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№ 10 (74), 2021

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 14, Issue 2 (102), 2024

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Furman T.G. Controversial Situations of Postmodernity in Politics and Law

Rebrikov D.D. De-Democratisation of the Political System: Content and Factors of Occurrence

Gayeva A.V. Using the Methodology of Discourse Analysis in the Study of Elitist Theories

Pcelovodov N.A. Studies of the Genesis of Political Theology as a Specific Concept

POLITICAL HISTORY

Logvinov D.V. The Life and Work of L. Mechelin (1839-1914) in the Light of the History of Finnish Russophobia

Khvastov A.N. Formation of a New Political Consciousness in the Course of Cultural and Mass Work with German Prisoners of War in the Period from 1941 to 1953

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Abdurakhmonov S. Democracy: Transformation or Harmony?

Klimenko A.V. Image of the Future: Concept, Structure, Functions

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Avazov K.H. The Place and Role of State Authority in Ensuring threat Resistance of the State and Society

Titov V.V. The Formation of National-State Identity in Modern Russia: the Role of the Regional Factor

Karatueva E.N. The "Green" Parties: Development Paths and Political Prospects

Pescherov Yu.G. Features of Political Institutions Depending on the Region

Gorbunov N.S. The Issue of Strategic Communication Definition in Political Sphere

Dzgoeva D.T., Kukartsev S.M. Distant Electronic Voting as a New Mechanism of Interaction Between the State and Society: Opportunities and Challenges

Lukina Yu.V. Stages of Applying the Overton Window in Cognitive Warfare to Change Consciousness Using Cannabis Legalization and Gender Policy as Examples

Likhomanov K.V., Tkesheliadze A.B. Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Crisis Prevention of Electoral Systems

Chelnokova M.L. Countering Non-Systemic Opposition on Social Networks

Chertoroev D.A. Interaction of Executive Authorities with Society Via the Internet: Comparison of Democratic and Non-Democratic Political Regimes

Zhang Yifei. Influence of Confucian Ethics on the Formation of a Model of Political Governance in Modern China

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Leon U.A., Merkulova L.P. Local Agricultural Policy in N'djamena in Chad: Socio-Economic Challenges and Perspectives

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Alaudinov A.A., Manoilo A.V. Cognitive and Mental Components of Modern Hybrid Warfare

Nikolaev N.P. Political Influence of International Environmental Institutions on Legislative Activities in Russia: Axiological Aspect

Saushkina M.S. Falsifiation of History as an Instrument of Symbolic Politics: the Evolution of Politication of History in Post-Communist States of Eastern Europe

Avakyan D.A. Utopias and Reality: English and French Experience

Bayramly N.S., Guseinova D.M. Public Diplomacy and its Role in Russian-Azerbaijan Relations

Argvliani K.R. The Society 5.0 Formation Policy in Cities of Developed and Developing Countries

Boldyreva E.L., Stam Finn Benjamin, Nelga A.A. The Netherlands and its Polder Model

Wang Feixiang. Public Diplomacy of China in the Modern World: Problems and Development Prospects

Golikov B.I. Implementation of Russian-Chinese Projects within the Framework of “One Belt – One Road”

Danilova E.A. The Logic of Governance Decision-Making by Representatives of the Chinese Political and Business Elite Through the Prism of the Philosophy of the Chinese Strategic Game of Go (Part I)

Knyshova A.Yu. The Role of Asan Kaigy in the Formation of the National Discourse of the Kazakh Khanate

Koduah Emmanuel. Problems and Trends of Voting in the General Elections in Ghana

Krupianko M.I., Areshidze L.G. Japanese Nationalism as the Main Unificating and Protective Force of the Nation in the New World Order of the XXI Century (Part II)

Miloevich L. NATO Expansion, Russia's Response and European Security Architecture

Tamundele Jean-Baptiste Ngey. African Union

Xing Haotian. China's Digital Diplomacy: Features and Prospects of Development

Spasov A.A. Technologies of Destabilization of the State of the Opposition Bloc «Serbia Against Violence»

Xue Jiaxin. Cooperation and Prospects of China and the Middle East Countries within the Framework of “One Belt and One Road”

SCIENTIFIC REFLECTIONS ON A CURRENT TOPIC

Medvedev N.P. On the Issue of Modern Political Parties

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.001

T.G. FURMAN Candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor of the Department of Administrative Law of the North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

CONTROVERSIAL SITUATIONS OF POSTMODERNITY IN POLITICS AND LAW

The undertaken research made it possible to formulate a method for the genealogy of postmodern discourse, demonstrate its application on specific philosophical and cultural material, and also use it to streamline current academic legal and political discussions.

The approach, rationalism, was based on the intention to return religious discourse to the public and scientific space in the new status of a subject of sociology and law, which protected it from direct persecution by positivism, but deprived it of political subjectivity.

It has been proven that in the 20th century, under the influence of postmodernism and certain trends in political theology (general skepticism regarding the modern foundations of Western thought), many areas of criticism of “legal theories” emerged.

The hypothesis was confirmed that postmodern discourse has two states – theological and political, which determine its different type of action in the “center” (in Western Christian culture) and on the “periphery” (in Orthodox, as well as any non-Christian culture).

In the “center,” discourse operates at a deep level of the core of culture, in theology and religious worldview, and then its action extends to the external, socio-political sphere. Discourse immediately comes to the “periphery” as an external, political force that can lead to large-scale and painful social consequences.

Key words: postmodern, discourse, dispute, politics, law, religion, study, situation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.002

D.D. REBRIKOV Graduate student, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow, Russia

DE-DEMOCRATISATION OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM: CONTENT AND FACTORS OF OCCURRENCE

In modern realities, the process of de-democratization is an integral element of the development of any democratic political system. Almost all countries of the world have gone through the stage of one-man despotic rule and some of them have managed to overcome its legacy by carrying out a democratic transit. However, despite the transformation of the authoritarian institutional system, some vestiges of the past in democracies persist and sometimes even function. In a crisis of democracy, there is a high probability of the revival of authoritarian practices. Therefore, very often the growing social, economic, national and other problems, in the context of the dysfunctionality of the existing management system, lead to the launch of the process of de-democratization. The question of the causes, the starting point, and the types of de-democratization is still debatable. The presented article attempts to determine the content of this process, as well as to identify its main prerequisites and drivers. The purpose of this work is a comprehensive analysis of existing theoretical approaches to the process of the collapse of democracy. This article examines in detail the main approaches to the study of the process of de-democratization, the basic theoretical models of this political phenomenon, as well as the evolution of the theory of authoritarian regimes. The presented research is based on an extensive theoretical base, as well as statistical data from the world's leading research centers engaged in measuring political regimes. As a result of the research, the author's interpretation of the concept of de-democratization was proposed and the main causes of this phenomenon were identified.

Key words: de-democratization, the collapse of democracy, democratic rollback, democracy, autocracy, political regime.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.003

A.V. GAYEVA Senior lecturer at the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Sciences of the RGPPU Branch in Nizhny Tagil, Nizhny Tagil, Russia

USING THE METHODOLOGY OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF ELITIST THEORIES

The article discusses the main provisions of the elitist theories. These theoretical positions are defined through the prism of discourse analysis. This technique allows us to determine the performance indicators of the political elite in modern political activity. This topic is considered in the practical educational activities of students of higher education.

Key words: political elite, the effectiveness of the political elite, discourse analysis, approaches to the study of the effectiveness of the political elite.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.004

N.A. PCELOVODOV Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

STUDIES OF THE GENESIS OF POLITICAL THEOLOGY AS A SPECIFIC CONCEPT

Modern political science, when updating the definition of “political theology,” integrates it with the process that characterizes the secularization of the social world. Changes associated with the sacralization and theologization of politics form a secular type of religiosity, replacing traditional religion in society and create transcendence, which materializes in the current forms of power. Theoretical and methodological studies interpret political theology as a reflection of the concept of power in society, the conditional structures of which, being responsible for the agreed social order, are deformed and experience a period of legitimacy.

This study attempts to trace the genesis of political theology as a specific concept covering the period of the beginning of Greco-Roman antiquity, through the interpretation of the main aspects that reveal its meaning, as well as the development of political theology as a separate discipline of modern times.

The result of a semantic analysis of this issue states the fact that the main socio-political postulates of a secular society are interconnected with theological and political issues and have many different currents and approaches, including liberal political theology, critical political theology, feminist political theology, etc.

It has been determined that the genesis of political theology as a specific concept is associated with the evolution of political and religious ideas, as well as the research of philosophers and political theorists who paid attention to the interaction between these spheres.

Key words: political theology, politics, theology, secularization, Christianity, eschatology, the state.

POLITICAL HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.005

D.V. LOGVINOV Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Social and Political Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE LIFE AND WORK OF L. MECHELIN (1839-1914) IN THE LIGHT OF THE HISTORY OF FINNISH RUSSOPHOBIA

Modern world politics is going through a difficult stage. International relations are full of contradictions, modern countries are in a state of confrontation. One of the brightest fault lines today is the opposition between the collective West and Russia, accompanied by a surge of Russophobia. That is why it is so important for Russian researchers to study the problematics of Russophobia with its origins and content. This article, pursuing this goal, is an attempt to study the life and activities of the fighter for the independence of the Grand Duchy of Finland – Leopold (Leo) Heinrich Stanislav Mechelin (1839-1914). With the help of methods of historical-bibliographical and political-textual analysis his role in the Finnish question of the end of XIX – beginning of XX century, as well as his position in the relations between Finland and Russia, are considered. The study identifies features of Russophobic rhetoric, such as the desire to relate to Western culture while refusing to recognize Russian influence, as well as the manipulation of facts and the creation of a new truth and a new reality.

Key words: Leo Mechelin, independence, law, Finnish question, Finnish Russophobia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.006

A.N. KHVASTOV Adjunct of the Military University named after Prince Alexander Nevsky Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION OF A NEW POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE COURSE OF CULTURAL AND MASS WORK WITH GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR IN THE PERIOD FROM 1941 TO 1953

The article presents the results of the analysis of literature and archival documents on the problem of the organisation and conduct of cultural and mass work with German prisoners of war during the Great Patriotic War, as well as in the post-war period. The article provides historical information about the goals, forms, methods and methodological techniques of cultural and mass work with German prisoners of war staying in camps on the territory of the USSR.

Key words: political work, cultural work, Great Patriotic War, German prisoners of war.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.007

S. ABDURAKHMONOV Researcher, Institute for Study of Youth Issues and Training Prospective Personnel, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

DEMOCRACY: TRANSFORMATION OR HARMONY?

The author analyzes democracy as a development model theoretically with particular emphasis on ongoing political transformation in advanced democracies. Hailing from global experiences in democratization, the author claims that democratization is neither global nor national, but it is a process embodying somewhat amalgamation of both of them. Societies undergoing democratization, are adopting democratic institutions by transforming them as a state-crafting model, on the one hand, at the same time, rejecting some values that are brought by democracy in the cultural/value aspect, on the other hand. Structural transformations in advanced democracies show that democracy is not a complete model of development and still needs corrections in worldwide application.

Key words: democratization, development, transformation, democracy, universal values, national values.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.008

A.V. KLIMENKO Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Russia, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

IMAGE OF THE FUTURE: CONCEPT, STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS

The purpose of this study is to review the main scientific approaches to the concept of “image of the future” in psychological, pedagogical, political science and other contexts. The article examines the typology of images of the future, its structure and functions. A classification of the main elements of images of the future, as well as criteria for their gradation, is proposed. Much attention is paid to the mechanisms of forming images of the future.

Key words: future, image of the future, futurology, research of the future, construction of the image of the future.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.009

K.H. AVAZOV Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Political Science, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

THE PLACE AND ROLE OF STATE AUTHORITY IN ENSURING THREAT RESISTANCE OF THE STATE AND SOCIETY

The article is devoted to the analysis of the degree of development of the place and role of public authorities in modern conditions and its becoming one of the key factors in ensuring the national security of the state and society. It was found that political stability as a complex, internally structured phenomenon is studied mainly in terms of the scale and spheres of society; by objects and subjects of support; on the pace and resources of support; on the nature of socio-political management of this state and the means of achieving it, etc.

Key words: political stability, stabilization, stability, socio-political stability, system, political system, societies, states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.010

V.V. TITOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of Public and Municipal Administration of the State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

THE FORMATION OF NATIONAL-STATE IDENTITY IN MODERN RUSSIA: THE ROLE OF THE REGIONAL FACTOR

The article is dedicated to the models of interaction between the federal center and the regions in the process of formation of the Russian national-state identity in the 1990th – beginning of 2020th. There are analyzed main models of center-regional identification interaction: competitive (conflict), memorial-autonomic and complementary. The first – competitive model – was formed in the period of the «weak federation» in the 1990th. The second, the memorial-autonomic model, gradually took shape in 2000-2010th. It was conditioned by the strengthening of the «vertical of power» and the attempts of the state to develop a conventional strategy of identity politics. The systemic political challenges that Russia faced in the beginning of 2020th require a gradual transition to a new, complementary model in which regional identification constructs are organically integrated into a multidimensional field of All-Russian identity.

Key words: national-state identity, federal center, Russian regions, regional identity, models of identification interaction.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.011

E.N. KARATUEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE "GREEN" PARTIES: DEVELOPMENT PATHS AND POLITICAL PROSPECTS

Modern "green" parties focus not only on environmental issues, but also advocate for improving the social security system and improving the quality of life. In line with the main directions of their activities, they focus on issues of reducing emissions of harmful substances, using various types of alternative energy and environmentally friendly production to ensure sustainable development.

The article is devoted to the study of the position of "green" parties in the global political system, the causes of their emergence, key issues of activity and prospects for development and influence on public space.

