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№ 10 (86), 2022

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 10 (86), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Furman F.P., Krasilnikov S.V. Globalism and Multiculturalism and their Crisis

Chemshit D.A. Political Modernization as an Object of Scientific Research

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Ryazantsev S.V., Bragin A.D. Transformation of Motives and Trends of Emigration of Russians

Shakun E.N. Foreign Studies of Youth and Students: a Brief Review of Format and Content

Miroshnikov V.S. Extremism and Terrorism in Modern Society

Akhpatelov B.R., Davydov D.R. Representation of the Interests of Public Groups in the Russian Federation

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Madyukova S.A. Regional Specifics of the Institute of National Policy in the Republic of Tyva

Galieva S.I., Galieva G.M. The Place of Crime Prevention in Russian Political Space Through the Lens of Presidental Addresses

Emelyanov A.I., Belova L.G. Features of the Dissemination of Political Information in the Internet Space in the Conditions of Information Confrontation

Volkov A.V. Warrior of Light: Information War Against Figure Skater Kamila Valieva as a Symbol of National Alliance: Political Aspect

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Magadiev M.F. Main Issues of State Administration in Russia in the Field of International Cooperation in the Context of the Special Military Operation in Ukraine

Chepelyuk S.G. Digital Government as a Factor in the Development of Interaction Between the State and Business

Samuseva O.A. Scientific and Technological Direction as a Priority in Development

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Juraqulov F.N. Reform on the Principle of Division of State Power and Balance in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Rodionova M.E., Gimaliev V.G., Nazarova N.A. Electoral Preferences of the Italian Population on the Eve of Parliamentary Elections 2022

Nevmerzhitskii A.L., Novoselov S.V., Khachatryan D.A. Political Processes: a Vector for International Cooperation or Confrontation

Guzaerov R.I. Diplomatic Relations Between Turkey and Saudi Arabia (2015-2022)

Nechai A.A. Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Internal and External Challenges

Kozyreva M.S. From NAFTA to USMC: Benefits and Losses of Participants

Kapustin A.S. Comparative Analysis of Media Centers of the International Terrorist Organization DAESH (Prohibbited in the Russian Federation)

Wang Congyue. The Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on International Configuration

Gao Dai. Analysis of the Main Problems of the Ancient Chinese Anti-Corruption System

Goerlitz H. System of Economic Relations Between Russia and Germany in the Context of their Political Support

Gu Xiaoyan. China's Development Assistance in Southeast Asia Research

Lidzhieva K.N. The Strategy of "Global Korea" as the Foundation of the Policy of the "Middle Power"

Lukin A.D. Arctic Diplomacy as a Kind of Regional Diplomacy and a Special Kind of State Policy in the Arctic

Liu Jia, Wang Zhaoxu, Yue Siqi. The Influence of the Media on the Formation of the Image of the State (Comparative Analysis of China and Russia)

Matyashova D.O., Mikhalevich E.A. Intrastate and Interstate Conflicts and Aggressive Non-State Actors in Northeast Asia

Telegin D.S. The Role of the Arctic Region in the Formation of “Greater Eurasia”

Khorbaladze E.L. US Indo-Pacific Strategy: Main Dimesnsions and Implications for Russia

Chu Chengcheng. Humanitarian Policy of China and the United States in Central Asia in the Field of Education

Timakhov K.V. NEOM: Transformation Project of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Omonov R.R. Experience in the Application of Information Technologies in the Public Administration of the USA and the Countries of Western Europe and their Impact on Modernization Power Systems

Aman S. Modern Challenges and Security Threats for Central Asian Countries

STUDENT SCIENCE

Myasnikov D.S., Manapov S.Sh., Simakova V.K. The Essence of the Liberal Oligarchy as a Project for an Effective Political Structure of the State

Kostina A.D., Ilinskaya K.R., Pakhmutov N.D. Favorable Forecasts and “Problematic” Aspects of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative

Bakanina D.A., Baranova Y.V., Leonova A.A. Environmental Agenda as a Means of Implementing Scientific Diplomacy of Western Countries and the Russian Federation in the Arctic Region

Nikitina A.A. The Role of Mass Communication in the Dynamics of Relations Between the USA and Russia

Our authors № 10-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.001

F.P. FURMAN Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

S.V. KRASILNIKOV Ph.D., Associate professor, department of theory and history of state and law North-West institute of management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Saint Petersburg, Russia

GLOBALISM AND MULTICULTURALISM AND THEIR CRISIS

The article is devoted to the analysis of American, European and Russian scientists' views on such global processes as globalism and multiculturalism; the basic difference between the concept «multicultural» and «multicultural» is determined. The similarities and differences in the meaning of these terms in American and European scientific discourse are revealed.

The article also explores current trends in geopolitics in the era of globalization. As a result of this research it has been shown that the world at the end of the twentieth century is not bipolar, and in the twenty-first century it transforms from unipolar into multi-polar. It is indicated that this trend is connected with the fact that centres of economic development and the reformatting of the existing global geopolitical system are being transformed.

Key words: globalism, multiculturalism, multiculturalism, globalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.002

D.A. CHEMSHIT Candidate of political sciences, Docent of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Institute of the Federal State Educational Institution, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

POLITICAL MODERNIZATION AS AN OBJECT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

The article reveals the main scientific approaches to understanding the processes of political modernization. Based on the analysis of approaches, the stages of the evolution of modernization theories are established. Particular importance is attached to the typology of modernization processes. In the generally accepted academic terms, political modernization is characterized either as original – organic, or as catch up – inorganic. Three types of political modernization are considered in the refined author's style: endogenous, that is, carried out on its own basis; endogenous–exogenous, proceeding in the form of a combination of it’s own experience and external borrowing; exogenous – carried out on the basis of borrowing in the absence of its own basis.

