilities of UN bodies in solving world conflicts, the regulatory component of the elements of law focused on the resolution of international disputes and the maintenance of international peace and security, as well as the importance of the work of the UN Secretaries-General since the establishment of this organization, including the contents of the UN Archive.

Key words: UN secretariat structure, United Nations, government delegations, UN Secretary General, UN Member States, traditional concepts.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.032

A.G. KUZYAKIN Ph.D. candidate, Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

THE REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE AS THE MAIN ACTOR FOR WHO IN THE EURASIAN REGION (PROGRAM OF WORK AND CURRENT ACTIVITIES)

Goals: Study of the current activities of the Regional Office for Europe, as the main subject of the World Health Organization in the Eurasian region.

Tasks: 1) Identification of the priorities of WHO, its representative offices in the Eurasian region; 2) Analysis of the work program of the E Bureau; 3) Review of current WHO-Europe activities.

Methodology: A systematic approach, analysis of WHO's activities in the Eurasian region within a single organizational structure. Methods: analysis, synthesis, systematization, differentiation and comparison.

Results: The current program of the Regional Office for Europe has been formed taking into account the most pressing challenges and in the context of common priorities previously approved by WHO itself. The practical expression of the principles and tasks outlined in it is the work of the European Bureau, implemented today, directly related to the priorities outlined in the program.

In the process of formalized work, WHO-Europe continued to work on establishing global and regional partnerships with a wide range of organizations

Conclusions: The WHO Regional Office for Europe covers the most extensive region of Eurasia and includes 53 States in Europe and Central Asia. Its current priorities and real activities are focused on ensuring health. This makes it possible to influence different spheres of government activity, and to develop a wide range of partnerships. Accompanied by a good positive dynamics of its performance indicators in the region, the European Regional.

Key words: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Eurasian region, international actors, program of work.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.033

CHEN HANZHI Intern at the Chinese Institute of International Studies, China

20TH CPC CONGRESS AND PERSONNEL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW CENTRAL STEERING GROUP

This article is devoted to the analysis of the personnel decisions of the 20th Congress of the CPC of China, which seems to be an important aspect in the context of the expansion of the political and economic influence of the PRC. The Communist Party maintains its leading role in Chinese society, having strengthened organizationally and ideologically over a century of existence. The central political elite (the top leadership) of the CPC forms the internal and external course of the state, the personality of the most significant positions, their specifics and changes in key characteristics are essential, so the study of this area is important when analyzing the political elite as a subject of world politics.

Key words: political elite, global politics, PRC, foreign policy course, key positions, political comparison.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.034

CHZHAN CHEN`I Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL COLD AND ECONOMIC HEAT: A STUDY OF SINO-AUSTRALIAN RELATIONS

This article examines the causes of the “political cold and economic heat” in Sino-Australian relations, analyzes certain areas of bilateral relations. The study aims to determine the motives for the expansion of China's influence in the South Pacific region. The identified problems and trends of China's foreign policy in the context of relations with Australia and island countries in the current political moment actualize this issue from the point of view of global security and internal political stability. The obtained result of the study allows us to determine the main attitudes in the international courses of island countries and predict the trend of development of Sino-Australian relations in the future and after the new Labor government comes to power.

Key words: international relations, Sino-Australian relations, political interaction, South Pacific region, security, geopolitical influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.035

YAZAN HEARBAKE Graduate student of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF CHINA'S GEOECONOMIC STRATEGIES ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

China views Africa as the centerpiece of a project to sustain the growth and development of China's economy in the long term, as Africa is an important source of China's resource supply with its growing demand for raw materials.

The article presents the characteristics of China's geo-economic strategies on the African continent.

The importance of Africa lies in China's desire to strengthen its economic influence in a globalized world that is moving towards a transformation of the economic system.

Purpose: Analysis of China's geo-economic strategies in Africa and identification of the most important tools and technologies that it uses to expand its influence on the African continent.

Key words: geo-economic strategies, America, Africa, China, mineral wealth and raw materials.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.036

L.G. ABDRAKHIMOV Candidate of science degree, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

PROCESSES OF NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA AND CHINA

The article examines the peculiarities of national security strategy development processes in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. The author notes that the processes of developing national security strategies include such aspects as the analysis of foreign and domestic policy, the definition of targets, the study of the main vulnerable "points" of the states in terms of damage from outside, the development of strategic objectives and vectors of movement to them.

Key words: national security strategy, Russia PRC, development processes.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.037

L.M. TSAKHILOVA PhD student, Department of Comparative Political Science, faculty of political science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY IN MODERN GEOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS

The destabilization of the world order, the intensification of the struggle between the poles of power, the escalation and transformation of international military conflicts, which includes the hybridization of wars, the weakening of the role of the institute of international law, the emergence of new centers of power, led to a crisis of the international security system. In modern geopolitical conditions, with all the challenges and threats facing the world community, security factors, in particular international security, are becoming priorities on the political agenda of States. International security has long acquired a comprehensive character, and of course the security of each individual State is inextricably linked with the security of the international community as a whole. The article examines the historical component of the formation of the concept of security, and also pays attention to the factors influencing the transformation of the concept of security in the current political conditions.

Key words: international security, globalization, international law.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.038

D.V. LITVINENKO Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia

D.A. VOLZHANIN Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. FAYZULINA Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia

ELECTORAL SYSTEMS OF THE UK AND FRANCE: MARKERS OF EFFICIENCY AND REPRESENTATIVENESS

The article studies the electoral systems of Great Britain and France from the standpoint of efficiency and representativeness. The purpose of the study is to determine the possibility of using foreign experience in Russian practice based on the analysis of the electoral systems used during the parliamentary elections in the UK and France. The conceptual framework for the study has been developed. The analysis of electoral systems used in the course of parliamentary elections in Great Britain and France has been carried out. The results of the analysis of electoral systems have been interpreted. The practical significance of the chosen topic lies in the fact that the results of the analysis can be applied in Russian practice for holding elections at the federal level. It is noted that for the effectiveness of popular representation in the legislature, the principle of representing different political interests and social groups must be observed; the main factors contributing to the formation of a two-party system: the phenomenon of polarization and the phenomenon of underrepresentation. It was revealed that in the UK the majority system of relative majority, which is one of the simplest in Europe, occupies the most important place; during the parliamentary elections in France, there is a majoritarian electoral system of an absolute majority, which in the long run contributes to the political polarization of society and the formation of two large party coalitions. It is concluded that the two-party system, achieved in a free and democratic way with the help of a majoritarian electoral system, makes it possible to achieve effective popular representation and increase the level of political competition. This approach can also be applied in Russia, which will increase the effectiveness of federal elections.

Key words: majoritarian electoral system, proportional electoral system, Great Britain, France, Russia, parliamentary elections, change of power, popular representation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.039

E.A. RADIONOVA Student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL IN THE COLONIAL POLICY OF GREAT BRITAIN

This article is devoted to determining the impact of the Privy Council on British colonial policy. The study aims at a comprehensive analysis of the functions of the Privy Council and its place in the structure of British politics. The relevance of the study is due to the small number of works that can be found on the chosen topic, although the influence of the Privy Council can hardly be underestimated both in the modern politics of Great Britain and in the retrospective. The paper examines the context of British colonial policy in the period from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Special attention is paid to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, its powers and, in particular, appellate jurisdiction both during the heyday of the colonial empire and during the formation of the Commonwealth of Nations. The prospects of the Privy Council in the era of neo-colonial tendencies are analyzed. To achieve the goals set, methods of analyzing theoretical studies were used, as well as a systematic analysis of official sources of the British government. The scientific novelty of the paper lies in determining the influence of the Privy Council on British colonial policy and indicating the possibility of using British heritage to strengthen the culture of neo-colonialism. The analysis showed that starting from the end of the 17th century, the Privy Council had a huge influence on the overseas territories of the British Empire. However, there is already a crisis in the executive power of the Privy Council, which nevertheless does not detract from its institutional influence on British foreign policy. The presented analysis may be useful to a wide range of readers, including those interested in the study of British colonial policy.