Key words: "greens", environmental organizations, environmentalism, elections.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.012

YU.G. PESCHEROV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Law, State University of Education, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS DEPENDING ON THE REGION

The article is dedicated to the analysis of the features of political institutions in various regions of the Russian Federation in the post-Soviet period. The authors examine the dynamics of power distribution between the central and regional authorities after the events of August 1991, which led to the formation of the modern Russian Federation with a federal structure. The main attention is paid to the evolution of political systems at the level of federation subjects, including the strengthening of regional elites and municipal structures, as well as changes in the economic functions of regions and their financial dependence on the federal center. The influence of regional political regimes on the development of local self-government and the consolidation of the political elite is analyzed. Trends in the decrease of transparency in management processes and problems arising from the centralization of power and finances are identified.

Key words: Russian Federation, political institutions, regional authority, municipal management, federalism, regional elites, local self-government, centralization of power, federal-regional relations, economic development of regions, political system, management transparency, financial dependence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.013

N.S. GORBUNOV Postgraduate student at the Faculty of Political Science Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov; master's degree in "International Relations" Faculty of World Politics Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ISSUE OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION DEFINITION IN POLITICAL SPHERE

The purpose of the article is to analyze the main approaches to defining the term “strategic communication”, presented by foreign and domestic phenomenon researchers and to identify the general characteristics of the concept. The work also reflected the history of the term origin and its development in the political and military discourse of the United States. During the preparation of this article, various general scientific methods were used; the work is descriptive and theoretical in nature.

Key words: strategic communication, state communication policy, political communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.014

D.T. DZGOEVA PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration of North-West Institute of Management of RANEPA, St. Petersburg, Russia

S.M. KUKARTSEV Student of North-West Institute of Management of RANEPA, St. Petersburg, Russia

DISTANT ELECTRONIC VOTING AS A NEW MECHANISM OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE STATE AND SOCIETY: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

This article analyzes the specifics and problems of using remote electronic voting technology in Russia. The legal and regulatory framework has been determined and the experience of application in elections at various levels from 2019 to the present is shown. As a result of the study, the authors propose possible options for overcoming and minimizing the risks of using the technology under study in the electoral process in the Russian Federation.

The relevance of the study is justified by the digital transformation of the main existing mechanisms of interaction between the state and society, one of which is, undoubtedly, the electoral process and the need to consider it through the prism of remote electronic voting technology.

The results of the study consist, firstly, in a detailed description of the regulatory framework for remote electronic voting, secondly, in the established chronology of the use of technology in Russian elections from 2019 to 2023 inclusive and, thirdly, in an analysis of the possibilities and risks of remote electronic voting ahead of the Russian presidential elections in 2024.

Key words: mechanism of interaction between the government and society, distant electronic voting, electoral process, society, government.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.015

YU.V. LUKINA Senior lecturer, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of foreign affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

STAGES OF APPLYING THE OVERTON WINDOW IN COGNITIVE WARFARE TO CHANGE CONSCIOUSNESS USING CANNABIS LEGALIZATION AND GENDER POLICY AS EXAMPLES

Transformation of world values, changes in international relations, non-military methods of struggle are beginning to play a greater role, amidst modern world uncertainty, nevertheless, posing no less threat to the sovereignty of the country than armed struggle. Such new wars are cognitive, cyber-wars of a new generation. They are represented by information-driven and psychological operations, cyber-attacks, economic sanctions, political and diplomatic pressure, and the use of online social platforms mostly used by young and middle-aged people is becoming increasingly popular. The legalization of marijuana in the USA, Canada, Tailand and other countries, shifting the Overton frame, has led to a change in people's consciousness. Due to manipulation, lobbying of political interests, regulators have expanded the zone of application, affecting the future of the world's population. Accelerating technological processes have been contributing to the proliferation of social media outreach to the masses, where digitalization is constantly being applied by ordinary users, thus accelerating the change of consciousness of the society. Politicians often apply the Overton window to alter the psychology of respondents. This process is made possible by pressurizing consciousness. Regulators or cultural figures make speeches, press releases appear in the press, social platforms unite into communities, the fashion industry begins to invent new forms to express individuality or belonging to a particular group, and brainwashing is in full swing. To counteract such policies, the state must raise the intellectual level of its citizens and evolve critical thinking.

Key words: consciousness, manipulation, legalization, cannabis, marijuana, Overton window, cognitive warfare, politics, gender politics, media.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.016

K.V. LIKHOMANOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, Moscow, Russia

A.B. TKESHELIADZE Postgraduate student of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ASPECTS OF CRISIS PREVENTION OF ELECTORAL SYSTEMS

The article attempts to comprehend modern threats that are potentially capable of provoking a crisis in the functioning of electoral systems. Among these, the authors highlight foreign interference in elections, radicalization of public discourse, fragmentation of political consciousness and chaotic electoral behavior of citizens, as well as exacerbation of chronic socio-economic problems in the context of global confrontation and permanent turbulence. As a response to these challenges, it is proposed to take a set of organizational, informational and political-legal measures that can strengthen the domestic institution of elections. Despite the plans being developed by a number of unfriendly countries to delegitimize the results of the presidential elections of the Russian Federation, at the moment there are no fundamental grounds for any electoral crises.

Key words: electoral system, political crisis, legitimization, elections, political stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.017

M.L. CHELNOKOVA Educational psychologist at the Lyceum of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

COUNTERING NON-SYSTEMIC OPPOSITION ON SOCIAL NETWORKS

The space of social networks at the present stage has transformed from a virtual platform for the exchange of information on various topics between users into an impressive political force capable of destabilizing the social structure of the state. To a large extent, the activity of non-systemic opposition contributed to the transformation of social networks into an effective tool of political confrontation. This article is devoted to the study of counteraction to non-systemic opposition in social networks. The author, based on an analysis and generalization of the scientific approaches of domestic researchers, defines the concept of “non-systemic opposition”, examines the technologies and forms of political protest it uses, and also determines the main methods of combating the implementation of the latest active political forces.

Key words: non-systemic opposition, social networks, virtual space, digital technologies, political struggle, protest activity, political elite, government, power, elections.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.018

D.A. CHERTOROEV Postgraduate courses of the Ufa University of Science and Technology, Ufa, Russia

INTERACTION OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES WITH SOCIETY VIA THE INTERNET: COMPARISON OF DEMOCRATIC AND NON-DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL REGIMES

The problem of interaction between the state and society through the Internet stems from the process of active dissemination of Internet technologies among the public of technologically developed countries. The relevance of this issue, at the moment, is inherent in all States in which the Internet is widespread and used. The use by the state of tools for interaction with society based on the Internet makes it possible to increase the efficiency of state bodies, accelerate the processes of interaction with citizens, information processing processes and, equally importantly, improve the image of the government broadcast by the state. State bodies, when interacting with the public, should exercise caution and consistency in public actions in the virtual space of the Internet due to the peculiarities of information dissemination and control over it. The Internet provides a wide range of tools compared to traditional sources of information such as paper products, radio and television. Within the framework of the presented work, a comparative analysis of the information interaction between the state and society in the context of different political regimes in the formation of the public image of the executive authorities of the state is carried out. In conclusion, the analysis makes it logical to conclude that when interacting with the executive authorities of the state and society in terms of comparing political regimes, there is a noticeable tendency indicating that the same, initially politically neutral, tools that the Internet provides for use are used by states in various ways, depending on the prevailing political regime, this allows you to achieve the same goals using different methods of work.

Key words: state, society, interaction, network, Internet, image, image, bodies, executive, power, tools, communication, analysis, comparative, regime, political, democracy, totalitarianism, methods.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.019

ZHANG YIFEI Postgraduate student, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

INFLUENCE OF CONFUCIAN ETHICS ON THE FORMATION OF A MODEL OF POLITICAL GOVERNANCE IN MODERN CHINA

This study investigates the influence of Confucian ethics on the formation of the political governance model in contemporary China within the field of political science. The primary objective is to scrutinize the impact of Confucian values on China's current political landscape.

The research employs a methodology encompassing theoretical literature analysis, research methodology articulation, and results discussion. Through this approach, the study aims to unravel the intricate layers of Confucian influence on China's political administration. Key aspects of Confucian ethics are identified as integral components of modern political governance, influencing decision-making processes, policy formulation, and the structural framework of political institutions.

The findings contribute to a nuanced understanding of the relationship between ancient ethical frameworks and contemporary political realities. By elucidating the fundamental principles derived from Confucianism that persist in modern Chinese political governance, the study provides valuable insights into the cultural and philosophical underpinnings shaping the nation's political trajectory.

In conclusion, this research underscores the pivotal role and significance of Confucian ethics in shaping and molding the political practices of contemporary China. Acknowledging and comprehending the enduring influence of Confucian values becomes imperative for a holistic understanding of the political landscape in China. This exploration serves as a testament to the dynamic nature of political ideologies in one of the world's most influential nations.

Key words: confucian ethics, political governance, contemporary China, ethical principles, decision-making, policy formulation, cultural influences, political institutions, political ideologies.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.020

U.A. LEON Postgraduate student of political science and regional studies, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Queen, Samara, Russia

L.P. MERKULOVA Professor, head of the department of foreign languages of Samara University, Samara, Russia

LOCAL AGRICULTURAL POLICY IN N'DJAMENA IN CHAD: SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

Community agriculture is a form of agricultural practice that promotes geographic proximity between producers and consumers, promotes area development, and develops local capacity. Carried out in common areas or gardens, individually or collectively. Such economic activity is problematic because it carries with it a fundamental antagonism: agriculture as a rural function is not suitable for urban space. Since agriculture is practiced in the city, and especially in a capital such as N'Djamena, there is every reason to doubt its ability to remain within an a priori unsuitable urban spatial framework. Using observations, field images and a socio-demographic survey conducted among 116 producers encountered in work sites out of almost 600 identified, local agriculture in the city of N'Djamena is spatially defined before its actors and consequences are analyzed. In addition to identifying the importance and role that this agricultural practice plays in the city through its socio-economic challenges and its multiple functions, we have reached the result that it can be a means for medium-sized African cities to strengthen food security, security in the context climate change. Finally, this study lifts the curtain on activities that deserve special attention when formulating urban development policies.

Key words: local agriculture, urban, food security, N'Djamena, Chad.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.021

A.A. ALAUDINOV Candidate of Political Sciences, commander of the AKHMAT special forces ‒ deputy commander of the 2nd Army Corps of the 8th Army, Southern Military District, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

A.V. MANOILO Doctor of Political Sciences, Leading Researcher, Department of Europe and Americ, INION RAS; Professor of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Policy of Russia, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

COGNITIVE AND MENTAL COMPONENTS OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE

In modern hybrid wars, particular importance is attached to the mental dimension – influencing the enemy’s thinking. Unlike the concept of “cognitive war”, which is actively developed in the West, “mental war” is a purely Russian invention that arose as an alternative to the Western “cognitive” approach. Mental warfare is aimed at destroying the enemy’s worldview and civilizational foundations. The task of mental war, like any other, is to deprive the object of influence of sovereignty and put it under external control. According to the author of the concept, mental war is an aggressive complex impact that is aimed not only at the information field, but also at education and upbringing. In general, this concept is quite close to the concept of “cognitive wars”. At the same time, the concept of “mental war” in Russia is considered as a symmetrical response to Western “cognitive” aggression, affecting the system of knowledge and ideas of the individual, on his perception of the surrounding reality through the prism of cognition and educational activity; Unlike cognitive wars, mental wars directly affect the thinking processes of both their citizens and the enemy by introducing a system of values and meanings into a person’s consciousness. In this regard, information wars are preceded by ideological sabotage aimed at the mental sphere with the aim of weakening or “shaking” it, transferring it into an unstable state, since it is easier to wage an information war with a weak enemy than with an enemy with a stable psyche.

Key words: politics, hybrid war, information war, mental war, cognitive war, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.022

N.P. NIKOLAEV Professor of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Property, Land and Property Relations, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONS ON LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA: AXIOLOGICAL ASPECT

The article is devoted to the problem of the formation of international environmental policy, due to ongoing climate`s changes. The main goal is to identify the axiological foundations of international institutions that have an impact on legislative activity both in the Russian Federation and in foreign countries. For the first time, within the framework of a scientific research, was analyzed the mechanism of reflection of ethical aspects, determined by the mythologized perception of the population of various countries, in the state internal political activity. This mechanism is manifested both in overcoming and adapting to the consequences of climate change, and in the development of the political system as a whole.

Key words: environmental institutions, climate change, adaptation to climate change, public policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.023

M.S. SAUSHKINA PhD student MSU, Moscow, Russia

FALSIFIATION OF HISTORY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SYMBOLIC POLITICS: THE EVOLUTION OF POLITICATION OF HISTORY IN POST-COMMUNIST STATES OF EASTERN EUROPE

The article discusses the concepts of politicization and falsification of history. The influence of this phenomenon on the activities of professional historians is analyzed. The politicization of history in the countries of Eastern Europe is considered. It is concluded that during the formation of statehood in post-communist countries, history was often used as a political tool.

Key words: history, politicization of history, historical myth, countries of Eastern Europe, politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.024

D.A. AVAKYAN Candidate of political sciences, senior lecturer of the Department of philosophy and sociology Educational institutions of trade unions of higher education «Academy of Labor and Social Relations», Russia, Moscow; Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Political Science, Sociology named after G.S. Arefieva National Research University "Moscow Power Engineering University", Moscow, Russia

UTOPIAS AND REALITY: ENGLISH AND FRENCH EXPERIENCE

The article discusses socio-cultural models designed to embody the utopian ideal of the European reality of the XIX century. A detailed description and comparative analysis of the variants of ideal human existence proposed by R. Owen and E. Cabe and their ideological foundations are presented.