Key words: political modernization, organic modernization, inorganic modernization, endogenous modernization, endogenous-exogenous modernization, exogenous modernization.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.003

S.V. RYAZANTSEV Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

A.D. BRAGIN PhD Student, Junior researcher of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF MOTIVES AND TRENDS OF EMIGRATION OF RUSSIANS

This article presents an analysis of modern emigration processes from the Russian Federation. Emigration from Russia has always been on a huge scale, especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this regard, the issue of assessing and subsequent analysis of the volume of emigration flows, their directions, as well as factors influencing the choice of destination country is acute. The authors have identified the main factors of emigration of Russians and the socio-economic consequences of this process both for recipient countries and for Russia as a donor country. It is determined that over the past decades, the directions of emigration of Russians have undergone serious changes. There has been a sharp change in the priorities of emigrants from the economically developed countries of the EU and North America in favor of the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America. This trend is based on certain factors, such as the ease of processing documents for a stay, the relatively low cost of living, the possibility of remote work, etc. In this regard, the integration of emigrants into the host society has become much easier, which obviously affected the very structure of emigration processes, making them less economically costly and faster in terms of implementation.

Key words: emigration flows, migrants, Russia, population, diaspora, integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.004

E.N. SHAKUN Director of the educational department work with students of the Russian University friendship of peoples, Moscow, Russia

FOREIGN STUDIES OF YOUTH AND STUDENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW OF FORMAT AND CONTENT

Scientific studies of the youth social stratum and students have reached the level of some of the most popular, but not the most ambitious, advanced and productive. Be that as it may, today, youth research is acquiring the status of not only purely academic and cognitive significance. This type of scientific research turns out to be in demand and essential, especially when in these studies civil society, politics and politicians, the state, educational institutions and organizations, their structures find a useful understanding and explanation for themselves, what decisions to make regarding the most active, but also " reckless" part of society in its intentions when it comes to its desires and behavior, degree and level of responsibility. In the article, based on the latest research literature identified, an attempt is made to provide a brief overview of how the development of youth studies abroad is supported, what issues and problems are covered in these studies, and how they can be characterized.

Key words: youth research, student research, youth research centers.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.005

V.S. MIROSHNIKOV Independent researcher, Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia

EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM IN MODERN SOCIETY

The article is devoted to one of the most important directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring and guaranteeing public security – improving the legal regulation of the sphere of the state mechanism, which is focused on preventing and countering manifestations of extremism and terrorism, which are complex and multidimensional threats at the international level. The author comprehensively examines the existing system of methods of combating these threats, focusing on the effectiveness of certain measures.

Relevance. The problem of combating terrorism and extremism in Russia is a priority, if only because ensuring and protecting human and civil rights and freedoms is a fundamental duty of the state. The Constitution of the Russian Federation defines the multinational people of our country as the bearer of sovereignty and the only source of power in the state, with mandatory consideration of the ideological diversity of the Russian population and equality before the law of all religious and public associations.

Goal. The purpose of the study is to analyze the nature of the phenomena of "extremism" and "terrorism", to identify the causes of their genesis as a problem of global significance. The author seeks to show the danger and destructive potential that the ideology built on these phenomena brings to the world community.

Tasks. Achieving the goal of this work involves solving a number of specific scientific tasks, namely:

– studying the content of the categories "extremism" and "terrorism" (including from the point of view of the history of their scientific understanding), assessing the objectivity of the developed classifications of these phenomena, updating modern measures to combat such an international evil as terrorism.

Methodology. As part of the research process, the author accumulated and studied a significant amount of educational, reference, regulatory and scientific information of various kinds (including online content).

Results. In the course of his scientific work, the author paid special attention to the consideration and analysis of the issues related to the manifestations of extremism among young people, taking into account the methods developed to date to combat this phenomenon.

Conclusion. Successful counteraction to extremist activity presupposes, in the author's opinion, the development of a set of specialized measures that generally meet such requirements as scientific validity, practical feasibility, conceptuality, potential effectiveness. For greater effect, various state and public structures should be involved in the process of combating manifestations of extremism. At the same time, their activities are subject to coordination within the framework of a single state concept. It is especially important that the society itself is deeply aware of the danger of extremism and extremist activity for the stability of the state and the well-being of citizens, and makes maximum use of intellectual and organizational opportunities to stop extremist manifestations. In other words, steps in the field of countering extremism should be practice-oriented, and not purely declarative, remaining only in the format of "plans for the future".

Key words: terrorism, extremism, crime, politics, international cooperation, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.006

B.R. AKHPATELOV Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

D.R. DAVYDOV Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

REPRESENTATION OF THE INTERESTS OF PUBLIC GROUPS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article analyzes the representation of the public interests of Russian citizens with the help of civil society structures during the third presidential term of Vladimir Putin from 2012 to 2019. The subject of the article is non-profit organizations (hereinafter referred to as NPOs), considered as one of the key elements of GO and as an important indicator of its condition. It is argued that the political leadership of the country does not rely on a clear definition and a system of indicators on the state of GO and acts in this area mainly reactively, but successfully uses some structures of GO to strengthen its power.