Key words: the Privy Council, Great Britain, colonial policy, the Judicial Committee, Commonwealth of Nations, neo-colonialism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.040

M.S. SMETANIN Undergraduate of the Russian Peoples' Friendship University, Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF RUSSIA'S NATIONAL INTERESTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE EMERGING WORLD ORDER

In the proposed publication, the author defines the actual national interests of the Russian Federation in the context of the transition of international relations to the regime of multipolarity and the loss of the US and Western countries of the position of the world military-political and cultural-ideological hegemon. Setting the goal of a clear designation of the national interests of the Russian Federation in the context of strengthening the sovereignty, territorial integrity and restoration of the "Russian World" on linguistic, ethnic and religious grounds, the author defines national interests in the most general form as a set of conditional needs and inalienable values of a historically established, united sociocultural ties and the social community organized into the state, the satisfaction and protection of which is objectively necessary for the future existence and development of the state. As practical measures necessary for the implementation of the interests indicated in the article at the global level, the implementation of a completely independent and independent policy, a more active participation of the country in international associations and organizations, and the achievement of economic sovereignty are indicated. In conclusion, it is concluded that the national interests of Russia should be based on the preservation and enhancement of the demographic potential, strengthening the internal and external security and defense capability of the state, sustainable economic, scientific and technological development.

Key words: national interests, unipolarity, multipolarity, sovereignty, democratization, special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.041

D.A. BAKANINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

Y.V. BARANOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. LEONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PROSPEСTS AND CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

The Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus historically had sufficient prerequisites for successful integration. Both the cultural and historical proximity of the two peoples and the similarity of approaches to economic management contributed to its integration. 2022 has particularly vividly demonstrated the importance of strengthening economic cooperation between states on the basis of the Union State in the face of severe sanctions and pressure from the collective West. This article describes and analyzes the history of the formation and development of the Union State of Russia and Belarus after the collapse of the USSR, and also considers further prospects for the dynamics of Russian-Belarusian integration.

Key words: Russian Federation, Republic of Belarus, Union State, Eastern Partnership, collective West, economic cooperation, Russian-Belarusian integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.042

A.A. NOZDRIN Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.S. KRAZHAN Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. SHELEST Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

M.S. TANTCURA Scientific adviser, candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia

ANTI-CORRUPTION COMPLIANCE POLICY IN THE REPRESENTATION OF AMERICAN AND WESTERN EUROPEAN LAW

The search for a way to protect Russian companies from risks will always be relevant. In particular, compliance is a fairly new method of protection against corruption risks, which in Russia has not yet been fully introduced into the internal control system of many large companies. For its more correct implementation in the anti-corruption legislation of Russia, it is necessary to understand exactly what compliance is as a system in American and Western European legal theory, where compliance was established as a method of combating corruption at the end of the last century.

Key words: compliance, anti-corruption compliance, compliance system, anti-corruption legislation, Special Military Operation, compliance control.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.11.043

JIANG SHIWANG Master's Degree Dalian University of Foreign Languages, China

LANGUAGE POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

In the article, the author examines the current trends of language policy in the Republic of Belarus in the context of the formation of international relations and the development of society within the country. The state's language policy is considered taking into account the implementation of national and international projects on the example of Belarusian-Russian and Belarusian-Chinese cooperation, as well as the organization of interaction with a number of other countries.

The paper analyzes not only the content of the language policy in Belarus, but also determines the prospects for the transformation of various spheres of public life, taking into account national priorities and the participation of the language component in them.

Key words: language policy, national identity, international cooperation, language situation, bilingualism, language barrier.

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 10 (86), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Furman F.P., Krasilnikov S.V. Globalism and Multiculturalism and their Crisis

Chemshit D.A. Political Modernization as an Object of Scientific Research

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Ryazantsev S.V., Bragin A.D. Transformation of Motives and Trends of Emigration of Russians

Shakun E.N. Foreign Studies of Youth and Students: a Brief Review of Format and Content

Miroshnikov V.S. Extremism and Terrorism in Modern Society

Akhpatelov B.R., Davydov D.R. Representation of the Interests of Public Groups in the Russian Federation

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Madyukova S.A. Regional Specifics of the Institute of National Policy in the Republic of Tyva

Galieva S.I., Galieva G.M. The Place of Crime Prevention in Russian Political Space Through the Lens of Presidental Addresses

Emelyanov A.I., Belova L.G. Features of the Dissemination of Political Information in the Internet Space in the Conditions of Information Confrontation

Volkov A.V. Warrior of Light: Information War Against Figure Skater Kamila Valieva as a Symbol of National Alliance: Political Aspect

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Magadiev M.F. Main Issues of State Administration in Russia in the Field of International Cooperation in the Context of the Special Military Operation in Ukraine

Chepelyuk S.G. Digital Government as a Factor in the Development of Interaction Between the State and Business

Samuseva O.A. Scientific and Technological Direction as a Priority in Development

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Juraqulov F.N. Reform on the Principle of Division of State Power and Balance in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Rodionova M.E., Gimaliev V.G., Nazarova N.A. Electoral Preferences of the Italian Population on the Eve of Parliamentary Elections 2022

Nevmerzhitskii A.L., Novoselov S.V., Khachatryan D.A. Political Processes: a Vector for International Cooperation or Confrontation

Guzaerov R.I. Diplomatic Relations Between Turkey and Saudi Arabia (2015-2022)

Nechai A.A. Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Internal and External Challenges

Kozyreva M.S. From NAFTA to USMC: Benefits and Losses of Participants

Kapustin A.S. Comparative Analysis of Media Centers of the International Terrorist Organization DAESH (Prohibbited in the Russian Federation)

Wang Congyue. The Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on International Configuration

Gao Dai. Analysis of the Main Problems of the Ancient Chinese Anti-Corruption System

Goerlitz H. System of Economic Relations Between Russia and Germany in the Context of their Political Support

Gu Xiaoyan. China's Development Assistance in Southeast Asia Research

Lidzhieva K.N. The Strategy of "Global Korea" as the Foundation of the Policy of the "Middle Power"

Lukin A.D. Arctic Diplomacy as a Kind of Regional Diplomacy and a Special Kind of State Policy in the Arctic

Liu Jia, Wang Zhaoxu, Yue Siqi. The Influence of the Media on the Formation of the Image of the State (Comparative Analysis of China and Russia)

Matyashova D.O., Mikhalevich E.A. Intrastate and Interstate Conflicts and Aggressive Non-State Actors in Northeast Asia

Telegin D.S. The Role of the Arctic Region in the Formation of “Greater Eurasia”

Khorbaladze E.L. US Indo-Pacific Strategy: Main Dimesnsions and Implications for Russia

Chu Chengcheng. Humanitarian Policy of China and the United States in Central Asia in the Field of Education

Timakhov K.V. NEOM: Transformation Project of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Omonov R.R. Experience in the Application of Information Technologies in the Public Administration of the USA and the Countries of Western Europe and their Impact on Modernization Power Systems

Aman S. Modern Challenges and Security Threats for Central Asian Countries

STUDENT SCIENCE

Myasnikov D.S., Manapov S.Sh., Simakova V.K. The Essence of the Liberal Oligarchy as a Project for an Effective Political Structure of the State

Kostina A.D., Ilinskaya K.R., Pakhmutov N.D. Favorable Forecasts and “Problematic” Aspects of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative

Bakanina D.A., Baranova Y.V., Leonova A.A. Environmental Agenda as a Means of Implementing Scientific Diplomacy of Western Countries and the Russian Federation in the Arctic Region

Nikitina A.A. The Role of Mass Communication in the Dynamics of Relations Between the USA and Russia

Our authors № 10-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.001

F.P. FURMAN Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

S.V. KRASILNIKOV Ph.D., Associate professor, department of theory and history of state and law North-West institute of management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Saint Petersburg, Russia

GLOBALISM AND MULTICULTURALISM AND THEIR CRISIS

The article is devoted to the analysis of American, European and Russian scientists' views on such global processes as globalism and multiculturalism; the basic difference between the concept «multicultural» and «multicultural» is determined. The similarities and differences in the meaning of these terms in American and European scientific discourse are revealed.