Key words: utopian socialism, workers, working conditions, working hours, the practice of implementing utopias, industrial revolution, R. Owen, E. Cabe

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.025

N.S. BAYRAMLY Graduate student of the Higher School of International Relations Humanitarian Institute of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University; Head of Sector, North-West Institute of Management, RANEPA; Co-founder of the Azerbaijan Center for Humanitarian Cooperation, St. Petersburg, Russia

D.M. GUSEINOVA Master's student at the Northwestern Faculty of Law Institute of Management RANEPA, St. Petersburg, Russia

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND ITS ROLE IN RUSSIAN-AZERBAIJAN RELATIONS

Russian-Azerbaijani relations remain relevant even after the collapse of the USSR at the end of the 20th century. In connection with the development of society, public diplomacy tools are becoming popular, including those using Internet resources to form the image of the state. The purpose of this article is to analyze the mechanisms of public diplomacy in relations between Russia and Azerbaijan. The work uses comparative analysis, methods of logical analysis and synthesis, and conducts historical analysis. The authors analyze the practical mechanisms for building and developing relations between states. In addition, the main directions of interstate cooperation are considered, and the role of diasporas in it is assessed. As a result, it is concluded that the system of public information tools is very extensive and includes some targeted mechanisms. It is noted that diasporas play a significant role in relations between Russia and Azerbaijan for a critically wide range of areas of interaction.

Key words: international relations, international cooperation, strategic partnership, public diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.026

K.R. ARGVLIANI St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE SOCIETY 5.0 FORMATION POLICY IN CITIES OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

With the growing influence of information and communication technologies on everyday human life, the policy of many states in the field of socio-political development of cities is aimed at the widespread introduction of the latest developments to create "smart cities". Due to the increasing integration of high technologies into everyday life, a conceptually new structure of society is emerging, which is also called "society 5.0".

This article will examine the basic concepts and trends of the transition to a new socio-political structure, as well as the prerequisites for increasing inequality in connection with the transition to the 5.0 society and smart cities.

The purpose of this article is to trace how the introduction of new information and communication technologies affect the quality of life in cities. In accordance with this, the task of the article is to consider the regularity of transformational processes in society caused by ICT, as well as to trace their relationship with the quality of life.

Based on the analysis of policy initiatives to create smart cities and transition to a 5.0 society in the Russian Federation, Japan, the European Union, India, etc., as well as on the basis of UN-Habitat data, it can be concluded that this trend can significantly improve the quality of life of the population. At the same time, the transition to the 5.0 society provokes further development of inequality, as not everyone can equally access these technologies, not only at the level of individual states or cities, but even within the same city. This, in turn, creates a field for further discussion and the search for solutions to develop an acceptable political strategy to address the current situation.

Key words: urbanization, society 5.0, smart city, quality of life, sustainable development, inequality.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.027

E.L. BOLDYREVA PhD, Associate Professor, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

STAM FINN BENJAMIN Independent researcher, Netherlands

A.A. NELGA Student at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE NETHERLANDS AND ITS POLDER MODEL

Theories and models of decision-making processes at all levels of social, political and economic life have always been of interest to both the academic community and humanity as a whole. Finding a balance between the opinions, interests and demands of different groups of people or individuals is a vast area for research work. Definitions and explanations of consensus decision making vary among different authors. This article is devoted to a model that offers a unique way of resolving conflicts and making decisions, namely the polder model. This model is closely related to Dutch characteristics and its social, political and economic development has a long history. Its principles often played a key role in the decision-making of the population and authorities of the Netherlands. The consensus model has demonstrated its advantages despite some existing shortcomings. It follows that the "polder model" had a greater impact on Dutch society and the economy than previously thought. The Dutch experience of the polder model as a way to achieve consensus can be applied in democratic countries in the socio-political sphere. This model is still used in politics, economics and business, and even in resolving disputes between neighbors.

Key words: Polder model, consensus, Netherlands, society, politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.028

WANG FEIXIANG Graduate student of Russian Friendship University peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY OF CHINA IN THE MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

The article discusses issues related to Chinese public diplomacy in the modern world. The purpose of the study is to study Chinese public diplomacy in the modern world, to identify the main features and features. Research methods: method of analysis, comparison, logical reasoning and much more. The concept of “public diplomacy” is defined. It is noted that political influence on basic social processes is carried out on the basis of the use of “soft power”. The main positive results that can be obtained through the use of public diplomacy are considered. The main tools and approaches to conducting public diplomacy in China have been studied. Stratagem diplomacy is considered as an effective tool of Chinese public diplomacy. The means and methods of China's “new public diplomacy” are studied. The role of the institution of strategic partnership in China has been studied. The economic diplomacy of China is considered. Oil public diplomacy has been studied. An algorithm has been developed for the development of Chinese public diplomacy in the modern world. The author of the article emphasizes the importance of using an integrated approach in solving international economic problems in achieving success, which consists in the ability to competently conduct public negotiations, develop foreign policy cooperation between countries, and use the economic benefits from international cooperation.

Key words: public diplomacy, China, development, modern world, problems, language.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.029

B.I. GOLIKOV Graduate student of the Faculty of Global processes of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF RUSSIAN-CHINESE PROJECTS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF “ONE BELT – ONE ROAD”

Russian-Chinese relations are permanent and friendly. The leaders of the countries have repeatedly emphasized the commonality of interests in working for the “good of all mankind.” Countries confirm this by acting as partners in the SCO, BRICS, interacting at the EurAsEC-ASEAN level, and, finally, by bringing their integration contour to the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR), the largest project. In October 2023, at the third International Forum “One Belt, One Road”, the emphasis was once again placed on the parallel but coordinated development of the EurAsEC and the Belt and Road Initiative. The work examines the nature of Russian-Chinese relations as the One Belt, One Road projects are implemented.

The purpose of the study is, based on statistical data, media and theoretical research, to note implemented projects, sum up intermediate results and outline the intended goals of the partnership as part of the shift in the center of business activity from the West to the East.

Key words: initiative, “One Belt, One Road”, Russian-Chinese projects, infrastructure, OBOR, cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.030

E.A. DANILOVA State Civil Service Advisor, Russian Federation 2nd class; third-year postgraduate student at the Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Master of Management, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov with a specialization in “Public Administration”; lead advisor, Department for Development of Eurasian Integration, Ministry of Economic Development of Russia (2018-2020), Moscow, Russia

THE LOGIC OF GOVERNANCE DECISION-MAKING BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHINESE POLITICAL AND BUSINESS ELITE THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHINESE STRATEGIC GAME OF GO PART I

The article analyzes the principles of the game of Go, which can be applied to understand political decision-making in China. Based on this analysis, the article examines the role of strategic logic in Chinese policy decisions and hypothesizes about its influence on the formation and achievement of the country's policy goals.

Deepening relations with China is a priority of Russian foreign policy. This course is sustainable, long-term in nature, and is the core of the updated concept of Russian foreign policy, approved by presidential decree on March 31, 2023. However, the expert and scientific communities rightly emphasize that at the government level the declarative nature of deepening rapprochement, statements by leaders on joint development in various vectors and intergovernmental agreements are not supported by practical actions.

The author sees in this a connection with deeply different cultural approaches to the problems of war and peace, political leadership, and the logic of strategic decision-making. Political decisions, behavior, and actions of Chinese leaders cause wariness among the Russian political elite and are interpreted as an attempt to seize power. However, is this so? The author proposes to take a critical look at this attitude and examine the strategic logic of political decisions made by the Chinese leadership, using an analogy with the philosophy of the Chinese game Go. Go is an important element of the culture of thinking in China, the key to the strategic logic of Chinese politicians and managers of the highest level.

To implement this study, methods were used to analyze situations, principles and strategies of the game of Go, as well as analysis of documents and publications related to the political decisions of the Chinese leadership. The study is based on qualitative analysis to highlight the main elements of strategic logic and their application in the political context.

As a conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion that China's political leadership does not involve coercing its will or depriving other states of their own benefits. The strategic patterns of Chinese logic proceed from the fact that the development of one state not only does not entail the lag of others, but rather even presupposes the possibility of asynchronous development of all.

Understanding this phenomenon by domestic politicians can remove superstitious fears and stimulate the realization of the strategic potential of the Russian-Chinese partnership.

Key words: turn to the east, political logic of China, philosophy of China, politics of China, strategy of China, strategic game of Go.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.031

A.YU. KNYSHOVA Graduate student of the Faculty of Political Science Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF ASAN KAIGY IN THE FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL DISCOURSE OF THE KAZAKH KHANATE

With the acquisition of independence and the development of the strengthening process, each national state, in order to strengthen its sovereignty, turns to the origins of socio-political thought, as well as to the ideas of the “founding fathers” who devoted their lives to the study of the people and their future. At the same time, many existing countries focus on “specialness” and the need to return to the greatest stage in their history. In this article, the author analyzes the process of forming a theoretical base using the example of the thoughts of the zhyrau poet of the era of the Kazakh Khanate – Asane Kaigy. Based on the study of surviving works, the researcher will consider two main utopian concepts of the ways of development of Kazakh statehood. Based on the results of the analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the key ideas laid down by the poet-zhyrau and his followers are actively implemented in the domestic and foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Key words: poet-zhyrau, Kazakhstan, state, khanate, nation, idea, land.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.032

KODUAH EMMANUEL Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University. K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

PROBLEMS AND TRENDS OF VOTING IN THE GENERAL ELECTIONS IN GHANA

In this article, the author has tried to outline the main problems of elections, trends and patterns of voting. Some voting theories were examined, as well as various factors determining voter behavior in Ghana. It was revealed that a certain part of the population acts socially, making political choices, including such social content as religion, ethnicity and political orientation. Making sense, some Ghanaian voters also take into account or activate the rational choice model when voting. This includes examining political messages or manifestos to justify political choices, the activities of the previous government, and other rational indicators.

Key words: Ghana, elections, electoral system, voting, political parties.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.033

M.I. KRUPIANKO Doctor of Political Sciences, Senior Researcher Institute Oriental Studies RAS, Moscow, Russia

L.G. ARESHIDZE Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor ISAA at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

JAPANESE NATIONALISM AS THE MAIN UNIFICATING AND PROTECTIVE FORCE OF THE NATION IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER OF THE XXI CENTURY PART II

The article analyzes the problems of the revival of the ideology of state nationalism taking place in modern Japan, as a traditional tool for manipulating the mass consciousness of the Japanese during the dramatic periods of the country's recent history, such as the period of formation of the new world order at the beginning of the 21st century in the context of a new confrontation between the united West, led by the United States, in containing Russia. The article emphasizes that the rise of nationalist sentiments aims to unite and mobilize the potential of the nation in the face of a real threat of destabilization of the situation in the Far East. The article analyzes the main carriers of nationalist ideology, shows the role of the institution of imperial power and the authorities in general in the formation of a nationalist worldview among Japanese youth. An attempt has been made to outline the immediate prospects for the development of nationalism in Japan, as well as the consequences of this process for the future of Japanese-Russian relations.

Key words: patriotism, nationalism, Shinto, Japanese nationalists, nationalism in foreign policy, terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.034

L. MILOEVICH Assistant to the Ambassador of the Republic of Serbia to the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

NATO EXPANSION, RUSSIA'S RESPONSE AND EUROPEAN SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

The dynamics of NATO-Russia relations since the end of the Cold War have shaped the European security architecture. Within this dynamic, the biggest problem was the expansion of NATO and the disregard for Russia's security interests and its reactions at the very beginning of this process. The end result was the destruction of the European security architecture, which, in essence, implied equal and indivisible security on the European continent.

Key words: NATO expansion, Russia, European security architecture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.035

TAMUNDELE JEAN-BAPTISTE NGEY Doctoral student in international relations, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

Scientific supervisor:

V.A. SHAGALOV Associate Professor, PhD (Associate Professor), Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

AFRICAN UNION

International diplomacy regarding African countries is highly complex and diverse, evolving over many decades. The majority of African countries gained independence from European colonial powers in the mid-20th century. This process of decolonization had a profound impact on the diplomatic relations of these nations, particularly in relation to former colonial authorities. Established in 2002 as the successor to the Organization of African Unity, the African Union has become a crucial platform for coordinating and representing the interests of African countries on the international stage. The African Union plays a significant role in the development and implementation of pan-African strategies in areas such as peace and security, economic development, and education.

Diplomacy concerning African countries often encompasses issues of peace and security. Relations between African nations and the international community in this context may involve a range of activities, from United Nations peacekeeping missions and regional organizations like the African Union to collaboration in counter-terrorism efforts and the fight against transnational crime.

Key words: African Union, integration, diplomacy, economic development, continent-wide security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.036

XING HAOTIAN Graduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University Faculty of Global Processes, Moscow, Russia

CHINA'S DIGITAL DIPLOMACY: FEATURES AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

The combination of digital technology and diplomacy has given rise to digital diplomacy, and digital diplomacy has also become an advanced stage in the field of diplomacy, especially the COVID-19 epidemic has significantly contributed to the migration of public diplomacy from offline to online, from the real world to virtual space and accelerated the development of public diplomacy. the process of digitization and intellectualization of international communication and public diplomacy.As a country with major digital technologies, the PRC has very strong capabilities in the field of digital diplomacy, including foreign policy activities at all levels in the form of online, providing security for its citizens abroad, spreading Chinese culture through short videos, establishing a certain right to speak out in the digital space.However, in recent years, the United States has intensified its offensive policy in foreign digital diplomacy, which has had a significant impact on China and even on international cyberspace.Facing serious challenges, China will maintain an objective position, not only be careful about digital competition with the United States, but also actively promote digital diplomatic exchanges and contribute to the successful completion of the task of diplomacy, provided that information security is ensured, as well as play a major role in the international arena.

Key words: China, digital diplomacy, digital technology, cyberspace, technical rivalry.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.037

A.А. SPASOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov», Senior Lecturer at the Department of Political Analysis and socio-psychological processes, Moscow, Russia

TECHNOLOGIES OF DESTABILIZATION OF THE STATE OF THE OPPOSITION BLOC «SERBIA AGAINST VIOLENCE»

This article analyzes the actions of the opposition bloc «Serbia against Violence» aimed at the political destabilization of Serbia. The technologies of destabilization of the opposition bloc with external support include both standard forms of nonviolent protest actions used in the implementation of the template scheme of the «color revolution» – the organization of a tent camp in the city center and the involvement of young people in protest actions, and new ones, including a rapid transition from nonviolent to violent actions and vice versa, and the implementation of a combination foreign policy pressure (as part of the US military-political operation to control the escalation of the Kosovo-Serbian conflict) together with domestic political pressure. At the end of the article, the author notes among the threats to the country's security the possible activation of combat Kosovo cells (as part of increased foreign policy pressure), and also identifies possible ways to minimize the risks of destabilization of the country.