Key words: civil society, non-profit organizations, President V.V. Putin, Russian Federation, interests of public groups.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.007

S.A. MADYUKOVA PhD in Philosophy, Senior Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

REGIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE INSTITUTE OF NATIONAL POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF TYVA

The article reveals the specific socio-cultural characteristics of the Republic of Tyva, which include the geographical, economic position of the region, its ethnic composition and linguistic specificity, which determines the key vectors of the activity of the institution of national policy in the region, formed taking into account this specificity.On the example of Tuva, the legislative base of the region in the field of national policy, the structures of the authorities responsible for the implementation of national policy in the region, as well as specific vectors of their activities: support for Tuvan-Todzhans (representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North) and the Cossacks, activities to harmonize interethnic relations and counter extremism in the republic, patriotic education of youth, etc. Also analyzed are ethnocultural activities carried out mainly by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Tuva, including the holding of Tuvan national holidays, "ethnically marked" public events in the region, as well as supervising the work of museums, theaters and libraries. The article also reflects the analysis of the activities of such structures as the Committee for Social Policy and the Council under the Head of the Republic of Tyva for interethnic and interfaith relations.The author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to take into account regional specifics in the formation of national policy in it, which is not fully implemented in Tuva at this time.

Key words: national policy, the Republic of Tyva, Tuvans, Tuvans-Todzhans, indigenous peoples, language policy, region, ethnic culture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.008

S.I. GALIEVA Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

G.M. GALIEVA Senior lecturer of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

THE PLACE OF CRIME PREVENTION IN RUSSIAN POLITICAL SPACE THROUGH THE LENS OF PRESIDENTAL ADDRESSES

By analyzing addresses of Russian president to Federal Council the article studies the place of crime prevention in political space of Russia. Based on the author's research it is concluded that during the last quarter of a century no due attention has been paid to the topic of crime prevention in the rhetoric of Russia's top officials. In the author's opinion it can be explained by the low mobilising potential of this topic which makes it relatively unattractive as an element of political rhetoric.

Key words: crime prevention, addresses of Russian president to Federal Council, political rhetoric, political agenda.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.009

A.I. EMELYANOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

L.G. BELOVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department foreign regional studies of the Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences of the Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE DISSEMINATION OF POLITICAL INFORMATION IN THE INTERNET SPACE IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION CONFRONTATION

The article examines the features, main directions and prospects for the development of the Internet space in the XXI century in the conditions of increasing confrontation between the key actors of world politics. The tendencies of the formation of the modern media sphere are considered; the geopolitical determinants formed under the influence of public opinion are analyzed. When writing the work, various state documents and the works of political scientists on this topic were used. The analysis of the material was carried out within the framework of theoretical analysis, content analysis and event analysis.

Key words: actor, Internet, information confrontation, infotainment, media, world politics, public opinion, politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.010

A.V. VOLKOV Graduate student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

WARRIOR OF LIGHT: INFORMATION WAR AGAINST FIGURE SKATER KAMILA VALIEVA AS A SYMBOL OF NATIONAL ALLIANCE: POLITICAL ASPECT

The article is devoted to the study of the role of champions of top-level sports and the impact of their sporting successes on international life and the relationship with the political agenda. Using the example of the doping scandal with the Russian figure skater Kamila Valieva, the peculiarities of the formation of a negative media agenda pursuing political goals of denigrating Russia are demonstrated. The analysis of the coverage of Russian figure skating by the world media and the aggressive information campaign against the country based on nationality is carried out. It is concluded that doping rhetoric has been an instrument of attempts of pro-Western political pressure on Russian sports for more than one year. Using the example of active popular support and international recognition of the Russian figure skater, in particular, following the results of the Olympic Games-2022 in Beijing, the analysis of what role the athletes' personalities are called upon to perform in a difficult geopolitical situation and Western pressure. Also, on the example of popularization of the image of the Russian figure skater K. The features of positioning and interpreting the successes of sports champions as one of the goals of involving communities not only in the humanitarian channel of the Olympic Movement, but also political, social and intercultural exchanges between world communities are considered. It is stated that such athletes of the "new archetype" as K. Valieva in the future can become a factor in overcoming the deepening gap between the superpowers and minimizing the geopolitical struggle within the framework of sports mega-events.

Key words: sport, Olympics, figure skating, sanctions, doping, OCD, figure skater, image, recognition, politics, generation Z, soft power, popular support.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.011

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of sociological sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in the foreign policy activities of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

MAIN ISSUES OF STATE ADMINISTRATION IN RUSSIA IN THE FIELD OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION IN UKRAINE

In the emerging realities of international relations, it seems important to develop an understanding of how the Russian-Ukrainian conflict will affect the situation in various regions of Eurasia. In this article, the author examines the main issues of public administration in Russia in the field of international cooperation with the countries of East Asia, the European Union, the Caspian region, as well as within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. Along with an analysis of the current state of bilateral relations with a number of states in the context of the Special Military Operation in Ukraine, the article also outlines specific areas designed to ensure their sustainable development.

Key words: public administration, Eurasian Economic Union, European Union, Iran, China, North Korea, international relations, sanctions, Special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.012

S.G. CHEPELYUK postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL GOVERNMENT AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE STATE AND BUSINESS

The article analyzes the development of relations between the state and business in the context of the implementation of the concept of digital government in Russia. The author reveals the content of the concept of "digital government", as well as the impact of digitalization on changing the dynamics of the relationship between such political actors as the state and business. Using such techniques as a descriptive-specific description, elements of a situational analysis and a case study, the author, using specific Russian examples, analyzes the opportunities, as well as risks and barriers for the development of relations between the state and business in the context of the formation of digital government in Russia.