The article also explores current trends in geopolitics in the era of globalization. As a result of this research it has been shown that the world at the end of the twentieth century is not bipolar, and in the twenty-first century it transforms from unipolar into multi-polar. It is indicated that this trend is connected with the fact that centres of economic development and the reformatting of the existing global geopolitical system are being transformed.

Key words: globalism, multiculturalism, multiculturalism, globalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.002

D.A. CHEMSHIT Candidate of political sciences, Docent of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Institute of the Federal State Educational Institution, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

POLITICAL MODERNIZATION AS AN OBJECT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

The article reveals the main scientific approaches to understanding the processes of political modernization. Based on the analysis of approaches, the stages of the evolution of modernization theories are established. Particular importance is attached to the typology of modernization processes. In the generally accepted academic terms, political modernization is characterized either as original – organic, or as catch up – inorganic. Three types of political modernization are considered in the refined author's style: endogenous, that is, carried out on its own basis; endogenous–exogenous, proceeding in the form of a combination of it’s own experience and external borrowing; exogenous – carried out on the basis of borrowing in the absence of its own basis.

Key words: political modernization, organic modernization, inorganic modernization, endogenous modernization, endogenous-exogenous modernization, exogenous modernization.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.003

S.V. RYAZANTSEV Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

A.D. BRAGIN PhD Student, Junior researcher of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF MOTIVES AND TRENDS OF EMIGRATION OF RUSSIANS

This article presents an analysis of modern emigration processes from the Russian Federation. Emigration from Russia has always been on a huge scale, especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this regard, the issue of assessing and subsequent analysis of the volume of emigration flows, their directions, as well as factors influencing the choice of destination country is acute. The authors have identified the main factors of emigration of Russians and the socio-economic consequences of this process both for recipient countries and for Russia as a donor country. It is determined that over the past decades, the directions of emigration of Russians have undergone serious changes. There has been a sharp change in the priorities of emigrants from the economically developed countries of the EU and North America in favor of the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America. This trend is based on certain factors, such as the ease of processing documents for a stay, the relatively low cost of living, the possibility of remote work, etc. In this regard, the integration of emigrants into the host society has become much easier, which obviously affected the very structure of emigration processes, making them less economically costly and faster in terms of implementation.

Key words: emigration flows, migrants, Russia, population, diaspora, integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.004

E.N. SHAKUN Director of the educational department work with students of the Russian University friendship of peoples, Moscow, Russia

FOREIGN STUDIES OF YOUTH AND STUDENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW OF FORMAT AND CONTENT

Scientific studies of the youth social stratum and students have reached the level of some of the most popular, but not the most ambitious, advanced and productive. Be that as it may, today, youth research is acquiring the status of not only purely academic and cognitive significance. This type of scientific research turns out to be in demand and essential, especially when in these studies civil society, politics and politicians, the state, educational institutions and organizations, their structures find a useful understanding and explanation for themselves, what decisions to make regarding the most active, but also " reckless" part of society in its intentions when it comes to its desires and behavior, degree and level of responsibility. In the article, based on the latest research literature identified, an attempt is made to provide a brief overview of how the development of youth studies abroad is supported, what issues and problems are covered in these studies, and how they can be characterized.

Key words: youth research, student research, youth research centers.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.005

V.S. MIROSHNIKOV Independent researcher, Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia

EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM IN MODERN SOCIETY

The article is devoted to one of the most important directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring and guaranteeing public security – improving the legal regulation of the sphere of the state mechanism, which is focused on preventing and countering manifestations of extremism and terrorism, which are complex and multidimensional threats at the international level. The author comprehensively examines the existing system of methods of combating these threats, focusing on the effectiveness of certain measures.

Relevance. The problem of combating terrorism and extremism in Russia is a priority, if only because ensuring and protecting human and civil rights and freedoms is a fundamental duty of the state. The Constitution of the Russian Federation defines the multinational people of our country as the bearer of sovereignty and the only source of power in the state, with mandatory consideration of the ideological diversity of the Russian population and equality before the law of all religious and public associations.

Goal. The purpose of the study is to analyze the nature of the phenomena of "extremism" and "terrorism", to identify the causes of their genesis as a problem of global significance. The author seeks to show the danger and destructive potential that the ideology built on these phenomena brings to the world community.

Tasks. Achieving the goal of this work involves solving a number of specific scientific tasks, namely:

– studying the content of the categories "extremism" and "terrorism" (including from the point of view of the history of their scientific understanding), assessing the objectivity of the developed classifications of these phenomena, updating modern measures to combat such an international evil as terrorism.

Methodology. As part of the research process, the author accumulated and studied a significant amount of educational, reference, regulatory and scientific information of various kinds (including online content).

Results. In the course of his scientific work, the author paid special attention to the consideration and analysis of the issues related to the manifestations of extremism among young people, taking into account the methods developed to date to combat this phenomenon.

Conclusion. Successful counteraction to extremist activity presupposes, in the author's opinion, the development of a set of specialized measures that generally meet such requirements as scientific validity, practical feasibility, conceptuality, potential effectiveness. For greater effect, various state and public structures should be involved in the process of combating manifestations of extremism. At the same time, their activities are subject to coordination within the framework of a single state concept. It is especially important that the society itself is deeply aware of the danger of extremism and extremist activity for the stability of the state and the well-being of citizens, and makes maximum use of intellectual and organizational opportunities to stop extremist manifestations. In other words, steps in the field of countering extremism should be practice-oriented, and not purely declarative, remaining only in the format of "plans for the future".

Key words: terrorism, extremism, crime, politics, international cooperation, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.006

B.R. AKHPATELOV Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

D.R. DAVYDOV Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERESTS OF PUBLIC GROUPS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article analyzes the representation of the public interests of Russian citizens with the help of civil society structures during the third presidential term of Vladimir Putin from 2012 to 2019. The subject of the article is non-profit organizations (hereinafter referred to as NPOs), considered as one of the key elements of GO and as an important indicator of its condition. It is argued that the political leadership of the country does not rely on a clear definition and a system of indicators on the state of GO and acts in this area mainly reactively, but successfully uses some structures of GO to strengthen its power.

Key words: civil society, non-profit organizations, President V.V. Putin, Russian Federation, interests of public groups.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.007

S.A. MADYUKOVA PhD in Philosophy, Senior Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

REGIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF TYVA

The article reveals the specific socio-cultural characteristics of the Republic of Tyva, which include the geographical, economic position of the region, its ethnic composition and linguistic specificity, which determines the key vectors of the activity of the institution of national policy in the region, formed taking into account this specificity.On the example of Tuva, the legislative base of the region in the field of national policy, the structures of the authorities responsible for the implementation of national policy in the region, as well as specific vectors of their activities: support for Tuvan-Todzhans (representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North) and the Cossacks, activities to harmonize interethnic relations and counter extremism in the republic, patriotic education of youth, etc. Also analyzed are ethnocultural activities carried out mainly by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Tuva, including the holding of Tuvan national holidays, "ethnically marked" public events in the region, as well as supervising the work of museums, theaters and libraries. The article also reflects the analysis of the activities of such structures as the Committee for Social Policy and the Council under the Head of the Republic of Tyva for interethnic and interfaith relations.The author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to take into account regional specifics in the formation of national policy in it, which is not fully implemented in Tuva at this time.