Key words: Serbia, «color revolution», technologies of destabilization of the state, «Serbia against violence», opposition, political conflict.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.038

XUE JIAXIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Global Studies, Faculty of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

COOPERATION AND PROSPECTS OF CHINA AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF “ONE BELT AND ONE ROAD”

Two thousand years ago, many Arab merchants traded silk, spices, ivory and other goods between China and the Middle East. The ancient Silk Road contributed to the economic and trade development of the two sides and played a very important role. Today, the traditional friendship between China and the Middle East continues to write a new chapter under “One Belt, One Road” Initiative. The economic and trade partnership is constantly strengthening, and cooperation is taking place in many areas.

“One Belt, One Road” initiative, namely the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, is a major international economic cooperation and development program proposed by China in 2013. This initiative aims to promote the shared prosperity of countries along the route by strengthening cooperation in infrastructure construction, trade, cultural exchange and other areas. Currently, more than 100 countries and international organizations have responded and participated in the development of “One Belt, One Road” initiative. “One Belt, One Road” covers a large number of countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. As of the end of March 2019, the Chinese government had already signed 173 cooperation documents with 125 countries and 29 international organizations. As a necessary and important region for “One Belt, One Road” Initiative, the Middle East's positions and policies are critical to the initiative's advancement. The Middle East is located in the connecting zone between Asia and Africa, and is also one of the key regions for promoting “One Belt, One Road” initiative. China is now the Middle East's largest trading partner, and the Middle East is also China's most important energy supplier.

This article mainly talks about the diplomatic relations between China and the Middle East, the specific cooperation “One Belt, One Road” initiative, and the prospect and proposal for cooperation between the two sides under this initiative.

Key words: Diplomatic relations, “One Belt and One Road” Initiative, Middle East, China, Energy cooperation.

SCIENTIFIC REFLECTIONS ON A CURRENT TOPIC

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.102.2.039

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Russian political scientist and politician, Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF MODERN POLITICAL PARTIES

The article, prepared on the basis of video recordings of the author’s lectures and conversations on political science, characterizes the role of political parties in the modern political process. The features of the typology of political parties and their main functions are revealed. The insufficiency of foundations when using Western mathematical and sociological methods to assess political activity and political culture in modern Russia is emphasized.

Key words: political parties, modern political process, typology of parties, functions of political parties, ideology, political culture, traditional culture.

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 13, Issue 10-2 (98-2), 2023

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Sadov V.V. Orthodoxy as a Moral and Value Guidline of the Russian Statehood: Historical Political Analysis

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Aliyeva L.V., Nikitina N.P. Community-Based Mechanisms in the Management System of the Occupied Territory of the Pskov Region (1941-1944)

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Somov A.A. Representation of Socio-Political Relations in the Concept of «Postdramatic Theater» and Modern Theatrical Practices

Ergashev I., Safarov M.M. Futurological Analysis of the Dynamics of Changes in Youth Political Consciousness and Culture in the New Uzbekistan Society

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Gorchakova A.R., Ivanova E.A., Razumov D.V. Features and Trends of Formation of Political Communication Channels

Prokopov V.A. The Role of Social Media in Forming the Political Agenda

Ivanov S.G. Digitization Policy: Management Experience, Priorities and Risks

Kozhukhov E.A. Federal National Projects as an Instrument for Implementing State Social Policy: Concepts and Technologies

Mintyuk D.G. Conflicts in the System of Public Administration and Methods for their Settlement

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Chunikhina A.A., Mikhailova O.P., Tomin V.V., Losev A.N., Novoselsky S.O. Analysis of the Use of Digital Technologies in the Scientific and Educational Space

Novoselsky S.O., Kvach N.M., Zolkin A.L., Levkina V.S., Fadeeva N.V. Competition in the Market of Educational Services Under Sanctions Policy

Novoselsky S.O., Tumasheva M.V., Vetrova E.A., Belozerova T.N. Assessment of Key Components of Sanctions Risk for Russian Higher Education and Science

Cai Yaohan. Features of Management in the Cultural Sphere at the Present Stage of Development

Goncharova O.V., Gatina A.M., Chistyakova A.V., Evstratova T.A., Novoselsky S.O. Factors of Regional Development of Sports Tourism

Qin Ziyi. State and Municipal Management in the XXI Century: Theory, Methodology, Practice

Botov A.V. Public Policy in the Field of Social Protection of the Population: Problems of Implementation and Prospects

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Danilov V.A., Danilova E.V. Central Asia: the Intersection of Interests of Russia, the USA and China in the Region in the Context of the Change of Epochs (Part 1)

Kurnovskii R.M. Investor and Employee Sentiment Changes in Israel's it Industry in Light of the Implemented Judicial Reform

Gao Dai. The Role of Chinese Media in the Implementation of Foreign Policy

Gou Changchao. The Strategic Triangle of the RIC in Scientific Research

Kishueva I.A. Political-Communicative Methods of Digital Diplomacy

Adohounde Yaovi Sylvestre. Benin-Chinese Relations: Benefitable Cooperation for Both Countries?

Sibirkin P.D. The Importance of Afghanistan for the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan Since 2016

Pashaev S.Sh. New Cognitive Technologies in International Politics

Song Yifan. New Brics+ Format

Pesochin A.M. The Place of Russia and BRICS in the Foreign Policy of the Republic of South African

Tsaritsyna P.M. Political Science Studies of Elites in France

STUDENT SCIENCE

Xudongyue. Sino-Russian Diplomatic Relations: a New Model of Development

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.001

V.V. SADOV PhD student, History of social and political thought department, Faculty of political science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ORTHODOXY AS A MORAL AND VALUE GUIDLINE OF THE RUSSIAN STATEHOOD: HISTORICAL POLITICAL ANALYSIS

In the situation of the modern geopolitical crisis, the determining factor is the formation of one’s own ideological and value foundation for the further development of society and the state. It also becomes obvious that the universal ideals of liberal ideology are exhausting themselves and are not able to provide the necessary impetus for social development any longer. For this reason, it becomes vitally important to explore one's own past in an ideological and political context in order to identify the internal potential of traditional culture. This becomes especially relevant for modern Russia, which finds itself in conditions of brutal ideological and political confrontation with Western countries. The purpose of this study is to identify the ideological and value foundation of the centralized and sovereign Russian state, which was formed during the late XV-XVI centuries. Achieving this goal is possible by performing the following research tasks: 1. express the transformations in the international position of Russia during the period of the 15th-16th centuries, under the conditions of which the formation of a sovereign and centralized Russian state took place; 2. identify the main value-philosophical concepts that competed for the status of the ideological foundation in the formation of the phenomenon of Russian autocracy; 3. identify manifestations of the designated concepts in the official political life of the Russian state during the period under study. Within the framework of this study, methods of political-textological and comparative analysis, the method of historical and philosophical reconstruction and elements of hermeneutics were used. The result of this research is the adaptation of R. Wright's concept of the process of formation of new religious and philosophical concepts in the conditions of transformation of socio-political reality presented in the work. The extrovertive tendency that existed for quite a long time in the spiritual and political development of Russia at the end of the 15th century. encounters new introvertive concepts. It was precisely the latest ideals based on the Orthodox tradition that became the philosophical foundation of the Russian autocracy. In modern conditions of a new confrontation, a return to this moral and value model can become a source of internal energy for the Russian Federation.

Key words: Russia, Orthodoxy, Russian autocracy, spiritual and political development.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.002

L.V. ALIYEVA Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher at the Research and Educational Laboratory for Studying the Events of the Second World War and Counteracting the Falsification of History, Associate Professor; Pskov State University, Pskov, Russia

N.P. NIKITINA Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher at the Research and Educational Laboratory for Studying the Events of the Second World War and Counteracting the Falsification of History, Associate Professor; Pskov State University, Pskov, Russia

COMMUNITY-BASED MECHANISMS IN THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORY OF THE PSKOV REGION (1941-1944)

The article deals with the peculiarities of the community-based mechanisms functioning in the management system of the occupied territory of the Pskov region during the Great Patriotic War. Despite the completed collectivization, which is associated with the liquidation of communal relations in the Russian village, under the Nazi occupation regime the village community is not only being restored, but also functioning quite successfully, solving the problems of ensuring the occupation authorities and the survival of the local population.

Key words: Peasant community, village headman, Nazi occupation, Great Patriotic War.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.003

A.A. SOMOV Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University; the chief administrator of the theater "School of Dramatic Art", the stage on Novoslobodskaya, Moscow, Russia

REPRESENTATION OF SOCIO-POLITICAL RELATIONS IN THE CONCEPT OF «POSTDRAMATIC THEATER» AND MODERN THEATRICAL PRACTICES

The term «postdramatic theatre», systematically introduced by Hans-Thies Lehmann since the 1990s, has now gained international fame. Since the book Postdramatic Theater was first published in 1999, it has been translated into twenty languages.

Lehman used the term as an alternative to the ubiquitous term «postmodern theatre» to describe how the vast variety of modern theater forms opposed itself not so much to «modernity» as to «drama». They no longer corresponded to the concept of mimetic enactment of dramatic conflict in the form of narrative and dialogue spoken by characters in an «artificially» created reality by the author.

Тhe purpose of this paper is to attempt, in general terms, to describe whether postdramatic theater – in terms of both Lehmann's theoretical approach and the variety of contemporary theatrical and performance practices that fall under this term – can be considered political, given that its modes of political engagement are essentially differs from those previously practiced in the «dramatic» (repertoire) theater.

Key words: postdramatic, political, theatrical practices.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.004

I. ERGASHEV Professor of the Department of Civil Society and legal education" National University Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

M.M. SAFAROV Doctoral student at the National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, senior lecturer at the Department of Humanities, Chirchik State Pedagogical University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

FUTUROLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN YOUTH POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND CULTURE IN THE NEW UZBEKISTAN SOCIETY

The article examines changes in the political consciousness and culture of youth in the new society of Uzbekistan as a factor of social adaptation. Methodological approaches and the main trends of changes in the political consciousness and culture of modern Uzbek youth will also be considered, based on empirical research data on the futurological analysis of the dynamics of changes in the political consciousness and culture of youth in society.

Key words: political consciousness, political culture, change of political consciousness and culture, Political norm, political value, social adaptation of youth, dynamics of changes, adaptive type, hierarchy of value orientations, political organizations, political parties, public organizations.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.005

A.R. GORCHAKOVA Postgraduate student of Department of Russian Politics of Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

E.A. IVANOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples', Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

D.V. RAZUMOV Postgraduate student of Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples', Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES AND TRENDS OF FORMATION OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

One of the key tools that helps to establish a connection between political leaders and society can be called political communication. Only with effectively built channels of political communication is it possible to fully achieve political goals. A classification of types of political communication, types of channels through which communication in the political sphere is carried out, as well as the main features of the formation of political communication channels and trends characteristic of the present are described. Political communication becomes one of the main socializing institutions of modern society and makes it possible to form effective channels of interaction between the state and society through the media. In the context of digitalization, traditional media migrate to online space, creating information portals, sites on the global Internet, setting up accounts and pages on social networks and other Internet platforms.

Key words: political communication, information technologies, media reality, communication channels.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.006

V.A. PROKOPOV Postgraduate student of the Russian Economic University named after G.V. Plekhanov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN FORMING THE POLITICAL AGENDA

Social media has created a new context for the existence of public policy. This article primarily contributes to a better understanding of the role of social media in agenda setting. The factors under the influence of which the agenda is formed and modified are identified. Social networks have become an established channel of political communication, which parties and politicians readily use. Users of new media conduct active discussions, directly influencing the agenda, including using manipulative techniques. Network media have also significantly expanded the ability of various actors to propose their agenda to the media, society and government. There are precedents when topics launched into the information space through new media became the focus of public attention. Through social media, people can express their dissatisfaction with political decisions. In addition, social networks have become a platform for creating communities of like-minded people, where people can discuss current issues and find support from each other. Network media have also significantly expanded the ability of various actors to propose their agenda to the media, society and government. There are precedents when topics launched into the information space through new media became the focus of public attention. The repeated expansion of the media-political field, the emergence of new actors in it, and changes in focusing mechanisms affected the entire process of agenda formation.

Key words: agenda, formation of the political agenda, social media, mass media.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.007

S.G. IVANOV Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies, Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

DIGITIZATION POLICY: MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE, PRIORITIES AND RISKS

The purpose of the article is to study the historical and modern experience of managing Russian digitalization policy, the priorities of this policy and the risks arising from it. The research methods were regulatory analysis, historical discourse, as well as a qualitative comprehensive analysis of digitalization policy in Russia. Based on the results of the study, it was revealed that management experience has made it possible today to create an extensive and constantly updated regulatory framework, variable management tools to identify political actors and stakeholders mobilized at the state level, which makes it possible to assert the formation of a specific digital environment in Russia. But, in addition to this, there is a set of certain risks of the digitalization policy that require a serious approach to this area and an early solution. As a conclusion, the thesis is put forward that it is necessary to promptly solve problems that arise in the process of digitalization policy in order to prevent the emergence of social crises.

Key words: digitalization, digitalization policy, information and communication technologies, public administration, public policy, risks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.008

E.A. KOZHUKHOV Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies, Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FEDERAL NATIONAL PROJECTS AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR IMPLEMENTING STATE SOCIAL POLICY: CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGIES

The purpose of the article is to analyze the concept and technologies of national projects in the social sphere, as well as problematic aspects of their implementation. The research methods were: analytical, descriptive, generalization, specification. Based on the results of the study, it was revealed that national projects as a tool for implementing social policy have their own specifics, as well as serious advantages. Although the projects are large-scale, they have a clearly defined direction and framework. Their implementation requires many resources, which are determined during the development of projects. At the same time, a number of problems were identified that complicate the implementation of national projects within the framework of social policy. The conclusion of the study is that national projects are a fairly promising instrument of Russian social policy, which can have a beneficial impact not only on the national and regional economy, but also on the quality of life and well-being of all citizens. At the same time, for this it is necessary to solve a number of problems that currently do not allow us to achieve the established goals in a timely manner.