Key words: digital government, digitalization, GR, public administration, government as a platform, e-government.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.013

O.A. SAMUSEVA Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DIRECTION AS A PRIORITY IN DEVELOPMENT

In the increasingly complex modern world, in the formation of a new world order, one of the most important components of development remains the direction – the relationship "center – periphery", according to which the development of technologies, information resources, human capital, etc. is decisive. New political circumstances (epedemiological crisis and its consequences, the new role of Russia in the international arena, anti-Russian sanctions) certainly affect the state of the regional and international environment, the development of each country, both in the socio-economic and political aspects. At the same time, the study of the identified problem demonstrates the current stage of the technological revolution and industrial transformation. Many countries are striving to use the opportunities of this stage of historical development and seize the initiative in technological competition. Competition in technological innovation is becoming increasingly fierce. The subject of our research is scientific and technological development as a priority factor in creating the basis for national development and the competitive advantage of the state.

Key words: international relations, the science, technology, innovation, innovative economy, human capital.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.014

F.N. JURAQULOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, First Deputy Head of the Republican center of spirituality and enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

REFORM ON THE PRINCIPLE OF DIVISION OF STATE POWER AND BALANCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

The article is devoted to the principles of separation of powers in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The socio-economic, legal and political foundations of the sustainable development of society, the place and role of public authorities in the development of the democratic principles of civil society in the country are studied. It provides an analysis of the reforms aimed at the consistent implementation of the principle of separation of powers, carried out for this purpose in recent years of constitutional innovations, reveals their essence and significance. The author outlines a number of issues that require scientific and practical discussion and deep scientific and theoretical study on the formation of civil society in the Republic.

Key words: civil society, state, power, reform, virtual reception office, people reception office, principles, social society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.015

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

V.G. GIMALIEV Doctor or Philosophy, Associate Professor of Department of foreign languages N 2, I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia

N.A. NAZAROVA Candidate of economic sciences, Director, Autonomous non-profit organization "Institute for the Development of Entrepreneurship and Economics", Moscow, Russia

ELECTORAL PREFERENCES OF THE ITALIAN POPULATION ON THE EVE OF PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 2022

The material examines the results of the early parliamentary elections in Italy, held on September 25, 2022, which led to major shifts in the perception of voters – the victory of the center-right coalition of four parties: “Brothers of Italy”, “League”, “Forward, Italy!”, “We – moderate”. Attention is paid to economic indicators on the eve and after the elections in Italy, the trends in the transformation of Italian society. An analysis of the use of communication tools by Italian political leaders on the eve of the elections is given, an analysis is made of the conduct of social networks by the leading political parties in Italy.

Key words: electoral processes, electoral behavior, economic crisis, Italy, parliamentary elections, right-wing populism, center-right coalition, Brothers of Italy, League, Forward Italy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.016

A.L. NEVMERZHITSKII Director of UK Praktika LLC, Moscow, Russia

S.V. NOVOSELOV Commercial director of Vash Dom LLC, Moscow, Russia

D.A. KHACHATRYAN CEO of Kaskada LLC, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL PROCESSES: A VECTOR FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OR CONFRONTATION

The political process is one of the basic concepts of political science. However, despite its importance and central place in the system of political science categories, this concept has not yet received a universally recognized unified interpretation and use. The diversity of definitions of the political process, including in the field of international cooperation, of international trade, is largely due to its interpretation from different scientific positions.

From the point of view of constructively minded authors, Russia participates in global political processes, strives to harmonize international relations, to ensure stability and equality, to eliminate the problems of unipolarity and injustice of the world order. These attempts to direct political processes in a constructive direction, contribute to the improvement of the existing world order, and protect their national interests have led to a sharp deterioration in relations between Russia and the West.

Key words: politics, political processes, international cooperation, confrontation, sanctions, resources, economy, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.017

R.I. GUZAEROV Junior Researcher Department of Middle and Post-Soviet East Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (INION) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND SAUDI ARABIA (2015-2022)

The article is devoted to a new stage of normalization of relations between Turkey and Saudi Arabia. The article identifies the main reasons for the differences in Turkish-Saudi relations, demonstrates the previous attempts of the states to establish bilateral relations. Special attention is paid to the bilateral visits of the heads of state in 2022. The author examined the main factors that prompted Turkey and Saudi Arabia to resume dialogue. Normalization of Turkish-Saudi relations is considered on a regional and global scale. The conclusion is made about the short-term nature of normalization.

Key words: Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Turkish-Saudi relations, Middle East, normalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.018

A.A. NECHAI Senior Lecturer, Saint-Petersburg Peter the Great Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHALLENGES

The functioning of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a vivid manifestation of the principles of peaceful coexistence, the purpose of the Organization is to maintain peace and stability in the Eurasian region, this is especially relevant now, when the world community for the first time since the end of World War II is facing unprecedented challenges associated with the beginning of a new global conflict, increasing deficit of peace and trust. Since the founding of the SCO on June 15, 2001, the connotation and scope of the Organization has changed significantly. The focus of this study is on the internal and external challenges faced by the SCO. It traces the process of expansion and transformation of the Organization, assesses the consequences of the emergence of new members, and identifies existing and potential threats associated with it. The prerequisites for Iran's accession to the SCO, which occurred in September 2022, as well as the possible consequences are studied. The study leads to the conclusion that the Organization, in general, meets the current needs of regional stability. The problems faced by the SCO are mainly internal rather than external. As the number of member countries increases, the Organization's potential for development and influence increases, while the accession of new members adds to the complexities of coordination, potentially leading to a decrease in the influence of participants with lesser political and economic weight on the world stage. On the other hand, a complete rejection of the accession of new members can lead to their loss of interest in the organization and its international credibility will decline. The study shows that the internal cohesion of the SCO is not strong enough. The geopolitical orientation of the member states is multidirectional. Conflicts between some member states (for example, India and Pakistan, India and China, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan) and dialogue partners Armenia and Azerbaijan may affect the internal unity of the organization, reduce the ability to respond quickly to geopolitical challenges and, consequently, the influence of the SCO on the world stage. The SCO is in de facto opposition to the United States on issues of international security, economic governance, as well as regional issues and “hot topics”.

Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization, SCO Charter, interstate relations, expansion, globalization, challenges.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.019

M.S. KOZYREVA Ph.D. student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FROM NAFTA TO USMC: BENEFITS AND LOSSES OF PARTICIPANTS

The integration processes of the North American continent are recognized as successful and are inferior in efficiency only to the experience of the European Union. However, participation in the institutions of the region is initially unequal in rights and is characterized by United States's dominant role, which was accepted to NAFTA. However, the growth of hegimonistic ambitions motivated the transformation of the treaty and the new institution, which was called "USMCA". The text of the agreement and the benefits of the parties were revised, and the article focuses on this aspect. This fact determines main purpose of the research, which is to identify the interests and positions of the USMCA members. The text of the agreement and the benefits of the parties were revised, and the attention of the article is focused on this aspect, the main purpose of which is to identify the interests and positions of the USMCA members. Its implementation required an in-depth analysis of the NAFTA and USMCA agreements, a comparison of the two organizations, as well as a generalization of an extensive theoretical basis, which formed the basis of the research methodology. Under the new institution, Mexico and Canada are in an even worse position than before, opening up their domestic markets to more agricultural imports and redefining engineering industry regulations. These aspects, together with the conduct of an advisory body, turn the integration group into an instrument of the USA regional authorities. These transformations were reflected in the scientific world, forming a negative reputation for USMCA and its effectiveness for Mexico and Canada. However, despite the heavy concessions, the significance of the agreement for the trade turnover of states is high, in this case the refusal to continue cooperation within the USMCA would have more negative consequences.

Key words: North America, integration, turnover, USMCA, NAFTA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.020

A.S. KAPUSTIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDIA CENTERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION DAESH (PROHIBBITED IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)

The author analyzes the activity of three DAESH media centers Amaq, al-Furkan, al-Hayat. These media centers form different types of content, which makes it possible to ensure the representativeness of the sample.

The purpose of the study is to identify the forms and methods of activity of the media centers of the international terrorist organization Islamic State (hereinafter – DAESH).

Based on a structural analysis of the activities of the DAESH media centers (considered by the example of Amaq, al-Furqan, al-Hayat), it was found that these centers represent elements of the DAESH propaganda system operating in a decentralized manner. DAESH's activity in the media space implies the creation of different types of content. In this process, the trends towards the division of labor are reflected: since the content of different types: videos, audio materials, text materials, is often the product of the activities of different centers. The activity of DAESH in the media space involves the use of modern communication technologies, which implies methods of presenting information aimed at forming positive ideas about the activities of DAESH, as well as a strategy of communication with potential followers.

The information can be used in the work of specialists in countering the activities of international terrorist organizations on the Internet, as well as by political scientists and journalists.

Key words: terrorism, DAESH, propaganda, Internet, self-radicalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.021

WANG CONGYUE PhD student of the Department of International Political Processes School of Political Science, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE IMPACT OF THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON INTERNATIONAL CONFIGURATION

The issue of international configuration has been widely discussed in the field of international relations. International configuration refers to a relatively stable structure of international relations within a certain period, which is determined by the distribution of power among the major actors in the international society. After the 2008 Financial Crisis, with the decline of the United States and the rapid rise of other powers, especially China, the debate on whether the current international configuration is multipolar or bipolar has been triggered in the international relations circle. The historical experience of mankind tells us that the emergence of any scientific and technological revolution will further widen the strength gap between the countries which are the first to acquire new technologies and other countries. Since the 16th century, many scientific and technological revolutions have taken place in the world, each of which has extremely affected the international configuration. In view of the velocity, scope, and system influence, the 4IR breakthrough speed is unprecedented. Compared with the previous industrial revolution, the development speed of 4IR is exponential rather than linear. The paper argues that driven by 4IR, China’s overall strength has enhanced significantly since 2008, making China's comprehensive national power the second in the world. At present, the United States and China have their own advantages in the different fields of 4IR, taking the obvious leading position in the world. With the deep development of 4IR and wide application of its achievements, the advantages of the United States and China will be further expanded. Given all of this, it can be concluded that 4IR has accelerated the formation of the bipolar structure between the United States and China. In the future, 4IR will further stabilize the bipolar structure and extend the duration of the bipolar structure.

Key words: International configuration, polarity, bipolar structure, multipolar structure, comprehensive national strength, scientific and technological strength, the fourth industrial revolution, 5G technology, artificial intelligence (AI).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.022

GAO DAI Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE ANCIENT CHINESE ANTI-CORRUPTION SYSTEM

This article comprehensively analyzes the main aspects of the ancient Chinese anti-corruption system. The novelty of this article lies in the analysis of anti-corruption policies and laws of various dynasties of ancient China in order to identify the main problems that existed in their anti-corruption systems and the possibility of application in modern conditions. The theoretical significance of the study is to fill the gap in the anti-corruption studies of ancient China in Russian, and the practical significance is to study the ancient anti-corruption experience and use it to improve the modern anti-corruption mechanism.