Key words: national policy, the Republic of Tyva, Tuvans, Tuvans-Todzhans, indigenous peoples, language policy, region, ethnic culture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.008

S.I. GALIEVA Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

G.M. GALIEVA Senior lecturer of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

THE PLACE OF CRIME PREVENTION IN RUSSIAN POLITICAL SPACE THROUGH THE LENS OF PRESIDENTAL ADDRESSES

By analyzing addresses of Russian president to Federal Council the article studies the place of crime prevention in political space of Russia. Based on the author's research it is concluded that during the last quarter of a century no due attention has been paid to the topic of crime prevention in the rhetoric of Russia's top officials. In the author's opinion it can be explained by the low mobilising potential of this topic which makes it relatively unattractive as an element of political rhetoric.

Key words: crime prevention, addresses of Russian president to Federal Council, political rhetoric, political agenda.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.009

A.I. EMELYANOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

L.G. BELOVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department foreign regional studies of the Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences of the Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE DISSEMINATION OF POLITICAL INFORMATION IN THE INTERNET SPACE IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION CONFRONTATION

The article examines the features, main directions and prospects for the development of the Internet space in the XXI century in the conditions of increasing confrontation between the key actors of world politics. The tendencies of the formation of the modern media sphere are considered; the geopolitical determinants formed under the influence of public opinion are analyzed. When writing the work, various state documents and the works of political scientists on this topic were used. The analysis of the material was carried out within the framework of theoretical analysis, content analysis and event analysis.

Key words: actor, Internet, information confrontation, infotainment, media, world politics, public opinion, politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.010

A.V. VOLKOV Graduate student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

WARRIOR OF LIGHT: INFORMATION WAR AGAINST FIGURE SKATER KAMILA VALIEVA AS A SYMBOL OF NATIONAL ALLIANCE: POLITICAL ASPECT

The article is devoted to the study of the role of champions of top-level sports and the impact of their sporting successes on international life and the relationship with the political agenda. Using the example of the doping scandal with the Russian figure skater Kamila Valieva, the peculiarities of the formation of a negative media agenda pursuing political goals of denigrating Russia are demonstrated. The analysis of the coverage of Russian figure skating by the world media and the aggressive information campaign against the country based on nationality is carried out. It is concluded that doping rhetoric has been an instrument of attempts of pro-Western political pressure on Russian sports for more than one year. Using the example of active popular support and international recognition of the Russian figure skater, in particular, following the results of the Olympic Games-2022 in Beijing, the analysis of what role the athletes' personalities are called upon to perform in a difficult geopolitical situation and Western pressure. Also, on the example of popularization of the image of the Russian figure skater K. The features of positioning and interpreting the successes of sports champions as one of the goals of involving communities not only in the humanitarian channel of the Olympic Movement, but also political, social and intercultural exchanges between world communities are considered. It is stated that such athletes of the "new archetype" as K. Valieva in the future can become a factor in overcoming the deepening gap between the superpowers and minimizing the geopolitical struggle within the framework of sports mega-events.

Key words: sport, Olympics, figure skating, sanctions, doping, OCD, figure skater, image, recognition, politics, generation Z, soft power, popular support.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.011

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in the foreign policy activities of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

MAIN ISSUES OF STATE ADMINISTRATION IN RUSSIA IN THE FIELD OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION IN UKRAINE

In the emerging realities of international relations, it seems important to develop an understanding of how the Russian-Ukrainian conflict will affect the situation in various regions of Eurasia. In this article, the author examines the main issues of public administration in Russia in the field of international cooperation with the countries of East Asia, the European Union, the Caspian region, as well as within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. Along with an analysis of the current state of bilateral relations with a number of states in the context of the Special Military Operation in Ukraine, the article also outlines specific areas designed to ensure their sustainable development.

Key words: public administration, Eurasian Economic Union, European Union, Iran, China, North Korea, international relations, sanctions, Special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.012

S.G. CHEPELYUK postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL GOVERNMENT AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE STATE AND BUSINESS

The article analyzes the development of relations between the state and business in the context of the implementation of the concept of digital government in Russia. The author reveals the content of the concept of "digital government", as well as the impact of digitalization on changing the dynamics of the relationship between such political actors as the state and business. Using such techniques as a descriptive-specific description, elements of a situational analysis and a case study, the author, using specific Russian examples, analyzes the opportunities, as well as risks and barriers for the development of relations between the state and business in the context of the formation of digital government in Russia.

Key words: digital government, digitalization, GR, public administration, government as a platform, e-government.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.013

O.A. SAMUSEVA Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DIRECTION AS A PRIORITY IN DEVELOPMENT

In the increasingly complex modern world, in the formation of a new world order, one of the most important components of development remains the direction – the relationship "center – periphery", according to which the development of technologies, information resources, human capital, etc. is decisive. New political circumstances (epedemiological crisis and its consequences, the new role of Russia in the international arena, anti-Russian sanctions) certainly affect the state of the regional and international environment, the development of each country, both in the socio-economic and political aspects. At the same time, the study of the identified problem demonstrates the current stage of the technological revolution and industrial transformation. Many countries are striving to use the opportunities of this stage of historical development and seize the initiative in technological competition. Competition in technological innovation is becoming increasingly fierce. The subject of our research is scientific and technological development as a priority factor in creating the basis for national development and the competitive advantage of the state.

Key words: international relations, the science, technology, innovation, innovative economy, human capital.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.014

F.N. JURAQULOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, First Deputy Head of the Republican center of spirituality and enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

REFORM ON THE PRINCIPLE OF DIVISION OF STATE POWER AND BALANCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

The article is devoted to the principles of separation of powers in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The socio-economic, legal and political foundations of the sustainable development of society, the place and role of public authorities in the development of the democratic principles of civil society in the country are studied. It provides an analysis of the reforms aimed at the consistent implementation of the principle of separation of powers, carried out for this purpose in recent years of constitutional innovations, reveals their essence and significance. The author outlines a number of issues that require scientific and practical discussion and deep scientific and theoretical study on the formation of civil society in the Republic.

Key words: civil society, state, power, reform, virtual reception office, people reception office, principles, social society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.015

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

V.G. GIMALIEV Doctor or Philosophy, Associate Professor of Department of foreign languages N 2, I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia

N.A. NAZAROVA Candidate of economic sciences, Director, Autonomous non-profit organization "Institute for the Development of Entrepreneurship and Economics", Moscow, Russia

ELECTORAL PREFERENCES OF THE ITALIAN POPULATION ON THE EVE OF PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 2022

The material examines the results of the early parliamentary elections in Italy, held on September 25, 2022, which led to major shifts in the perception of voters – the victory of the center-right coalition of four parties: “Brothers of Italy”, “League”, “Forward, Italy!”, “We – moderate”. Attention is paid to economic indicators on the eve and after the elections in Italy, the trends in the transformation of Italian society. An analysis of the use of communication tools by Italian political leaders on the eve of the elections is given, an analysis is made of the conduct of social networks by the leading political parties in Italy.

Key words: electoral processes, electoral behavior, economic crisis, Italy, parliamentary elections, right-wing populism, center-right coalition, Brothers of Italy, League, Forward Italy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.016

A.L. NEVMERZHITSKII Director of UK Praktika LLC, Moscow, Russia

S.V. NOVOSELOV Commercial director of Vash Dom LLC, Moscow, Russia

D.A. KHACHATRYAN CEO of Kaskada LLC, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL PROCESSES: A VECTOR FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OR CONFRONTATION

The political process is one of the basic concepts of political science. However, despite its importance and central place in the system of political science categories, this concept has not yet received a universally recognized unified interpretation and use. The diversity of definitions of the political process, including in the field of international cooperation, of international trade, is largely due to its interpretation from different scientific positions.

From the point of view of constructively minded authors, Russia participates in global political processes, strives to harmonize international relations, to ensure stability and equality, to eliminate the problems of unipolarity and injustice of the world order. These attempts to direct political processes in a constructive direction, contribute to the improvement of the existing world order, and protect their national interests have led to a sharp deterioration in relations between Russia and the West.