Key words: national projects, social policy, public policy, social technologies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.009

D.G. MINTYUK Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies, Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

CONFLICTS IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND METHODS FOR THEIR SETTLEMENT

The purpose of the study is to analyze conflicts in the public administration system, as well as mechanisms and methods for resolving them. The research was based on analytical and descriptive methods. As a result, it was revealed that conflicts in the public administration system are caused by different positions of interacting state political institutions and organizations, as well as persons vested with power. Mechanisms for resolving conflicts that arise in the public administration system involve the use of a variety of tools. Based on the study, it was concluded that in order to resolve disagreements and conflicts in this system, it is necessary to resort to legislative and legal mechanisms that will not allow the conflict situation to reach a destructive stage.

Key words: public administration, conflicts, conflict resolution.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.010

A.A. CHUNIKHINA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

O.P. MIKHAILOVA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Almetyevsk branch of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev-KAI», Almetyevsk, Russia

V.V. TOMIN Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages, Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia

A.N. LOSEV Senior Lecturer, Department of Applied Informatics, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev», Moscow, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL SPACE

Introduction: the work analyzes the most focal indicators of the use of digital technologies in the scientific and educational space. The team of authors emphasizes the particular importance of the mass use of digital platform solutions at all levels of the educational system. Solving this problem will contribute to the growth of the quality of knowledge among students, the construction of sustainable scientific and educational communications of an interregional and international nature, the formation of a set of factors for achieving national technological sovereignty, and the expansion of cross-border opportunities for broadcasting and receiving modern educational content. The catalyst for digital transformation processes is to increase the digital literacy of scientific and pedagogical personnel, which forms the basis for the integration of advanced technologies into training modules. The importance of achieving the designated targets requires systemic government participation and sustainable budget financing, as well as activation of the potential of corporate social responsibility, which will expand the coverage of educational institutions with modern technologies.

Goal and objectives: the goal of the work is to conduct a locally focused analysis of the use of digital technologies in the scientific and educational space. The study set the following objectives:

– highlight key aspects of the relevance of the use of digital technologies in education;

– analyze the focal indicators of transformation of domestic educational institutions at various levels;

– consider the patterns of introducing modern technologies into the organizational mechanisms of educational processes.

Research results: the team of authors summarized the results of locally focused diagnostics of penetration and use of digital tools in the Russian educational space. Analytically substantiated conclusions have been made regarding the existing trends in the digital transformation of educational institutions at various levels. The results obtained can become the basis for further scientific research, as well as act as a targeted information base for specialized government agencies when making management decisions in the focus of correcting the model of digital transformation of the educational space.

Key words: digitalization, education, digital technologies, educational environment, scientific space, digital transformation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.011

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Scientific Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations of the ANO VO “University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

N.M. KVACH Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance and Business Analytics Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)» Moscow, Russia

A.L. ZOLKIN Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Informatics and Computer Science, FSBEI HE «Volga Region State University of Telecommunications and Informatics», Samara, Russia

V.S. LEVKINA Senior Lecturer at the Department of Foreign Economic Relations, Customs Affairs and Customs Law, State Autonomous Institution of Higher Education of the Kursk Region «Kursk Academy of State and Municipal Service», Kursk, Russia

N.V. FADEEVA Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Personnel Management of the Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railway Transport – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Irkutsk State Transport University», Krasnoyarsk, Russia

COMPETITION IN THE MARKET OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES UNDER SANCTIONS POLICY

Introduction: The article presents the results of a study of competition in the educational services market. The educational services market, like any other market, has a certain competitive environment. At the same time, the features of the competitive environment in the educational services market are largely determined by the specifics of the product provided on it, namely educational services. In the context of sanctions pressure, it is important to build a high-quality competitive environment in the educational services market, which will create an evolutionary track. From a strategic perspective, the space of the domestic educational services market should generate conditions for the most intensive development of human capital, ensuring the required level of national security. A high-quality educational environment is the fundamental basis for countering hybrid geopolitical threats, and competent management of the competitive space in the field of education is a relevant tool for increasing the efficiency of the use of educational technologies.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to conduct a study of competition in the market of educational services under sanctions. Achieving this goal occurs as a result of solving the following list of tasks:

– justify the relevance of building a high-quality competitive environment in the educational space;

– analyze the structural and dynamic indicators of competition in the educational services market;

– consider the dynamics of the integral indicator of competition in the educational services market from a sectoral perspective.

Research results: the team of authors performed an analytical diagnostic of the competitive environment in the Russian educational services market. On the scale of the work, the calculation of dynamic and structural indicators was carried out, characterizing the features of the functioning of organizations of secondary vocational and higher education. Based on the FAS methodology, calculations were made of key indicators of competition in the educational environment in the context of secondary vocational and higher education, and their results were interpreted taking into account the current situation in the educational market. The generalizations formulated by the team of authors can become an up-to-date information base for relevant government bodies when adjusting the competitive space of the educational environment towards optimal targets.

Key words: education, educational services, competition, market for educational services, Russia, sanctions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.012

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Scientific Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations of the ANO VO “University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

M.V. TUMASHEVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of International Economic Relations of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University», Kazan, Russia

E.A. VETROVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance and Business Analytics Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)», Moscow, Russia

T.N. BELOZEROVA Teacher of MBOU secondary school with UIOP named after A.S. Pushkin number 7, Postgraduate student of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «State University of Education», Kursk, Russia

ASSESSMENT OF KEY COMPONENTS OF SANCTIONS RISK FOR RUSSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

Introduction: the article assesses the key components of the risk of sanctions for Russian higher education and science. The sanctions imposed in the wake of geopolitical pressure had a significant negative impact on the development of the domestic system of higher education and science. The prompt actions of relevant leaders and government bodies were able to prevent the onset of the devastating consequences that lobbyists for the interests of unfriendly countries were counting on. At the same time, the likelihood of further escalation in the scientific and educational space is still present and is actively being replicated as a tool of hybrid warfare. Given the current socio-economic situation, it is important to objectively assess probabilistic risks in order to achieve maximum efficiency in the transformation of the domestic system of higher education and science towards sovereignty and national identity. First of all, it is necessary to mitigate risks in relation to student representatives and young scientists in order to preserve their research potential and interest in the domestic educational space. Expanding the capacity of the educational space and improving the quality of the scientific environment are the most important tools for ensuring national security, which require rapid transformation in the current climate of global instability.

Goal and objectives: the goal of the work is to assess the key components of the risk of sanctions for Russian higher education and science. Achieving the goal is a consequence of solving the following list of tasks:

– justify the relevance of assessing sanctions risks for the domestic system of higher education and science;

– conduct diagnostics and provide a comprehensive description of the main risks for the system of higher education and science in the context of geopolitical pressure from unfriendly countries;

– perform an integral assessment of the risk of sanctions for the Russian scientific and educational space based on an expert-analytical matrix.

Results: in the article, the team of authors characterized the main risks generated by the sanctions policies of unfriendly countries for the system of higher education and science of the Russian Federation. In addition, the potential negative consequences of the occurrence of risk events are considered, taking into account their destructive impact and the current scientific and educational environment. The result of expert analytical diagnostics was a matrix of key risk components, which made it possible to formulate an integral assessment of it.

Key words: science, higher education, risks, geopolitical instability, sanctions, expert assessment.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.013

CAI YAOHAN Master's Degree, Graduate School of Cultural Policy and Management in the Humanitarian Sphere, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT IN THE CULTURAL SPHERE AT THE PRESENT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT

The article discusses issues related to the peculiarities of management in the cultural sphere at the present stage of development. The purpose of the study is to study the features of management in the cultural sphere at the present stage of development and to develop promising directions for improving the effectiveness of this management. The main research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others. The concept of "culture" is defined. The main factors influencing the process of managing the cultural environment and its formation are studied. Statistical indicators of attendance for various cultural institutions are analyzed. Approaches to the definition of management of cultural processes are considered. The role of the state in the management of cultural processes is studied. The main advantages of managing cultural processes are studied, which consist in the possibility of forming values and norms that contribute to the development of society and the strengthening of social unity. They allow organizing and stimulating various cultural events, programs and projects aimed at educating and developing the population. The main negative consequences in the process of management in the cultural environment are studied. Promising directions have been developed to improve the efficiency of management in the cultural environment at the present stage of development.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study the features of management in the cultural sphere at the present stage of development and to develop promising directions for improving the effectiveness of this management.

Methods: The main research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: The features of management in the cultural sphere at the present stage of development are studied. Promising directions have been developed to improve the efficiency of this management.

Conclusions: The management of the sphere of culture can be defined as a conscious, planned and purposeful impact on culture as an integral system of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of knowledge, values and norms, life patterns in accordance with objective laws and in the interests of society and the individual. The main social institution in the management of cultural processes is the state. The State cultural policy is based on the recognition of the enormous educational and educational potential of culture and the need to maximize its use in the process of personality formation. Accordingly, the state has its own mechanisms, principles, goals, laws, which it adheres to and implements.

Key words: management, cultural sphere, modernity, stage, development, features.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.014

O.V. GONCHAROVA Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Physical Culture and Biomedical Disciplines FSBEI HE «Armavir State Pedagogical University», Armavir, Russia

A.M. GATINA Senior lecturer of the department of general humanitarian disciplines of the Neftekamsk branch Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Ufa University of Science and Technology», Neftekamsk, Russia

A.V. CHISTYAKOVA Researcher, Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education «Vladimir Law Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia», Vladimir, Russia

T.A. EVSTRATOVA Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor, associate professor of the department modern state and municipal management Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State Social University», Moscow, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

FACTORS OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS TOURISM

Introduction: the article identifies the key factors in the regional development of sports tourism under the existing socio-economic situation and the mechanism of government influence on tourism and recreational potential. The development of sports tourism is an important direction for intensifying processes in tourism activities and improving the health of the nation. In this regard, it is important to use existing natural resources, expanding their capabilities with anthropogenic infrastructure, to intensify processes in the sports tourism system. The essential component of the positive impact of sports tourism is to increase the investment attractiveness of the tourist and recreational potential of the region as a whole, to create new elements, to cultivate and improve the natural objects of the tourist and recreational complex, to form a sustainable information field that ensures the targeted use of tourist and recreational locations. The development of sports tourism creates the conditions and prerequisites for the intensification of tourism processes in the region, which in turn act as the basis for the expansion and rational consumption of the tourism and recreational potential.

Goal and objectives: the goal of the work is focused on specifying the factors of regional development of sports tourism. The objectives of the study are as follows:

– highlight the key points of the relevance of the development of sports tourism to expand the tourist and recreational potential of the territory;

– reveal the meaningful mechanism of influence of basic factors on the intensification of processes in the field of sports tourism;

– present the results of a PEST analysis of the state and development of sports tourism in the Kursk region.

Research results: in the work, the team of authors focused on the main factors in the development of sports tourism in the region, taking into account the characteristics of the existing socio-economic situation, which are presented in the context of technological, investment-economic, political, geolocation, natural-climatic and population aspects. The results of the study clarify the information base for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the development of sports tourism in order to substantiate probabilistic threats and potential opportunities, and can also be used to find the most effective tools for building a progressive track by specialized regional structures.

Key words: sports tourism, tourist and recreational resources, tourism potential, investment climate, regional development, Kursk region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.015

QIN ZIYI Master, Graduate School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

STATE AND MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN THE XXI CENTURY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, PRACTICE

The relevance of the research lies in the fact that the study of management theories, methodologies and practices in a general sense provide a scientific basis for the analysis and understanding of public and municipal management. The object of research is management as a complex category of impact on an element of the social system. The subject of the study is state and municipal management as elements and levels of the management hierarchy. The study revealed that while the classical school of management and the scientific school of management emphasize efficiency and hierarchy, behavioral theory, systems theory and management theory shift the focus to human behavior, system complexity and social cooperation. The main aspect of modern management systems is the emphasis on the object of management of public values, which expands the scope of management activities, focusing on the results focused on citizens and various vulnerable social strata in society.

Key words: network management, information exchange, joint management, society, digital environment.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.016

A.V. BOTOV Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies, Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PUBLIC POLICY IN THE SOCIAL FIELD PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION: PROBLEMS IMPLEMENTATIONS AND PROSPECTS

Goal: to analyze the problems of implementation and prospects for public policy in the field of social protection. Methods: analysis, deduction, specification. Based on the results of the study, it was revealed that the main problems of public policy in the field of social protection are the insufficiently effectively organized structure of social protection and its bodies, poor awareness of the population about the programs implemented by social protection bodies, they cannot receive reliable and timely information on how the work is progressing in relation to submitted applications, how the list of services provided can be expanded, what additional services can be obtained. The conclusion of the study was to identify some prospects for public policy in the field of social protection. In particular, this is the formation of a social protection system that will be characterized by focus and versatility. It is also necessary to continue working on improving the legal framework and targeted implementation of social guarantees in the most important areas of the population’s life. It is necessary to create an effective system of informing the population about social protection measures, about the progress of work on the submitted application, where the information will be presented in an accessible, correct and reliable manner.

Key words: public policy, social protection, social policy, problems of social protection, improvement of social policy.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.017

V.A. DANILOV Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of International relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

E.V. DANILOVA Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

CENTRAL ASIA: THE INTERSECTION OF INTERESTS OF RUSSIA, THE USA AND CHINA IN THE REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CHANGE OF EPOCHS (PART 1)

The collapse of the Soviet Union was a shock for the world's leading players, who did not expect such a rapid fall of a once mighty rival. At the same time, the key capitals of the world predicted great geopolitical opportunities that opened up to them in the sphere of international influence in many regions.