Key words: corruption, fight against corruption, ancient China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.023

H. GOERLITZ Independent researcher, Wiesbaden, Germany

SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND GERMANY IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR POLITICAL SUPPORT

The presented study is devoted to the issue of the state of the system of foreign economic relations between Russia and Germany in the context of their political support by the time the military crisis in Ukraine began in 2022 and the prospects for its “reset”. The methodological base of the work is built on the basis of a combination of qualitative sociological research methods in the form of expert interviews and comparative analysis. The empirical basis of the presented study was a series of 15 expert interviews conducted in November-December 2021. The author concludes that the basic conditions for restarting and developing a political dialogue on economic cooperation between the two states can be called favorable.

Key words: Russia, Germany, foreign trade, political support, institutions, expert interview.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.024

GU XIAOYAN Russian Teacher, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China

CHINA'S DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA RESEARCH

The topic of this article contributes to the improvement of the theory of China's foreign aid mechanism. Foreign aid theory arose along with foreign aid activity and has early origins, especially among Western scientists, where it became a field of study in its own right, mainly from two fields: economics and political science. With rapid economic development, China continues to pay attention to its responsibilities as a great power, putting into practice the concept of contributing to world development and focusing on foreign aid, creating a theory that can be used to improve and improve China's Southeast development assistance system in the 21st century. In recent years, Southeast Asian aid has been increasing, and in this process, it is necessary to explore how to avoid the problem of Sino-US conflicts, study the problems and their practical consequences, which we should pay attention to when building Southeast Asian aid mechanisms, constantly think about shortcomings of China's Southeast Asia aid policy, and at the same time constantly adjust and improve foreign aid policy.

Key words: development assistance, Southeast Asia, China, USA, foreign aid, Southeast Asia, mutual benefit, strategic alignment, evolutionary logic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.025

K.N. LIDZHIEVA PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of global studies, Moscow, Russia

THE STRATEGY OF "GLOBAL KOREA" AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE POLICY OF THE "MIDDLE POWER"

The article examines the essence and features of the foreign policy strategy of "Global Korea", proclaimed by the 10th President of the Republic of Korea Lee Myeong-bak. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that there was a transition during the presidency of Lee Myeong-bak in South Korean foreign policy from a regional to a global way of acting while applying the concept of "middle power". The following methods were used in the course of the study: historical analysis, a systematic approach, analysis of strategic documents, as well as a number of other general scientific methods. Based on the research, the author concluded that the "Global Korea" strategy has become a catalyst for the transfer for the Republic of Korea to the rhetoric of the "middle power" in foreign policy.

Key words: "Global Korea", Lee Myung-bak, foreign policy, Republic of Korea, middle power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.026

A.D. LUKIN Graduate student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

ARCTIC DIPLOMACY AS A KIND OF REGIONAL DIPLOMACY AND A SPECIAL KIND OF STATE POLICY IN THE ARCTIC

The article examines history of international relations of the Arctic region from the perspective of regional cooperation.

The role of the Arctic region is constantly growing in international relations, this is facilitated by a number of factors related to environmental, geopolitical, economic, climatic, military, scientific, humanitarian issues in the Arctic region.

The purpose of this article is an attempt to study the features of regional relations, to present the thesis of the emergence of regional Arctic diplomacy on the example of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic. Consider the peculiarity of the formation of regional relations as a result of the identity of national interests and challenges, the Arctic countries, entering regional and international relations.

Studying international relations in the Arctic, its features, channels for dialogue, will become an effective tool in preserving the region as a territory of peace and mutually beneficial partnership. A gradual increase in the role of non-Arctic states in economic and trade activities in the region will become a natural process for the development of regional relations in the Arctic. To maintain the flexibility of regional relations, the existing institutions of interaction in the Arctic will play an important role.

Key words: Arctic region, regional policy, diplomacy, mutually beneficial partnership, Arctic diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.027

LIU JIA Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

WANG ZHAOXU Postgraduate student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

YUE SIQI Student of the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIA ON THE FORMATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE STATE (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHINA AND RUSSIA)

The most important institution of modern society and a serious translator of the geopolitical image is the media. The data transmitted through the media allows not only to form an image (image) of a separate territory, but also to transform it according to certain interests. The media are able to impose certain topics and even interpretations of events and phenomena on a wide range of people. The development of the informatization of society has led to the fact that the mass media are increasingly noticeably influencing various public spheres, including the political consciousness and behavior of citizens. It is impossible to count on a single event aimed at creating the image of the state, because a whole system of mutually agreed actions is needed. They should be aimed at the local population, partners and opposition politicians, and this will help raise the prestige of the government itself.

The image of the state is a stereotyped image formed in the mass consciousness. It merges people's ideas about the features of this territory of historical, socio-cultural, socio-economic, political and other nature. At the same time, each person forms a subjective idea of the region, based both on their own specific impressions, and indirectly, relying on the materials of cinematic and literary sources, mass media, based on eyewitness accounts, rumors and speculation.

Thus, the structure of the image of the state is multilayered – in the minds of different people, the image of the same state may have significant differences.

Nevertheless, it is possible and necessary to manage the image of the state. If the image of the state is built professionally, then this allows the territory to actively develop and prosper. At the same time, the attractive image of the state depends not only on its real potential in cultural and socio-economic terms, but more on the use of this potential.