Key words: politics, political processes, international cooperation, confrontation, sanctions, resources, economy, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.017

R.I. GUZAEROV Junior Researcher Department of Middle and Post-Soviet East Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (INION) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND SAUDI ARABIA (2015-2022)

The article is devoted to a new stage of normalization of relations between Turkey and Saudi Arabia. The article identifies the main reasons for the differences in Turkish-Saudi relations, demonstrates the previous attempts of the states to establish bilateral relations. Special attention is paid to the bilateral visits of the heads of state in 2022. The author examined the main factors that prompted Turkey and Saudi Arabia to resume dialogue. Normalization of Turkish-Saudi relations is considered on a regional and global scale. The conclusion is made about the short-term nature of normalization.

Key words: Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Turkish-Saudi relations, Middle East, normalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.018

A.A. NECHAI Senior Lecturer, Saint-Petersburg Peter the Great Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHALLENGES

The functioning of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a vivid manifestation of the principles of peaceful coexistence, the purpose of the Organization is to maintain peace and stability in the Eurasian region, this is especially relevant now, when the world community for the first time since the end of World War II is facing unprecedented challenges associated with the beginning of a new global conflict, increasing deficit of peace and trust. Since the founding of the SCO on June 15, 2001, the connotation and scope of the Organization has changed significantly. The focus of this study is on the internal and external challenges faced by the SCO. It traces the process of expansion and transformation of the Organization, assesses the consequences of the emergence of new members, and identifies existing and potential threats associated with it. The prerequisites for Iran's accession to the SCO, which occurred in September 2022, as well as the possible consequences are studied. The study leads to the conclusion that the Organization, in general, meets the current needs of regional stability. The problems faced by the SCO are mainly internal rather than external. As the number of member countries increases, the Organization's potential for development and influence increases, while the accession of new members adds to the complexities of coordination, potentially leading to a decrease in the influence of participants with lesser political and economic weight on the world stage. On the other hand, a complete rejection of the accession of new members can lead to their loss of interest in the organization and its international credibility will decline. The study shows that the internal cohesion of the SCO is not strong enough. The geopolitical orientation of the member states is multidirectional. Conflicts between some member states (for example, India and Pakistan, India and China, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan) and dialogue partners Armenia and Azerbaijan may affect the internal unity of the organization, reduce the ability to respond quickly to geopolitical challenges and, consequently, the influence of the SCO on the world stage. The SCO is in de facto opposition to the United States on issues of international security, economic governance, as well as regional issues and “hot topics”.

Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization, SCO Charter, interstate relations, expansion, globalization, challenges.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.019

M.S. KOZYREVA Ph.D. student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FROM NAFTA TO USMC: BENEFITS AND LOSSES OF PARTICIPANTS

The integration processes of the North American continent are recognized as successful and are inferior in efficiency only to the experience of the European Union. However, participation in the institutions of the region is initially unequal in rights and is characterized by United States's dominant role, which was accepted to NAFTA. However, the growth of hegimonistic ambitions motivated the transformation of the treaty and the new institution, which was called "USMCA". The text of the agreement and the benefits of the parties were revised, and the article focuses on this aspect. This fact determines main purpose of the research, which is to identify the interests and positions of the USMCA members. The text of the agreement and the benefits of the parties were revised, and the attention of the article is focused on this aspect, the main purpose of which is to identify the interests and positions of the USMCA members. Its implementation required an in-depth analysis of the NAFTA and USMCA agreements, a comparison of the two organizations, as well as a generalization of an extensive theoretical basis, which formed the basis of the research methodology. Under the new institution, Mexico and Canada are in an even worse position than before, opening up their domestic markets to more agricultural imports and redefining engineering industry regulations. These aspects, together with the conduct of an advisory body, turn the integration group into an instrument of the USA regional authorities. These transformations were reflected in the scientific world, forming a negative reputation for USMCA and its effectiveness for Mexico and Canada. However, despite the heavy concessions, the significance of the agreement for the trade turnover of states is high, in this case the refusal to continue cooperation within the USMCA would have more negative consequences.

Key words: North America, integration, turnover, USMCA, NAFTA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.020

A.S. KAPUSTIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDIA CENTERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION DAESH (PROHIBBITED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)

The author analyzes the activity of three DAESH media centers Amaq, al-Furkan, al-Hayat. These media centers form different types of content, which makes it possible to ensure the representativeness of the sample.

The purpose of the study is to identify the forms and methods of activity of the media centers of the international terrorist organization Islamic State (hereinafter – DAESH).

Based on a structural analysis of the activities of the DAESH media centers (considered by the example of Amaq, al-Furqan, al-Hayat), it was found that these centers represent elements of the DAESH propaganda system operating in a decentralized manner. DAESH's activity in the media space implies the creation of different types of content. In this process, the trends towards the division of labor are reflected: since the content of different types: videos, audio materials, text materials, is often the product of the activities of different centers. The activity of DAESH in the media space involves the use of modern communication technologies, which implies methods of presenting information aimed at forming positive ideas about the activities of DAESH, as well as a strategy of communication with potential followers.

The information can be used in the work of specialists in countering the activities of international terrorist organizations on the Internet, as well as by political scientists and journalists.

Key words: terrorism, DAESH, propaganda, Internet, self-radicalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.021

WANG CONGYUE PhD student of the Department of International Political Processes School of Political Science, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE IMPACT OF THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON INTERNATIONAL CONFIGURATION

The issue of international configuration has been widely discussed in the field of international relations. International configuration refers to a relatively stable structure of international relations within a certain period, which is determined by the distribution of power among the major actors in the international society. After the 2008 Financial Crisis, with the decline of the United States and the rapid rise of other powers, especially China, the debate on whether the current international configuration is multipolar or bipolar has been triggered in the international relations circle. The historical experience of mankind tells us that the emergence of any scientific and technological revolution will further widen the strength gap between the countries which are the first to acquire new technologies and other countries. Since the 16th century, many scientific and technological revolutions have taken place in the world, each of which has extremely affected the international configuration. In view of the velocity, scope, and system influence, the 4IR breakthrough speed is unprecedented. Compared with the previous industrial revolution, the development speed of 4IR is exponential rather than linear. The paper argues that driven by 4IR, China’s overall strength has enhanced significantly since 2008, making China's comprehensive national power the second in the world. At present, the United States and China have their own advantages in the different fields of 4IR, taking the obvious leading position in the world. With the deep development of 4IR and wide application of its achievements, the advantages of the United States and China will be further expanded. Given all of this, it can be concluded that 4IR has accelerated the formation of the bipolar structure between the United States and China. In the future, 4IR will further stabilize the bipolar structure and extend the duration of the bipolar structure.

Key words: International configuration, polarity, bipolar structure, multipolar structure, comprehensive national strength, scientific and technological strength, the fourth industrial revolution, 5G technology, artificial intelligence (AI).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.022

GAO DAI Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE ANCIENT CHINESE ANTI-CORRUPTION SYSTEM

This article comprehensively analyzes the main aspects of the ancient Chinese anti-corruption system. The novelty of this article lies in the analysis of anti-corruption policies and laws of various dynasties of ancient China in order to identify the main problems that existed in their anti-corruption systems and the possibility of application in modern conditions. The theoretical significance of the study is to fill the gap in the anti-corruption studies of ancient China in Russian, and the practical significance is to study the ancient anti-corruption experience and use it to improve the modern anti-corruption mechanism.

Key words: corruption, fight against corruption, ancient China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.023

H. GOERLITZ Independent researcher, Wiesbaden, Germany

SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND GERMANY IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR POLITICAL SUPPORT

The presented study is devoted to the issue of the state of the system of foreign economic relations between Russia and Germany in the context of their political support by the time the military crisis in Ukraine began in 2022 and the prospects for its “reset”. The methodological base of the work is built on the basis of a combination of qualitative sociological research methods in the form of expert interviews and comparative analysis. The empirical basis of the presented study was a series of 15 expert interviews conducted in November-December 2021. The author concludes that the basic conditions for restarting and developing a political dialogue on economic cooperation between the two states can be called favorable.