The purpose of the article is to show the intersection of the interests of the world's leading actors forming the modern political picture of the world in Central Asia. The task is to consider the processes related to the policy pursued by the United States and China to finally oust Russia from the Central Asian region and consolidate to realize their geopolitical and economic aspirations.

The results of the study: the US withdrawal from Afghanistan created favorable prerequisites for the promotion of Chinese influence in the region; the state interests of the Central Asian republics are practically not considered due to the lack of national strategies for development and prosperity there.

Conclusions: The United States and China use the economic and political weakness of the Central Asian states, the corruption of elites and the raw orientation of local economies to assert their dominance. The goal is to consistently squeeze out the remnants of Russian influence and prevent the strengthening of the positions of third countries.

Key words: post-Soviet space, Russia, USA, China, Central Asia, confrontation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.018

R.M. KURNOVSKII PhD student of the Department of International Economic Relations, Faculty of Economics, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

INVESTOR AND EMPLOYEE SENTIMENT CHANGES IN ISRAEL'S IT INDUSTRY IN LIGHT OF THE IMPLEMENTED JUDICIAL REFORM

The judicial reform in Israel may have both positive and negative implications for the country's IT industry. On the one hand, increasing the efficiency and transparency of the judicial system may provide a more favorable environment for businesses, potentially leading to new investments and talent attraction. On the other hand, the complexities and extended duration of legal proceedings might decrease investment activity and increase business costs.

Key words: Judicial reform, IT industry, Israel, efficiency, transparency, investments, talent.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.019

GAO DAI Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF CHINESE MEDIA IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREIGN POLICY

The whole world is still facing many serious problems, such as global climate change, poverty and hunger, ethnocultural conflicts, etc., which require the most effective ways to solve them. The media, being one of the tools of international dialogue, play a key role in solving many global problems. The current stage in the development of the media has its own characteristics; the study of development prospects is of scientific interest, especially from the point of view of the impact on the sphere of international relations. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the article is the first to present a multilateral analysis of the influence of the media on Chinese diplomacy after the epidemic. The theoretical and practical significance of the article lies in the fact that the research results can be used in the study of the media as one of the mechanisms for solving international problems, as well as directly in practical diplomatic work. In this article, the author seeks to determine the main functions of the media in the implementation of Chinese foreign policy.

Key words: media, international relations, globalization, instrument, foreign policy, international public opinion.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.020

GOU CHANGCHAO Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE STRATEGIC TRIANGLE OF THE RIC IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

In modern political conditions, scientific interest in the troika of states – China, Russia, India – is increasing, the totality of whose political efforts can be a political force not only at the regional level, but also globally influence. The idea of creating a RIC coalition, first put forward by Yevgeny Primakov many years ago, met with restraint in New Delhi and Beijing, is now experiencing a new stage in its development. The political situation has changed, the world order is being transformed.

Scientific interest in the positions of the three states on the main issues of world development, on topical issues of world politics is only expanding, taking into account the claims of Russia, India and China to geopolitical leadership. Many authors emphasize the geopolitical competitiveness of the relations between the two Asian giants. Studies on the interaction of the three countries will answer the question of rivalry and the possibility of flexible cooperation.

Key words: RIC – Russia, India, China, international relations, conceptual approach, world order, world politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.021

I.A. KISHUEVA Postgraduate student of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Foreign Policy, RSUH, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL-COMMUNICATIVE METHODS OF DIGITAL DIPLOMACY

Digital diplomacy, or the implementation of digital technologies and social media in diplomatic activity, has become an integral part of modern international interaction. Digital diplomacy allows states to effectively interact with international partners, disseminate information about their positions and achievements, and enhance their public image.

As a tool of modern political communication, digital diplomacy adopts and transforms traditional rules of information interaction, allowing political actors to optimize channels for disseminating ideas and values. On the other hand, political communication also influences digital diplomacy. Effective political communication, based on a broad theoretical and methodological foundation of information impact mechanisms on the audience, allows politicians to more accurately define goals and implement strategies in the digital environment. Additionally, methods of political communication aimed at creating favorable conditions for networking adapted to various cultural, linguistic, and political contexts ensure the rational use of resources in digital communication channels for disseminating information and propaganda materials and achieving diplomatic goals. This is particularly important in the context of soft power, where communication and establishing contacts play a key role in shaping a positive image and increasing international support and confidence in state policy.

The article represents a retrospective review of the main theoretical approaches and methods of political communication in the Western tradition used in modern digital diplomacy. This analysis provides an understanding of the emergence and development of important mechanisms of digital diplomacy as a tool for political communication.

Key words: Digital diplomacy, Social media, Political communication, Soft power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.022

ADOHOUNDE YAOVI SYLVESTRE Candidate of political sciences Assistant, department of foreign languages, faculty of humanities and social sciences, RUDN University, Moscow, Russian Federation, Cotonou, Benin

BENIN-CHINESE RELATIONS: BENEFITABLE COOPERATION FOR BOTH COUNTRIES?

This article is devoted to bilateral cooperation between the Republic of Benin and the People's Republic of China. It begins with the historical factors of cooperation and ends with the political-economic relations between the two countries. Special attention is paid to the state official visit of the President of the Republic of Benin, Patrice Talon, at the end of August 2023 and the 13 agreements that were signed by both parties during this visit.

Key words: Republic of Benin, People's Republic of China, diplomacy, bilateral relations, agreements, beneficial cooperation, official visit, Patrice Talon, Xi Jinping, state, Africa.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.023

P.D. SIBIRKIN Postgraduate student of the Department of International Security Russian State Humanitarian University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMPORTANCE OF AFGHANISTAN FOR THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN SINCE 2016

Uzbekistan is the only country that borders all the states of Central Asia. For this reason, it is interested in creating a security belt at its borders and establishing friendly and good-neighborly relations with other States. And Afghanistan occupies an important position in its strategy. The main priority for Uzbekistan is to achieve national reconciliation in Afghanistan and a clear vision of constructive relations between the two countries.

During the reforms of the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev in 2016, a foreign policy concept was formed in relation to Afghanistan, where the country is considered not as a source of threats and instability, but as a strategic partner with whom it is necessary to establish trade and economic relations. Uzbekistan is more interested in the stability of Afghanistan than anyone else, as it is an integral part of many cross-border economic projects. Therefore, the Government of Uzbekistan pursued a flexible policy both before the Taliban came to power in 2021 and after.

The aim is to show the areas of development of relations between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, to determine their role in increasing stability in the region, to trace the logic and transformation of these relations. And also highlight Uzbekistan's experience in building relations with South Asia, as an example to other Central Asian states.

Statistical data characterizing trade and economic relations between the two countries, as well as statements of officials of the Republic of Uzbekistan on these issues, were used as sources.

Key words: Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, foreign policy, economy, security, Central Asia, South Asia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.024

S.Sh. PASHAEV Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies, Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

NEW COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

The purpose of the article is to analyze the use of new cognitive technologies in various areas of international politics and the diplomatic process. Research methods: analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization. As a result of the study, data was obtained on the use of cognitive technologies and artificial intelligence in international politics, digital diplomacy, as well as the impact that these technologies have on socio-political processes. Based on the results, it was concluded that global governance during the heyday of cognitive technologies is a process of studying and groping for a path still unknown to humanity, which necessitates a careful and thorough assessment of the results of using these technologies in international politics.

Key words: international politics, cognitive technologies, political technologies, artificial intelligence, digital diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.025

SONG YIFAN Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

NEW BRICS+ FORMAT

The relevance of the topic of our research is due to the complication of the modern system of international relations and the currently very low possibility of global management of ongoing processes. Therefore, the study in this context of relations between states in the BRICS + format is of particular interest; the core of which is the relationship between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. The PRC is the most populous state in the world, a nuclear power, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, the only member of BRICS with which Russia is united by a common border, the longest in the world, a centuries-old history of relations, coincidence or similarity of positions on all key issues of world politics and economics.

Key words: BRICS, global system, international relationships, political leadership, SCO, Eurasian integration, international organization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.026

A.M. PESOCHIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Global Social Processes and Youth Work, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PLACE OF RUSSIA AND BRICS IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICAN

The article discusses the evolution of the foreign policy strategy of the Republic of South Africa in terms of assessing the importance of cooperation with the Russian Federation at various levels and in multiple formats, both within the framework of bilateral meetings and at multilateral platforms, of which the BRICS summits are the key ones. The analysis of the texts of conceptual documents and official reference materials of South Africa, by comparing the observed changes in the political discourse regarding the development of South African-Russian relations with the most important national, regional, and world processes and events, made it possible to identify constructive and destructive determinants that affect the nature of interstate relations between the South African Republic and the Russian Federation. In particular, the study identified internal and external factors that either increase the interest of the ruling structures of South Africa in increasing the intensity of interstate interaction with the Russian authorities, or, on the contrary, enhance competitive principles in South African-Russian relations.

Key words: Russian Federation, Republic of South Africa, BRICS, IBSA, Southern African Development Community, foreign policy, national interests.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.027

P.M. TSARITSYNA Graduate student, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDIES OF ELITES IN FRANCE

In this article, the subject of research is the main political science approaches to the study of power elites adopted in French political science. The purpose of this study is to typologize scientific approaches to the study of the ruling minority in France through comparative analysis. At the beginning, a historical retrospective is given, the dynamics of research on the topic of political elites in France is traced. Next, the author examines the most significant concepts of French researchers in the field of elitology of the XX-XXI centuries, who give their assessment of the qualities of French elites, reveal the mechanisms of their evolution, recruitment, renewal, ways of managing society and exercising power. As a result, the author, firstly, managed to identify two main directions in the study of power groups in French political science, which is subordinated to the positivist tradition and focused on sociological approaches; secondly, he managed to reflect some aspects of the specifics of the French political elite.

Key words: ruling elites, elitism, political science, stratification, political hierarchy, officialdom, French socio-political model, political and administrative elite, bio-power, habitus, cultural capital, symbolic violence, power groups, reproduction of elites, transformation of elites, social mobility, subjectivity, France.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-2.10-2.028

XUDONGYUE Master, faculty of global processes, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SINO-RUSSIAN DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS: А NEW MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT

This article analyzes the experience of China and Russia in developing and improving diplomatic relations. Having reviewed the stages of formation of diplomatic relations between Russia and China in the Soviet era and having described the diplomatic strategies of rapprochement between the two countries after the Soviet Union collapse, the author of the article focuses on the modern model of Sino-Russian diplomacy, manifested not only in thе regular summit meetings between the leaders of both states, but in the negotiating of treaties and agreements on politics, economy, education, culture, security and defense, etc., which have an impact on both foreign and domestic policies of China and Russia. The author of the article concludes that nowadays China and Russia have a golden period of partnership and cooperation. It became possible due to the diplomatic strategies of the leadership of both countries.

Key words: Sino-Russian diplomatic relations, partnership, cooperation, agreement, China, Russia.

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 14, Issue 1 (101), 2024

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Pritula M.S. State Sovereignty as the Theoretical and Practical-Political Problem

Rebrov A.I. Local Political Identity

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Chernykhovskaya E.V. The Historical Context of the Image of Heroism and Patriotism in Russian Textbooks

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Kornienko O.Yu. Identification Features of Russian Elites

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Wenzel S.V. The Role of Subjects of Preventive Influence in the System of Countering the Spread of Political Extremism in the Environment of New Media

Nguyen Thi Anh. National Policy on Equality Among Ethnics is a Factor that Ensures the Political Stability of Vietnam Currently

Tsvyak A.A. Political Factors of the Importance of Private Military Companies

Fatixov N.D. Prospects for the Development of Deliberative Democracy in the System of Urban Local Self-Government of Russia

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Okudzhava Kh.Z. Introduction of Digital Technologies Into Regional Management (Based on Materials from the Moscow Region)

Poyarkov R.A. Digital Competencies as a Key Element of the Professional Standard for Civil Servants in Russia

Zherokov M. Improving the Educational System and Systems of Measures to Prevent Terrorist Acts in Schools

Ashmarina A.A. “Biosafety” and “Biosecurity” in Russia in the Context of the Development of Digital Technologies

Litvin L.A. Risks and Prospects of E-Government Implementation in the Context of Public Administration Transformation in the Russian Federation

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Smirnova A.S. Trends of Human Security in the Modern World

An Nan. Cultural and Humanitarian Cooperation of the SCO Countries

Grebnev R.D. World of Islam Background (in the Context of Iranian Foreign Policy)

Sviridov A.A. Arctic Vector of Russian Policy

Suchkova A.A. Stages of Bilateral Relations Between the Republic of Korea and New Zealand

Xu Mengzhu. China's Soft Power: Global Initiatives and Interaction with Russia

Tushkov A.A., Alyaeva L.A., Bukharova Yu.A., Puchenkov D.O. On the Question of Some Approaches in the Methodology of the Study of Russian Civilizational Development

Tyukov N.A., Shapovalov V.L., Nikulin E.R. Interpretative Models of the Value Spectrum of Russian Youth: Meanings, Personalities and Concept Words

Farah A.S. Retail Central Bank Digital Currencies and the Reshaping of Governance, Politics and Society

Che Qingzhou, Kalashnikova N.P. The Role of Congress in US Foreign Policy (Taiwan’s Case During the Presidency of Barack Obama)

Yurchenko P.S. The Kurdish Question as a Modern Threat to the Republic of Turkey

Antropova S.Yu., Ivanova N.V. Refugees and Migrants Problem in Germany at the Present Stage

Epremyan M. Features of Political Power in Modern Armenia

Krupianko M.I., Areshidze L.G. Japanese Nationalism as the Main Unificating and Protective Force of the Nation in the New World Order of the XXI Century (Part I)

Lu Wanqing. Russia's Interests in Central Asia

Mosakova E.A., Zolotarev I.A. Cryptocurrencies in International Finance: Challenges on the Road to Becoming a World Currency

Muravyeva A.E. Egypt's Role in Resolving the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

Novitskaya A.A., Tulupov D.S. The Principle of Neutrality of the Swiss Confederation through the Press of the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

Privalov V.A. The Evolution of Relations Between Russia and Turkey During Periods of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Escalation

Saprynskaia D.V., Syzdykova Zh.S. Between the Census of 1897 and 1926: Some Aspects of the National Composition of the Population of Kazakhstan

SCIENTIFIC CONVERSATIONS AND REFLECTIONS ON A CURRENT TOPIC

Medvedev N.P. On the Question about the Subject Field Political Science

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.001

M.S. PRITULA PhD student, Russian University Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

STATE SOVEREIGNTY AS THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL-POLITICAL PROBLEM

The article is devoted to a theoretical analysis of the problem of state sovereignty. The development of the field of digital democracy largely depends on how well the conceptual dimensions are understood and how clearly the concepts of state sovereignty are defined. There is a lack of scientific research aimed at identifying this connection between the digital state and state sovereignty in the context of the modern Russian political system.