Key words: image of the state, mass media, marketing, information, state, market.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.028

D.О. MATYASHOVA PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

E.A. MIKHALEVICH PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

INTRASTATE AND INTERSTATE CONFLICTS AND AGGRESSIVE NON-STATE ACTORS IN NORTHEAST ASIA

The states of Northeast Asia are actively developing the field of ICT and AI, therefore, they potentially have wide opportunities for using such technologies as a tool for destabilizing the information and psychological situation in competing countries. At the same time, the countries of the region can also become the object of high-tech information and psychological influence from anti-social actors, such as opposition political forces, terrorist groups, sects, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the international situation in Northeast Asia and characterize the activities of aggressive non-state actors in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Hong Kong, which have a destabilizing effect on the security architecture of the entire Northeast Asian region.

Key words: Northeast Asia, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, information and psychological security, separatism, extremism, terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.029

D.S. TELEGIN Graduate student, the Department of Globalistics at the Faculty of Global Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE ARCTIC REGION IN THE FORMATION OF “GREATER EURASIA”

As a result of the rivalry between the United States and China in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC), the APAC region is transforming. The Asia-Pacific region is becoming an integral part of Eurasia. Consequently, the role of the Arctic region – the link between the main part of Eurasia and the APAC region – increases, which opens a window of opportunities for the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Greater Eurasia project. The author uses an interdisciplinary approach, content analysis and event analysis to analyze Russian and foreign scientific works and official documents.

Key words: Greater Eurasia, the Arctic region, Arcto-Pacific, Asia-Pacific, region, integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.030

E.L. KHORBALADZE PhD student, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University; Fox International Fellow (researcher), MacMillan Center, Yale University, Moscow, Russia

US INDO-PACIFIC STRATEGY: MAIN DIMESNSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RUSSIA

As for today the global interests of the United States are fully projected into the Indo-Pacific region, and the concept of the Indo-Pacific region becomes the basis for extending the American strategy of “reversal and rebalancing” to the Indian Ocean. The aim of the article is to detect how Indo-Pacific strategy (IPS) changes the strategic balance of power in the region. The author asks 3 main questions: What is the essence of Indo-Pacific strategy? How the approach towards Indo-Pacific region has changed during different US presidents since G.W. Bush? How IPS affects the interests of Russia in the Indo-Pacific region? To answer these questions author used the multimethod research design, particularly following methods: document analysis, content analysis, structured, focused comparison, system analysis. Author concludes that creating virtually from scratch an architecture for the realization of its interests in the Indo-Pacific region, the United States is adopting a flexible approach of “new regionalism”. This is best compiled through the US Indo-Pacific strategy. The George W. Bush Administration understood Asia’s growing importance and engaged closely with the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and India. The Obama Administration significantly accelerated American prioritization of Asia, investing new diplomatic, economic, and military resources there. The Trump Administration also recognized the Indo-Pacific as the world’s center of gravity. Under President Biden, the United States is determined to strengthen long-term position in and commitment to the Indo-Pacific. Meanwhile, Russia clearly unwelcomes the Indo-Pacific as a new geopolitical construct with military component, considers QUAD as “Asian NATO”, and sees ASEAN as the preferable Asian regional format. However, the future of Russian position will be determined by the development of this construct. If regional interpretations of the Indo-Pacific prevail, less geopolitical and confrontational, Russia’s reaction can be far less concerted.

Key words: Indo-Pacific strategy, Asia-Pacific region, trans-regional integration, concept, US, Russia, QUAD.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.031

CHU CHENGCHENG Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HUMANITARIAN POLICY OF CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES IN CENTRAL ASIA IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The article shows the growing influence of the humanitarian component of modern international relations and the importance of taking into account the humanitarian factor in the operation of inter-country relations. The paper gives the author's interpretation of the concept of "humanitarian policy" and its difference with "soft power". This article analyzes the experience of educational programs in the countries of the Central Asian region, examines the impact of China and the United States on the educational system of Central Asian countries in a comparative manner. Their strategic goals and priorities of diplomacy and their relationship with each other are summarized. The purpose of this article is to reveal the nature and show the different features of the humanitarian policy of China and the United States in Central Asia. Research methods – Comparative research, content analysis of official documents. The object of the study is the humanitarian policy of China and the United States in Central Asia in the field of education. The subject of the study is Cooperation in the field of education between China, the United States and the countries of Central Asia.

The results of the study: The United States has invested a lot in educational projects in Central Asia, and it can be seen that the United States attaches great importance to humanitarian exchange in diplomacy. The main strategic goal of the United States is to spread American values and expand its influence in Central Asia. But, on the other hand, since the ambitions of the United States are too obvious, it also disgusted Central Asian society, and to a certain extent influenced the process of humanitarian exchange. Humanitarian exchange in the field of education between China and the countries of Central Asia began relatively late. The creation of the SCO and the BRI contributed to humanitarian exchange.

Key words: humanitarian policy, educational cooperation, China, USA, Central Asia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.032

K.V. TIMAKHOV Postgraduate student of Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

NEOM: TRANSFORMATION PROJECT OF KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

This paper examines the prospects for creating a city that has no analogues in the world, in accordance with the NEOM project proposed by the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman. This initiative is one of the components of a comprehensive plan to transform the country's socio-economic system – "Saudi Vision – 2030". The analysis of the developed strategy and the stages of its implementation may be of interest for scientific research due to its novelty and ambiguity of implementation in the poorly developed desert terrain of the Arabian Peninsula. As a result of the study, an inconsistency has been established that arises due to the discrepancy between resources for the implementation of the project and the tasks that are of an abstract theoretical nature. In addition, the futuristic nature of the NEOM project, with all its positive characteristics, which are environmental sustainability and technological effectiveness, raises the problem of data privacy, equality of opportunities and legal protection of potential residents of the "smart city".