Key words: Russia, Germany, foreign trade, political support, institutions, expert interview.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.024

GU XIAOYAN Russian Teacher, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China

CHINA'S DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA RESEARCH

The topic of this article contributes to the improvement of the theory of China's foreign aid mechanism. Foreign aid theory arose along with foreign aid activity and has early origins, especially among Western scientists, where it became a field of study in its own right, mainly from two fields: economics and political science. With rapid economic development, China continues to pay attention to its responsibilities as a great power, putting into practice the concept of contributing to world development and focusing on foreign aid, creating a theory that can be used to improve and improve China's Southeast development assistance system in the 21st century. In recent years, Southeast Asian aid has been increasing, and in this process, it is necessary to explore how to avoid the problem of Sino-US conflicts, study the problems and their practical consequences, which we should pay attention to when building Southeast Asian aid mechanisms, constantly think about shortcomings of China's Southeast Asia aid policy, and at the same time constantly adjust and improve foreign aid policy.

Key words: development assistance, Southeast Asia, China, USA, foreign aid, Southeast Asia, mutual benefit, strategic alignment, evolutionary logic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.025

K.N. LIDZHIEVA PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of global studies, Moscow, Russia

THE STRATEGY OF "GLOBAL KOREA" AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE POLICY OF THE "MIDDLE POWER"

The article examines the essence and features of the foreign policy strategy of "Global Korea", proclaimed by the 10th President of the Republic of Korea Lee Myeong-bak. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that there was a transition during the presidency of Lee Myeong-bak in South Korean foreign policy from a regional to a global way of acting while applying the concept of "middle power". The following methods were used in the course of the study: historical analysis, a systematic approach, analysis of strategic documents, as well as a number of other general scientific methods. Based on the research, the author concluded that the "Global Korea" strategy has become a catalyst for the transfer for the Republic of Korea to the rhetoric of the "middle power" in foreign policy.

Key words: "Global Korea", Lee Myung-bak, foreign policy, Republic of Korea, middle power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.026

A.D. LUKIN Graduate student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

ARCTIC DIPLOMACY AS A KIND OF REGIONAL DIPLOMACY AND A SPECIAL KIND OF STATE POLICY IN THE ARCTIC

The article examines history of international relations of the Arctic region from the perspective of regional cooperation.

The role of the Arctic region is constantly growing in international relations, this is facilitated by a number of factors related to environmental, geopolitical, economic, climatic, military, scientific, humanitarian issues in the Arctic region.

The purpose of this article is an attempt to study the features of regional relations, to present the thesis of the emergence of regional Arctic diplomacy on the example of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic. Consider the peculiarity of the formation of regional relations as a result of the identity of national interests and challenges, the Arctic countries, entering regional and international relations.

Studying international relations in the Arctic, its features, channels for dialogue, will become an effective tool in preserving the region as a territory of peace and mutually beneficial partnership. A gradual increase in the role of non-Arctic states in economic and trade activities in the region will become a natural process for the development of regional relations in the Arctic. To maintain the flexibility of regional relations, the existing institutions of interaction in the Arctic will play an important role.

Key words: Arctic region, regional policy, diplomacy, mutually beneficial partnership, Arctic diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.027

LIU JIA Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

WANG ZHAOXU Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

YUE SIQI Student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIA ON THE FORMATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE STATE (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHINA AND RUSSIA)

The most important institution of modern society and a serious translator of the geopolitical image is the media. The data transmitted through the media allows not only to form an image (image) of a separate territory, but also to transform it according to certain interests. The media are able to impose certain topics and even interpretations of events and phenomena on a wide range of people. The development of the informatization of society has led to the fact that the mass media are increasingly noticeably influencing various public spheres, including the political consciousness and behavior of citizens. It is impossible to count on a single event aimed at creating the image of the state, because a whole system of mutually agreed actions is needed. They should be aimed at the local population, partners and opposition politicians, and this will help raise the prestige of the government itself.

The image of the state is a stereotyped image formed in the mass consciousness. It merges people's ideas about the features of this territory of historical, socio-cultural, socio-economic, political and other nature. At the same time, each person forms a subjective idea of the region, based both on their own specific impressions, and indirectly, relying on the materials of cinematic and literary sources, mass media, based on eyewitness accounts, rumors and speculation.

Thus, the structure of the image of the state is multilayered – in the minds of different people, the image of the same state may have significant differences.

Nevertheless, it is possible and necessary to manage the image of the state. If the image of the state is built professionally, then this allows the territory to actively develop and prosper. At the same time, the attractive image of the state depends not only on its real potential in cultural and socio-economic terms, but more on the use of this potential.

Key words: image of the state, mass media, marketing, information, state, market.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.028

D.О. MATYASHOVA PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

E.A. MIKHALEVICH PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

INTRASTATE AND INTERSTATE CONFLICTS AND AGGRESSIVE NON-STATE ACTORS IN NORTHEAST ASIA

The states of Northeast Asia are actively developing the field of ICT and AI, therefore, they potentially have wide opportunities for using such technologies as a tool for destabilizing the information and psychological situation in competing countries. At the same time, the countries of the region can also become the object of high-tech information and psychological influence from anti-social actors, such as opposition political forces, terrorist groups, sects, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the international situation in Northeast Asia and characterize the activities of aggressive non-state actors in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Hong Kong, which have a destabilizing effect on the security architecture of the entire Northeast Asian region.

Key words: Northeast Asia, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, information and psychological security, separatism, extremism, terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.029

D.S. TELEGIN Graduate student, the Department of Globalistics at the Faculty of Global Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE ARCTIC REGION IN THE FORMATION OF “GREATER EURASIA”

As a result of the rivalry between the United States and China in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC), the APAC region is transforming. The Asia-Pacific region is becoming an integral part of Eurasia. Consequently, the role of the Arctic region – the link between the main part of Eurasia and the APAC region – increases, which opens a window of opportunities for the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Greater Eurasia project. The author uses an interdisciplinary approach, content analysis and event analysis to analyze Russian and foreign scientific works and official documents.

Key words: Greater Eurasia, the Arctic region, Arcto-Pacific, Asia-Pacific, region, integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.030

E.L. KHORBALADZE PhD student, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University; Fox International Fellow (researcher), MacMillan Center, Yale University, Moscow, Russia

US INDO-PACIFIC STRATEGY: MAIN DIMESNSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RUSSIA

As for today the global interests of the United States are fully projected into the Indo-Pacific region, and the concept of the Indo-Pacific region becomes the basis for extending the American strategy of “reversal and rebalancing” to the Indian Ocean. The aim of the article is to detect how Indo-Pacific strategy (IPS) changes the strategic balance of power in the region. The author asks 3 main questions: What is the essence of Indo-Pacific strategy? How the approach towards Indo-Pacific region has changed during different US presidents since G.W. Bush? How IPS affects the interests of Russia in the Indo-Pacific region? To answer these questions author used the multimethod research design, particularly following methods: document analysis, content analysis, structured, focused comparison, system analysis. Author concludes that creating virtually from scratch an architecture for the realization of its interests in the Indo-Pacific region, the United States is adopting a flexible approach of “new regionalism”. This is best compiled through the US Indo-Pacific strategy. The George W. Bush Administration understood Asia’s growing importance and engaged closely with the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and India. The Obama Administration significantly accelerated American prioritization of Asia, investing new diplomatic, economic, and military resources there. The Trump Administration also recognized the Indo-Pacific as the world’s center of gravity. Under President Biden, the United States is determined to strengthen long-term position in and commitment to the Indo-Pacific. Meanwhile, Russia clearly unwelcomes the Indo-Pacific as a new geopolitical construct with military component, considers QUAD as “Asian NATO”, and sees ASEAN as the preferable Asian regional format. However, the future of Russian position will be determined by the development of this construct. If regional interpretations of the Indo-Pacific prevail, less geopolitical and confrontational, Russia’s reaction can be far less concerted.