The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the analysis of the problem of state sovereignty as a theoretical and practical-political problem in the context of political science theory.

The purpose can be achieved through solving the following tasks:

1) Consider the concept of state sovereignty;

2) Formulate various definitions of state sovereignty;

3) Identify problems and prospects for the development of state sovereignty.

The methodological basis of the study involves the use of a comparative method to determine the general foundations of the digital state and state sovereignty in the political science views of Lee, Johnson and other authors.

Results. In the course of theoretical research, it was suggested that state sovereignty consists, first of all, in the expression of the will to self-determination of a socio-cultural community, designated as a nation. The article analyzed the contrast between international freedom of the digital economy and state sovereignty using the example of Russia, as well as the relationship of the digital economy and state sovereignty in modern Russia in the light of recent events in the Northern Military District in Ukraine and in the world.

Conclusion. We made the conclusion that in the case of states (for example, Russia) that have already achieved political unity, sovereignty manifests itself devoid of controversial content in order to become an expression of the will to “live together”, protecting the independence and integrity of the country.

Key words: state sovereignty, national sovereignty, states, country independence, nation, power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.002

A.I. REBROV Post-graduate student of ION RANEPA, Moscow, Russia

LOCAL POLITICAL IDENTITY

The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of local political identity and analyzes approaches to the study of identity adopted in Russian and Western political science. Based on the methodology of social constructivism and the concepts of A. Assman, R. Brubaker and J. Urria, the author proposes a model of local political identity consisting of three blocks. The first block consists of elements of the identification process, methods of mapping the surrounding reality and choosing a behavioral strategy. In turn, consisting of categories applied to oneself and others, as well as their hierarchical connectivity, social stereotypes common in the local community regarding the expected behavior of its members, mental schemes used to categorize the situation. The second block is the material and information environment in which identity is formed and reproduced. As elements of the environment, narratives about the locality in which the community under study is localized, “places of memory” around which the identity of the community is organized (monuments, recognizable architectural objects, landscapes, toponyms), and commemorative practices used to reproduce the identity of the community are identified. The third block is the involvement of the local community in the national and transnational context. Involvement is represented by a set of networks and flows (tourism, export of goods, etc.) present in the local community, the structure and composition of elites and public organizations, infrastructure, “localization” of the community (local media, local history museums, etc.).

Key words: political identity, local identity, memory, local community.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.003

E.V. CHERNYKHOVSKAYA Candidate of Science (History), Stavropol, Russia

THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE IMAGE OF HEROISM AND PATRIOTISM IN RUSSIAN TEXTBOOKS

The article presents an analysis of educational literature for primary, secondary schools and gymnasiums of tsarist, Soviet and modern Russia. It focuses on how the phenomenon of heroism was conceptualized in Russian educational literature from the late XIX to the early 20s of the XXI century as part of the study of history in elementary and secondary schools, as well as how the concept of patriotism was interpreted in Russian history textbooks of this period. The article is a search for a model of returning to the traditional domestic origins of the education of patriotism and citizenship, the introduction of which into the teaching of history at school is a task of national importance.

Key words: feat, patriotism, state ideology, patriotic education, citizenship, historical context.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.004

O.YU. KORNIENKO Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

IDENTIFICATION FEATURES OF RUSSIAN ELITES

The article examines identification features of the Russian elites, determined by the system of their upbringing on the national values and attitudes of the Russian people, as well as the planless nature of Russian elite’s upbringing. The study notes that the most important component in development of the elites is the approach to their education on the values inherent to the nation, which is analyzed by the author diachronically.

The analyzed material revealed that since the pre-Mongol period Russian educational approach to general upbringings, as well as elite upbringing, has been characterized by a comprehensive educational approach, determines by moral and spiritual principles. It is typical for the Russian tradition to place emphasis on highly professional, specialized training of elites with less attention to the development of their management skills.

Haphazard development of the Russian elite is determined by an external context, a somewhat unsystematic approach to the ways of education, and significantly depends on the vector of the state development. The material in question leads to the conclusion about the need to correlate the education of the elites with the national idea and identification values and attitudes, and the need to combine the traditional approach to training a highly professional specialized elite with developed management skills and abilities.

Key words: elites, national values, attitudes, haphazard development, specialized education.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.005

S.V. WENZEL Head of the Analytical and Educational Activities Department NCPTI FGANU Research Institute "Spetsvuzavtomatika", Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE ROLE OF SUBJECTS OF PREVENTIVE INFLUENCE IN THE SYSTEM OF COUNTERING THE SPREAD OF POLITICAL EXTREMISM IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF NEW MEDIA

The presented research is devoted to the issue of building an effective system to counter the spread of political extremism in the environment of new media. The direct subjects of preventive action, represented at all levels (federal, regional and local), have an important role. The classification of subjects is based on the areas of activity: the implementation of preventive work in real time and the conduct of information work in the media space, including monitoring, educational work and the functioning of a community of experts.

Key words: political extremism, new media, technologies, countering extremism, subjects of prevention.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.006

NGUYEN THI ANH Postgraduate student of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Moscow, Russia

NATIONAL POLICY ON EQUALITY AMONG ETHNICS IS A FACTOR THAT ENSURES THE POLITICAL STABILITY OF VIETNAM CURRENTLY

Research on ethnic equality and ethnic equality policies is becoming increasingly necessary and important. Because current practice shows that most major socio-political changes in countries are related to ethnic issues and of course any country is at risk of facing ethnic issues. Ethnicity, whether directly or indirectly, and even disguised under the cloak of national colors. As a multi-ethnic country, Vietnam has always paid attention to the policy of equality among ethnic groups and achieved important achievements. The article aims to analyze the basic contents to prove that the policy of ethnic equality is a factor ensuring political stability in Vietnam today.

Key words: Ethnic equality policy, Vietnam, political stability, sabotage, culture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.007

A.A. TSVYAK Postgraduate student, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL FACTORS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES

Analysis of private military companies from the point of view of political factors of their existence and development is an extremely relevant topic against the backdrop of the dynamic expansion of their activities, but at the same time it is still insufficiently developed in the relevant scientific literature. The purpose of this study is to identify and specify these factors. The article examines the key elements that determine the increased political importance of private military companies in the context of the functioning of military-political structures and government institutions. Key similar requests emanating from state structures are identified and analyzed, such as the need for projection of power, natural attempts to avoid condemnation from the world community as a whole or individual states, and reducing the volume of potential criticism within the state itself. The mechanisms for their effective implementation are shown, allowing political institutions to achieve their foreign policy and domestic policy goals, while avoiding associated reputational risks or the development of diverse crisis phenomena.

Key words: political security factors, private military companies, military-political institutions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.008

N.D. FATIXOV Member of the Precinct Election Commission No. 292, electoral lawyer, independent researcher, Ufa, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY IN THE SYSTEM OF URBAN LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA

The subject of the research in the scientific article is the problems of functioning of the system of urban local self-government in Russia in the conditions of the information society. In the article analyzes the current state of social communications, taking into account existing research in the field of citizen's participation in political activities. The main problems in the development of municipal government in urban districts and their impact on the protest activity of citizens are highlighted. Methods of developing democratic procedures based on deliberative democracy are proposed.

Key words: deliberative democracy, public hearing, local self-government, territorial self-government bodies, political communications.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.009

KH.Z. OKUDZHAVA Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

INTRODUCTION OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES INTO REGIONAL MANAGEMENT (BASED ON MATERIALS FROM THE MOSCOW REGION)

The article discusses the issues of digital transformation of the regional management system using the example of the Moscow region. The relevance of the topic is due to the need to improve the quality and efficiency of the work of regional and municipal authorities, and to increase the population’s satisfaction with their activities. The purpose of the work is to, based on a generalization of the best practices of the Moscow region, identify the features of the use of digital technologies in regional management.

The work characterizes the current state of regional management in digital reality, analyzes key documents and information systems of the Moscow region. Particular attention is paid to the Regional Geographic Information System (RGIS) and “Dobrodel”, their role in increasing the efficiency of regional management and improving communication between authorities and citizens is shown. Recommendations for the further development of processes related to digitalization were formulated, a draft strategy “Digital Management of the Moscow Region 2030” was proposed, designed to solve the problems of transferring state and municipal services to a digital format, introducing artificial intelligence technologies in management, creating a unified digital ecosystem for interaction between citizens and representatives business with authorities. The implementation of the project involves 3 stages: the first stage involves developing a strategy and launching pilot digital platforms. The second stage involves replication of successful solutions for their further scaling. The third stage involves the introduction of artificial intelligence technologies in key areas of life, providing wide access to provide public services to the population. The implementation of the proposed project plan will allow the Moscow region to maintain its leading position in Russia in terms of the level of digitalization of public administration and the quality of provision of electronic services to residents of the region.

Key words: digital transformation, digital technologies, regional management, information systems, public administration, Moscow region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.010

R.A. POYARKOV Post-graduate student, Central Russian Institute of Management – branch (Orel), Orel, Russia; founder, R Group LLC, Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL COMPETENCIES AS A KEY ELEMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL STANDARD FOR CIVIL SERVANTS IN RUSSIA

This article discusses the issues of the need to develop digital competencies among Russian civil servants and their role in improving the effectiveness of implementing the concept of E-Government. The authors analyze existing educational programs and materials designed to train civil servants and identify the main problems and obstacles in the process of improving their digital qualifications. The lack of national standards for assessing the necessary digital competencies within the framework of E-Government is recognized as a key factor hampering the growth of work efficiency and management effectiveness. The importance of updating qualification criteria for the civil service and developing new knowledge and skills standards that meet the requirements of the digital era is emphasized.

Key words: digital competencies, civil service, E-Government, educational programs, qualification criteria, information and communication competencies, digital qualifications, professional standards, innovative technologies, management activities.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.011

M. ZHEROKOV Graduate student of Slavic-Greco-Latin Academy, Moscow, Russia

IMPROVING THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND SYSTEMS OF MEASURES TO PREVENT TERRORIST ACTS IN SCHOOLS

This material discusses ways to improve the educational system and the system of measures to prevent terrorist attacks in schools. First of all, this work highlights the importance of the school's responsibility for raising children. The purpose of the work is to identify the shortcomings of existing systems and consider ways to compensate for them. The result of the material is a recommended list of measures to improve systems for preventing terrorist acts.

Key words: society, state, security, efficiency, management, terrorist attacks, educational system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.012

A.A. ASHMARINA Candidate of Political Sciences Senior lecturer at IMOMI of Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

“BIOSAFETY” AND “BIOSECURITY” IN RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES

The article discusses the concepts of “biosafety” and “biosecurity” in the context of digitalization in Russia. The author analyzes biological threats to Russian society arising from the influence of external and internal factors. The central place in this work is occupied by the factor of development of digital technologies, which has a huge impact on all spheres of human life. Medicine, agriculture, and public administration are falling under the influence of digitalization. The author concludes that digitalization contributes to the development of biotechnologies and becomes a source of biothreats, including turning a person into an object of politics at various levels.

Key words: national security, biosecurity, biosafety, biological threat, biopolitics, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.013

L.A. LITVIN PhD in Political science, Associate Professor for the Department of Political and Regional science, Lugansk State Pedagogical University, Lugansk, Luhansk People's Republic, Russia

RISKS AND PROSPECTS OF E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TRANSFORMATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Currently, e-government is becoming an integral part of modern public administration. E-government is a complex technology that allows you to solve several tasks and provide many different services to the public. The main task of e-government is to inform citizens and provide state and municipal services via the Internet for the fastest and highest quality public services. In this regard, it includes the main elements of the national infrastructure. Currently, there are five such elements. They generally represent a unified information technology and telecommunications system of electronic government. On the way of introducing such a large-scale system as «Electronic Government» into the socio-economic reality of any country, various problems may arise, which can be conditionally divided into the following main groups: organizational and legal problems, technological problems, methodological problems, information problems, financial problems. Special attention is paid to the analysis of risks and prospects for the development of «electronic government» in Russia. Potential risks, such as threats to information security, vulnerability of the e-government system to cyberattacks, as well as opportunities and prospects related to improving the efficiency and quality of public administration, improving services for the public and businesses, reducing bureaucratic procedures and increasing transparency of government processes were highlighted. Some promising areas of e-government development in Russia are also highlighted.

Key words: e-government, digital government, transformation, public administration, digital technologies, risks and challenges, portal «Public Services», information security.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.014

A.S. SMIRNOVA Junior Researcher of the Research Department (Military-Humanitarian Studies) Military University, postgraduate student of the Department of politology, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

TRENDS OF HUMAN SECURITY IN THE MODERN WORLD

The concept of human security was created in the twentieth century. From the moment of its formation to its practical application, more than 50 years have passed, during which it has gained many supporters among scientists who promote and develop it in our time. To identify the relevance of the concept, the author analyzes the UN guiding documents, the work of Latin American and European scientists and identifies three trends in human security: diversification, institutionalization and adaptation. Diversification is represented in the creation and promotion by Latin American scientists of the concept of HUGE (human, gender and environmental security), institutionalization – in the creation and development of the UN trust fund for human security; adaptation – in the refraction of the concept of human security to the realities of a particular country or region. The author also identifies and examines two significant threats to human security – globalization and digitalization.