Key words: city of the future, NEOM, Saudi Arabia, transformation program, Saudi Vision – 2030.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.033

R.R. OMONOV Researcher at the Department of Civil Society and legal education of the National University Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

EXPERIENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE USA AND THE COUNTRIES OF WESTERN EUROPE AND THEIR IMPACT ON MODERNIZATION POWER SYSTEMS

The article analyzes the role of information, communication and Internet technologies in the development of the economy. Experience in the use of information technologies in public administration in the United States and Western Europe and their impact on the modernization of the power system. The effectiveness of the use of intellectuals and the product of their mental labor for the realization of the will and goals of the entire nation. Theoretical and methodological problems of national security policy formation are revealed. The main conditions affecting the state of security are substantiated.

Key words: information technology, globalization, geopolitics, society, national security, management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.034

S. AMAN Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MODERN CHALLENGES AND SECURITY THREATS FOR CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES

The article shows that the Central Asian region retains exceptional importance in the modern system of international relations, being at the same time a crossroads of the world's largest civilizations: Christianity, Confucianism and Islam, as well as a point of intersection of the geopolitical interests of a number of countries, such as Russia, the United States, China, Turkey and the European Union, the establishment of control over which allows you to manage the global transit of strategic raw materials for the world's largest emerging economies. It is noted that the Central Asian region is a zone of historically determined national interests of the Russian Federation, where it plays the role of an important partner of the Central Asian republics and moderator of privileged cooperation in trade, economic, political and humanitarian spheres. It is concluded that as a leading geopolitical power, Russia is called upon to ensure the stability of the military-political situation in the Central Asian region, as well as the security of its southern borders through the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian states in the format of the CIS, EAEU, SCO, and CSTO, which is becoming most relevant in modern conditions of geopolitical and geo-economic transformations.

Key words: International security, SCO, Central Asia, USA, international relations, CIS, Russia, Turkey, drug trafficking, ethno-confessional conflicts, China, Iran, Regional security.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.035

D.S. MYASNIKOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

S.SH. MANAPOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

V.K. SIMAKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE ESSENCE OF THE LIBERAL OLIGARCHY AS A PROJECT FOR AN EFFECTIVE POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STATE

The emergence of liberalism in Russia took place on the basis of various historical processes that emerged in the political, economic and cultural life of society. Taking the Western idea of liberal relations as a basis, the Russian intelligentsia introduced its own unique specifics of the Russian idea of liberalism.

The result of changes in the social structure of Russian society after the start of systemic transformations was the rapid, almost instantaneous by historical standards, the formation of a layer of very large entrepreneurs, called "oligarchs". This layer has become the leading force of the Russian business class, and it largely determines the development of Russia.

In the article, the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of liberal oligarchy and analyzes this phenomenon as a project for an effective political structure of the state. In addition, the attention of the study is also devoted to the advantages and disadvantages of this model of the welfare state, which are studied using specific examples of modern international political reality.

Key words: liberalism, liberal oligarchy, political model, political structure, state, society, reformation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.036

A.D. KOSTINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

K.R. ILINSKAYA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.D. PAKHMUTOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

FAVORABLE FORECASTS AND “PROBLEMATIC” ASPECTS OF THE CHINESE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE

The China Belt and Road Initiative is a multi-billion dollar project that has an economic and strategic impact on all participating regions and countries. Since its inception in 2013, this initiative has been the subject of intense debate. Like all multifaceted cases of modern international relations, it has its supporters and critics. The former emphasize that the Initiative has received high praise from a number of developing countries, who believe that the financing of trade-related infrastructure will contribute to the economic growth of participating countries. Critics see the project as a tool to increase China's geopolitical power and a debt trap for countries that receive loans to develop infrastructure that ultimately does not support their economic development.

The author finds this consumption of opinions interesting and relevant for the study. This article discusses the favorable forecasts for the implementation of the Chinese concept of "One Belt – One Road", and also examines the possible negative aspects of the consequences of its implementation.

Key words: international relations, economics, economic integration, China, One belt – One road, transport, project, initiative, Central Asia, world economy, development prospects, development risks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.037

D.A. BAKANINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

Y.V. BARANOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. LEONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA AS A MEANS OF IMPLEMENTING SCIENTIFIC DIPLOMACY OF WESTERN COUNTRIES AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE ARCTIC REGION

The Arctic region has always been an international platform for dialogue on resolving global problems and challenges through joint efforts by actors in international relations. However, 2022 has become a period of serious testing of the cooperation of scientific communities in the Arctic, previously proceeding at a steady pace. This paper describes and analyzes the observed negative dynamics of the science diplomacy of Western countries and the Russian Federation in the region with an emphasis on the environmental agenda, after which further prospects for the development of events are considered. The article also emphasizes the need to search for new mechanisms of cooperation in the region that can ensure a balance of national and global interests.

Key words: science diplomacy, Arctic region, environmental agenda, Arctic Council, confrontation, Russia, Western countries.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.86.10.038

A.A. NIKITINA Student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE DYNAMICS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE USA AND RUSSIA

This article examines the impact of mass communication on international relations, in particular the impact on the relationship between the United States and Russia. The article analyzes how mass communication affects the formation of public opinion, its promotion and implementation of the necessary assessment of events in the mass consciousness, as well as how it affects international relations, the result of this impact.

Key words: USA, Russia, mass communication, international relations.

   
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