Key words: Indo-Pacific strategy, Asia-Pacific region, trans-regional integration, concept, US, Russia, QUAD.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.031

CHU CHENGCHENG Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HUMANITARIAN POLICY OF CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES IN CENTRAL ASIA IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The article shows the growing influence of the humanitarian component of modern international relations and the importance of taking into account the humanitarian factor in the operation of inter-country relations. The paper gives the author's interpretation of the concept of "humanitarian policy" and its difference with "soft power". This article analyzes the experience of educational programs in the countries of the Central Asian region, examines the impact of China and the United States on the educational system of Central Asian countries in a comparative manner. Their strategic goals and priorities of diplomacy and their relationship with each other are summarized. The purpose of this article is to reveal the nature and show the different features of the humanitarian policy of China and the United States in Central Asia. Research methods – Comparative research, content analysis of official documents. The object of the study is the humanitarian policy of China and the United States in Central Asia in the field of education. The subject of the study is Cooperation in the field of education between China, the United States and the countries of Central Asia.

The results of the study: The United States has invested a lot in educational projects in Central Asia, and it can be seen that the United States attaches great importance to humanitarian exchange in diplomacy. The main strategic goal of the United States is to spread American values and expand its influence in Central Asia. But, on the other hand, since the ambitions of the United States are too obvious, it also disgusted Central Asian society, and to a certain extent influenced the process of humanitarian exchange. Humanitarian exchange in the field of education between China and the countries of Central Asia began relatively late. The creation of the SCO and the BRI contributed to humanitarian exchange.

Key words: humanitarian policy, educational cooperation, China, USA, Central Asia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.032

K.V. TIMAKHOV Postgraduate student of Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

NEOM: TRANSFORMATION PROJECT OF KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

This paper examines the prospects for creating a city that has no analogues in the world, in accordance with the NEOM project proposed by the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman. This initiative is one of the components of a comprehensive plan to transform the country's socio-economic system – "Saudi Vision – 2030". The analysis of the developed strategy and the stages of its implementation may be of interest for scientific research due to its novelty and ambiguity of implementation in the poorly developed desert terrain of the Arabian Peninsula. As a result of the study, an inconsistency has been established that arises due to the discrepancy between resources for the implementation of the project and the tasks that are of an abstract theoretical nature. In addition, the futuristic nature of the NEOM project, with all its positive characteristics, which are environmental sustainability and technological effectiveness, raises the problem of data privacy, equality of opportunities and legal protection of potential residents of the "smart city".

Key words: city of the future, NEOM, Saudi Arabia, transformation program, Saudi Vision – 2030.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.033

R.R. OMONOV Researcher at the Department of Civil Society and legal education of the National University Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

EXPERIENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE USA AND THE COUNTRIES OF WESTERN EUROPE AND THEIR IMPACT ON MODERNIZATION POWER SYSTEMS

The article analyzes the role of information, communication and Internet technologies in the development of the economy. Experience in the use of information technologies in public administration in the United States and Western Europe and their impact on the modernization of the power system. The effectiveness of the use of intellectuals and the product of their mental labor for the realization of the will and goals of the entire nation. Theoretical and methodological problems of national security policy formation are revealed. The main conditions affecting the state of security are substantiated.

Key words: information technology, globalization, geopolitics, society, national security, management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.034

S. AMAN Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MODERN CHALLENGES AND SECURITY THREATS FOR CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES

The article shows that the Central Asian region retains exceptional importance in the modern system of international relations, being at the same time a crossroads of the world's largest civilizations: Christianity, Confucianism and Islam, as well as a point of intersection of the geopolitical interests of a number of countries, such as Russia, the United States, China, Turkey and the European Union, the establishment of control over which allows you to manage the global transit of strategic raw materials for the world's largest emerging economies. It is noted that the Central Asian region is a zone of historically determined national interests of the Russian Federation, where it plays the role of an important partner of the Central Asian republics and moderator of privileged cooperation in trade, economic, political and humanitarian spheres. It is concluded that as a leading geopolitical power, Russia is called upon to ensure the stability of the military-political situation in the Central Asian region, as well as the security of its southern borders through the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian states in the format of the CIS, EAEU, SCO, and CSTO, which is becoming most relevant in modern conditions of geopolitical and geo-economic transformations.

Key words: International security, SCO, Central Asia, USA, international relations, CIS, Russia, Turkey, drug trafficking, ethno-confessional conflicts, China, Iran, Regional security.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.035

D.S. MYASNIKOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

S.SH. MANAPOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

V.K. SIMAKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE ESSENCE OF THE LIBERAL OLIGARCHY AS A PROJECT FOR AN EFFECTIVE POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STATE

The emergence of liberalism in Russia took place on the basis of various historical processes that emerged in the political, economic and cultural life of society. Taking the Western idea of liberal relations as a basis, the Russian intelligentsia introduced its own unique specifics of the Russian idea of liberalism.

The result of changes in the social structure of Russian society after the start of systemic transformations was the rapid, almost instantaneous by historical standards, the formation of a layer of very large entrepreneurs, called "oligarchs". This layer has become the leading force of the Russian business class, and it largely determines the development of Russia.

In the article, the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of liberal oligarchy and analyzes this phenomenon as a project for an effective political structure of the state. In addition, the attention of the study is also devoted to the advantages and disadvantages of this model of the welfare state, which are studied using specific examples of modern international political reality.

Key words: liberalism, liberal oligarchy, political model, political structure, state, society, reformation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.036

A.D. KOSTINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

K.R. ILINSKAYA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.D. PAKHMUTOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

FAVORABLE FORECASTS AND “PROBLEMATIC” ASPECTS OF THE CHINESE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE

The China Belt and Road Initiative is a multi-billion dollar project that has an economic and strategic impact on all participating regions and countries. Since its inception in 2013, this initiative has been the subject of intense debate. Like all multifaceted cases of modern international relations, it has its supporters and critics. The former emphasize that the Initiative has received high praise from a number of developing countries, who believe that the financing of trade-related infrastructure will contribute to the economic growth of participating countries. Critics see the project as a tool to increase China's geopolitical power and a debt trap for countries that receive loans to develop infrastructure that ultimately does not support their economic development.

The author finds this consumption of opinions interesting and relevant for the study. This article discusses the favorable forecasts for the implementation of the Chinese concept of "One Belt – One Road", and also examines the possible negative aspects of the consequences of its implementation.

Key words: international relations, economics, economic integration, China, One belt – One road, transport, project, initiative, Central Asia, world economy, development prospects, development risks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.037

D.A. BAKANINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

Y.V. BARANOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. LEONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING SCIENTIFIC DIPLOMACY OF WESTERN COUNTRIES AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE ARCTIC REGION

The Arctic region has always been an international platform for dialogue on resolving global problems and challenges through joint efforts by actors in international relations. However, 2022 has become a period of serious testing of the cooperation of scientific communities in the Arctic, previously proceeding at a steady pace. This paper describes and analyzes the observed negative dynamics of the science diplomacy of Western countries and the Russian Federation in the region with an emphasis on the environmental agenda, after which further prospects for the development of events are considered. The article also emphasizes the need to search for new mechanisms of cooperation in the region that can ensure a balance of national and global interests.

Key words: science diplomacy, Arctic region, environmental agenda, Arctic Council, confrontation, Russia, Western countries.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.038

A.A. NIKITINA Student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE DYNAMICS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE USA AND RUSSIA

This article examines the impact of mass communication on international relations, in particular the impact on the relationship between the United States and Russia. The article analyzes how mass communication affects the formation of public opinion, its promotion and implementation of the necessary assessment of events in the mass consciousness, as well as how it affects international relations, the result of this impact.

Key words: USA, Russia, mass communication, international relations.

OUR AUTHORS

ABDRAKHIMOV L.G. – Candidate of science degree, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

ADAMS O.Y. – PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science at the Department of Global Studies, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

ANOSHKIN P.P. – Senior Lecturer of the Philosophy Department Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

ARESHIDZE L.G. – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at ISAA Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

ARSHAD GHULAM KADER – Postgraduate student of the department of history of state and law Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

BAKANINA D.A. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

BARANOVA Y.V. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

BRODSKAYA N.P. – Cand. Of Science (Politics), Senior Researcher, Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

BUDAEVA D.TS. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Management of the Buryat State University named after Dorji Banzarov, Ulan-Ude, Russia.

BYCHKOVA N.S. – Lecturer, Faculty of Global Studie, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

CHAEVICH A.V. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Maritime Law and International Law, Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Law Institute, Moscow, Russia.

CHEN HANZHI – Intern at the Chinese Institute of International Studies, China.

CHIMIRIS E.S. – Candidate of Political Sciences, researcher, Department of Global Issues, INION RAN; director, Center for social and political studies, IIRIP VAVT, Moscow, Russia.

CHZHAN CHEN`I – Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

DAVYDOV V.N. – Candidate of political Sciences, associate Professor, Deputy Director of the Institute for modern policy of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

DONIROVA G.A. – Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Department of National and Federative Relations IGSU RANEPA, Moscow, Russia.

ERMILOV N.S. – Postgraduate Student, Department of Foreign Regional Studies and International Cooperation, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Institute of Public Administration and Management, Moscow, Russia.

FAYZULINA A.A. – Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia.

GALIEVA S.I. – Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia.

GERASIMENKO A.A. – Graduate student, University of World Civilizations named after V.V. Zhirinovsky, Omsk, Russia.

GRINYAEV S.N. – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Dean of the Faculty of Integrated Security of the Fuel and Energy Complex of National University of Oil and Gas «Gubkin University», Moscow, Russia.

GRISHKINA A.V. – Master’s Degree Student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

JIANG SHIWANG – Master's Degree, Dalian University of Foreign Languages, China.

JIANG SHIWANG – Master's Degree, Dalian University of Foreign Languages, China.

KAMENSKAYA G.V. – Ph.D. (Political), Leading Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

KARACHIN I.O. – Head of Staff, Communications Director-Agency for strategic initiatives; Candidate of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

KARATUEVA E.N. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

KRAZHAN A.S. – Student of the Department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

KRUPIANKO M.I. – Doctor of political sciences, Leading researcher Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, Moscow, Russia.

KUZYAKIN A.G. – Ph.D. candidate, Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

LEONOVA A.A. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

LITVINENKO D.V. – Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia.

MAGADIEV M.F. – Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration and National Security Institute of Law and national security of the Russian Academy national economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

MEDVEDEV D.A. – Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science of MSLU, Moscow, Russia.

MORUGINA I.N. – Postgraduate, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

MUSAEV M.T. – Independent researcher, Institute for Social and Spiritual Research at the Republican Center for Spirituality and Education, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan.

NOZDRIN A.A. – Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

PETROV A.P. – Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Leading Researcher at Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

POTAPOV D.V. – Postgraduate student of the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

PRONCHEV G.B. – Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor; Associate Professor of the Department of Modern Sociology at the Faculty of Sociology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

RADIONOVA E.A. – Student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

SAMOSYUK A.A. – Research Associate, Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

SERIK AMAN – Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

SHANGARAEV R.N. – Ph.D. (Economics), Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

SHELEST A.A. – Student of the Department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

SMETANIN M.S. – Undergraduate of the Russian Peoples' Friendship University, Moscow, Russia.

SURMA I.V. – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; Ph.D. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences; professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

TANTCURA M.S. – Candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia.

TIAN MIAO – Ph.D., graduate student, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, RUDN, Moscow, Russia.

TSAKHILOVA L.M. – PhD student, Department of Comparative Political Science, faculty of political science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

TUAN АNH NGUYEN – Post-graduate student of the Department of Political Analysis and Management of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

TUSHKOV A.A. – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia.

UROKOV B.A. – Head of department of the Republican spiritual and educational center of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan.

VELIKAYA N.M. – Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Deputy Director of Science and Research, Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

VOLZHANIN D.A. – Student of the Far East federal university, Vladivostok, Russia.

VORON-KOVALSKAYA A.O. – Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University, Vladivostok, Russia.

YAZAN HEARBAKE – Graduate student of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia.

YUNUSOV F.A. – Doctor of Sciences in Medicine, Professor Non-state educational private institution of additional professional education Russian Academy of Medical and Social Rehabilitation, Moscow, Russia.

ZOTKINA A.L. – Master of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia.

OUR AUTHORS

AKHPATELOV B.R. – Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia.

AMAN S. – Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

BAKANINA D.A. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

BARANOVA Y.V. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

BELOVA L.G. – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department foreign regional studies of the Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences of the Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia.

BRAGIN A.D. – PhD Student, Junior researcher of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia.

CHEMSHIT D.A. – Candidate of political sciences, Docent of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Institute of the Federal State Educational Institution, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia.

CHEPELYUK S.G. – Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

CHU CHENGCHENG – Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

DAVYDOV D.R. – Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia.

EMELYANOV A.I. – Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia.

FURMAN F.P. – Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

GALIEVA S.I. – Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia.

GALIEVA G.M. – Senior lecturer of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia.

GAO DAI – Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

GIMALIEV V.G. – Doctor or Philosophy, Associate Professor of Department of foreign languages N 2, I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia.

GOERLITZ H. – Independent researcher, Wiesbaden, Germany.

GU XIAOYAN – Russian Teacher, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

GUZAEROV R.I. – Junior Researcher, Department of Middle and Post-Soviet East Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (INION) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

ILINSKAYA K.R. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

JURAQULOV F.N. – Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, First Deputy Head of the Republican center of spirituality and enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan.

KAPUSTIN A.S. – Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KHACHATRYAN D.A. – CEO of Kaskada LLC, Moscow, Russia.

KHORBALADZE E.L. – PhD student, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University; Fox International Fellow (researcher), MacMillan Center, Yale University, Moscow, Russia.

KOSTINA A.D. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

KOZYREVA M.S. – Ph.D. student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

KRASILNIKOV S.V. – Ph.D., Associate professor, department of theory and history of state and law North-West institute of management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

LEONOVA A.A. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

LIDZHIEVA K.N. – PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of global studies, Moscow, Russia.

LIU JIA – Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

LUKIN A.D. – Graduate student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

MADYUKOVA S.A. – PhD in Philosophy, Senior Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.

MAGADIEV M.F. – Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in the foreign policy activities of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

MANAPOV S.SH. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

MATYASHOVA D.O. – PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

MIKHALEVICH E.A. – PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

MIROSHNIKOV V.S. – Independent researcher, Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia.

MYASNIKOV D.S. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

NAZAROVA N.A. – Candidate of economic sciences, Director, Autonomous non-profit organization "Institute for the Development of Entrepreneurship and Economics", Moscow, Russia.

NECHAI A.A. – Senior Lecturer, Saint-Petersburg Peter the Great Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

NEVMERZHITSKII A.L. – Director of UK Praktika LLC, Moscow, Russia.

NIKITINA A.A. – Student of Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

NOVOSELOV S.V. – Commercial director of Vash Dom LLC, Moscow, Russia.

OMONOV R.R. – Researcher at the Department of Civil Society and legal education of the National University Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

PAKHMUTOV N.D. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

RODIONOVA M.E. – Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

RYAZANTSEV S.V. – Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia.

SAMUSEVA O.A. – Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia.

SHAKUN E.N. – Director of the educational department work with students of the Russian University friendship of peoples, Moscow, Russia.

SIMAKOVA V.K. – Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.

TELEGIN D.S. – Graduate student, the Department of Globalistics at the Faculty of Global Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

TIMAKHOV K.V. – Postgraduate student of Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

VOLKOV A.V. – Graduate student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

WANG CONGYUE – PhD student of the Department of International Political Processes School of Political Science, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

WANG ZHAOXU – Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

YUE SIQI – Student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.

   
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