Key words: human security, trends, adaptation, diversification, institutionalization, Latin America, UN.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.015

AN NAN Master student Department of International Relations Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

CULTURAL AND HUMANITARIAN COOPERATION OF THE SCO COUNTRIES

The article discusses issues related to cultural and humanitarian cooperation between the SCO countries. The purpose of the study is to study the issues of cooperation between the countries within the SCO in the field of cultural and humanitarian interaction, to identify the main features and features. The main research methods are the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others. Priority tasks for the development of cultural and humanitarian exchange between the SCO member states are considered. The main priority areas for cultural and humanitarian cooperation of the SCO countries until 2025 have been studied. The definition of the concept of "mechanism for managing cultural and humanitarian processes" is defined. The mechanism for managing cultural and humanitarian processes of partner countries within the framework of the SCO is studied. The author of the article emphasizes the importance of legislative regulation of cultural and humanitarian development of the SCO member states. Educational institutions play an important role in the formation of cultural awareness and the development of creative potential. Schools and universities should provide students not only with knowledge and skills, but also promote the development of critical thinking and creative thinking, which will help them become active participants in cultural life. It is also important to pay attention to the relationship between culture and economics, as cultural processes often stimulate economic growth and innovative development. Non-profit organizations and cultural institutions also contribute to the management of cultural life in society. They organize various cultural events, support young talented artists and scientists, and provide access to cultural resources for all segments of the population.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study the issues of cooperation between the countries within the framework of the SCO in the field of cultural and humanitarian interaction, to identify the main features and features.

Methods: The main research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: The issues of cooperation between the countries within the SCO in the field of cultural and humanitarian interaction have been studied. The main features and features are revealed.

Conclusions: The public and the cultural environment itself play an important role in the mechanism of managing the cultural and humanitarian processes of the SCO member states. The participation of society in the development of culture promotes multifaceted interaction and the exchange of ideas. The formation of public discussion, public opinion and cultural trends are key factors determining the development of culture as a whole. Thus, the mechanism for managing the cultural processes of the SCO countries includes participants and many tools that cooperate to ensure the development of culture. The State, educational institutions, non-profit organizations, cultural institutions and the public play an important role in the formation and development of cultural processes. The interaction between all participants ensures the exchange of ideas, innovation and the preservation of cultural heritage, which contributes to the development of society and its state of well-being.

Key words: culture, humanitarian cooperation, SCO countries, communication, exchange, interaction.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.016

R.D. GREBNEV Candidate of judicial sciences, Professor of the Russian Federation Academy of Military Sciences, senior researcher at the Faculty of Global Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

WORLD OF ISLAM BACKGROUND (IN THE CONTEXT OF IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY)

The relevance of the stated topic is justified by the emphasis on the creation of a global ummah (from Arabic - community, nation) by the foreign policy activities of the Islamic Republic of Iran under the leadership of President Ibrahim Raisi in the context of differentiation of globalization political processes, as well as the escalation of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, which in the context of the stated topic may be considered as a factor promoting the consolidation of the World of Islam in order to jointly confront Muslim states with the US geopolitical project in the Middle East.

The purpose of the study is to identify internal and external factors influencing each other on Iran’s pragmatic foreign policy, aimed at achieving the status of a regional leader and a potential center of the emerging pole of a multipolar world, correlated with the concept of the “World of Islam”.

The methodological basis of the study was formed by the method of global political forecasting, as well as systemic, actor-based, geopolitical and geo-economic methodological approaches. When conducting the study, the linguistic-legal method was also used in the interpretation of constitutional and legal norms establishing the principles of government and foreign policy priorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as well as a comparative method in studying the approaches of Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia to the issues of regionalization of political processes and participation in development of a polycentric system of international relations.

The article defines the contours of the World of Islam as an emerging collective pole of a multipolar world. In this regard, the World of Islam is considered as a concept that can in the future unite the Persian, Arab and Turkic worlds within the framework of a network political entity. This approach predetermined the need to study Iran's foreign policy concept from a comparative perspective. Using the comparative research methodology, internal factors influencing Iran's foreign policy strategy, which arise because of the peculiarities of the political system and collective identity of Iran, were identified, and the strategic directions of Iran's foreign policy were analyzed in a comparative aspect with Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

As a result of the study, the following main conclusions were substantiated. The political unity of the World of Islam can be ensured by the union of Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia, jointly performing the functions of a center of geopolitical influence in the structure of the pole of a multipolar world. The cybernetic nature of the political system, the collective identity of Iran, as well as the middle “Shiite crescent” predetermine one of the key meanings of the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the consolidation of the ummah and the formation of the World of Islam in the context of the concept of multipolarity.

Key words: regionalization of political processes, globalization of political processes, multipolarity, polycentricity, World of Islam, Iran.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.017

A.A. SVIRIDOV Graduate student of the Faculty of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

ARCTIC VECTOR OF RUSSIAN POLICY

The article is devoted to the implementation of the policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic region. The term «Arctic state», sectoral and conventional principles of delimitation of borders are disclosed. The activities of the Arctic Council and international cooperation within the framework of the organization are being studied. Of interest is the special status of the Spitsbergen archipelago: the history of the issue and the current state of affairs. Great attention is paid to the main provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea – such concepts as: internal and historical waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf. The actions of Russia to ensure its national interests in the region, including applications to the United Nations to confirm its sovereignty over the Lomonosov Ridge, are considered. The Concept of Russian Foreign Policy 2023 is studied, as well as activities on the development of infrastructure projects in the Arctic (especially the Northern Sea Route), development of mineral deposits. The objectives and contradictions of different countries in the region are analysed.

Key words: Arctic state, sectoral and conventional principles, Spitsbergen archipelago, Arctic Council, national interests, Northern Sea Route, minerals.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.018

A.A. SUCHKOVA Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages, candidate of Sciences in History Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, Russia

STAGES OF BILATERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA AND NEW ZEALAND

The development of the Korea-New Zealand relations can be divided into two stages: the 1950s – 1980s and the 1990s – the early 21st century. The first period of the bilateral relations was characterized by successive steps from both sides in the political and economic spheres, that became the basis for promising cooperation both within the bilateral and multilateral framework. The second stage, when the world’s bipolar system was transforming into multipolar one, is marked not only by intensification of interaction between states in the political and economic areas, but also by active development of humanitarian contacts. Bilateral cooperation in the late 20th century – early 21st century is being enriched by collaboration between Republic of Korea and New Zealand in the sphere of culture, education and science which means establishment of full-scale interstate relations at the present stage.

Key words: the Asia-Pacific Region, bilateral relations, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, cooperation stages, trade and economic cooperation, political cooperation, humanitarian cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.019

XU MENGZHU Postgraduate student, Department of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CHINA'S SOFT POWER: GLOBAL INITIATIVES AND INTERACTION WITH RUSSIA

The article is devoted to the formation of the ideological foundations of the world order that the leadership of modern China intends to build. Based on party and state documents, speeches by Chinese statesmen, especially Xi Jinping, the article analyzes a number of theoretical innovations, "Chinese solutions" that Beijing offers to the world community to regulate the accumulated problems. Among them are the concept of the "community of the common destiny of mankind", the initiative of "global development", "global security", the resolution of the Ukrainian conflict, etc. With these proposals, Beijing, on the one hand, confirms China's status as a global responsible power that cares about the fate of all mankind, on the other hand, lays the theoretical foundations of a new "just world order" that should replace the current dominance of the West. Chinese leaders view this dominance, based on a policy of forceful pressure, inequality, unilateral benefits, as contrary to the traditional values of the Celestial Empire, the needs of its modern development, as well as the interests of most of humanity, whose active representative and leader China claims to be today.

Key words: international relations, Russian-Chinese cooperation, global initiatives, Russia's foreign policy course, Development of Russia and China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.020

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

L.A. ALYAEVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

YU.A. BUKHAROVA Candidate of Historical Sciences Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

D.O. PUCHENKOV Student of the of the Faculty of Social Sciences National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF SOME APPROACHES IN THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY OF RUSSIAN CIVILIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The complex of problems related to the study of Russian civilization, its formation and development remains an urgent topic among both domestic and foreign scientists. The uniqueness of the Russian civilization is beyond anyone's doubt. But at the same time, the search for answers to many questions related to its development remains unanswered. This article touches upon some methodological aspects in the study of this topic. In particular, the authors of this article have made an attempt to highlight some approaches in the research of a number of authors.

Key words: Russian civilization, cross-temporal theories, formal approach, Western civilization, Eastern Christian world.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.022

N.A. TYUKOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher of the Department of Global Problems of the Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science of the Institute of History and Politics of Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia

V.L. SHAPOVALOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Comparative Political Science, Researcher at the Research Laboratory “Political Processes in the System of Center-Region Relations”, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

E.R. NIKULIN Expert at the Center for Socio-Political Projects and Communications, Moscow, Russia

INTERPRETATIVE MODELS OF THE VALUE SPECTRUM OF RUSSIAN YOUTH: MEANINGS, PERSONALITIES AND CONCEPT WORDS

The article is devoted to the identification of interpretations of the value spectrum by young Russians. The scientific interest of the authors of this study is to determine the semantic content of the list of values, a personalized semantic core and a pool of concept words using a hybrid methodology that includes a mass survey and social media analysis.

Key words: interpretative model, value spectrum, youth, user, semantic core, value orientation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.024

A.S. FARAH Project lead at the Institute for Financial Analysts, Beirut, Lebanon; PhD candidate at the Faculty of Global Processes at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

RETAIL CENTRAL BANK DIGITAL CURRENCIES AND THE RESHAPING OF GOVERNANCE, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY

Historically, money has always been closely linked to power dynamics, and central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) represent a new chapter in this interaction. This article focuses on the potential policy and societal implications of the introduction of retail central bank digital currencies (rCBDCs), recognizing the leading role played by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in their development and in fostering knowledge sharing. Concerns are raised about the possible risks of excessive government intervention and manipulation associated with rCBDCs, and the need for data protection and transparent governance is emphasized. Moreover, the potential impact of rCBDCs on the political landscape and social inequality is also examined. Understanding the political economy of rCBDCs is critical to leveraging their potential wisely and responsibly and mitigating the risks associated with them.

Key words: retail central bank digital currencies, Bank for International Settlements, governance, control, confidentiality, financial and social inclusion.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.025

CHE QINGZHOU Postgraduate student, Higher School of International Relations. The Humanitarian Institute of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University named after Peter the Great, St. Petersburg, Russia

N.P. KALASHNIKOVA Head of the Department of the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Eurasian N. Gumilyov National University, Kazakhstan, Astana

THE ROLE OF CONGRESS IN US FOREIGN POLICY (TAIWAN’S CASE DURING THE PRESIDENCY OF BARACK OBAMA)

Relations between the United States of America and Taiwan have always been in the spotlight of the world community. Special attention to this problem has always been in the USA. The United States has always supported Taiwan's independence and sovereignty on the basis of signed agreements. The U.S. Congress played a leading role in this policy. The Congressmen's position on the Taiwan issue has always been aimed at supporting the island. One of the central issues in support of Taiwan is the issue of providing the island with modern weapons. In 2010, US President Barack Obama presented the US National Security Strategy program, which proclaims a new approach to the foreign policy of the United States and in particular Taiwan. The purpose of this document was to deepen U.S. participation in the Asia-Pacific region. The main thing was to establish positive relations with Taiwan. The US Congress paid the closest attention to the problem of Taiwan. Senators regularly raised issues of assistance to Taiwan. The main issues were: ensuring Taiwan's security and widespread arms sales, Taiwan's participation in the activities of various international organizations, extensive cooperation between the United States and Taiwan on trade, education and culture, as well as the possibility of visiting the United States by high-ranking representatives of Taiwan. This position of the senators was explained by China's inflexible policy towards Taiwan. In contrast to the "one China" policy, the senators put the US policy towards Taiwan – "one China, one Taiwan".

Key words: Taiwan, United States of America, People's Republic of China, U.S. Congress, President, Barack Obama.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.026

P.S. YURCHENKO Postgraduate student Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE KURDISH QUESTION AS A MODERN THREAT TO THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

The article highlights the topical issue of Kurdish question and its impact on the Republic of Turkey in the modern world. The paper aims to analyze various aspects of the conflict between the Turkish government and Kurdish groups, including the historical roots, political threats and challenges, and geopolitical implications. Kurdish organizations seek to establish an independent and sovereign state of Kurdistan, which could be formed on the territory of the four existing Anterior Asia states: Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria.

The article begins with an overview of the historical context of the of the Kurdish question, including the territorial ambitions of the Kurdish population and its relations with the Turkish state and its government. This is followed by an analysis of the current situation and the impact of the conflict on stability and security in the Middle East region, including an examination of the military operations of Turkey's armed forces in the Syrian Arab Republic and the Republic of Iraq: "Euphrates Shield", "Olive Branch", "Source of Peace", "Eagle Claw" ("Tiger Claw"), "Eagle Claw 2, Castle Claw, and Sword Claw. The article also provides the rationale for these operations.

The article offers for consideration possible scenarios of development of the conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish formations, which can lead to the end of the conflict. formations, which can lead to the end of the conflict and possible consequences.

The author also emphasizes the role of the United States in supporting the Kurds and their actions in the Middle East. The United States continues to assist Kurdish movements because of possible threats to its dominance and the presence of political opponents in the region in the form of the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China and the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Key words: Republic of Turkey, Kurdish question, Kurdistan, Kurds, Kurdistan Workers' Party, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.027

S.YU. ANTROPOVA Deputy Head of the Department of European Languages of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

N.V. IVANOVA Senior Lecturer, Department of European Languages of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS PROBLEM IN GERMANY AT THE PRESENT STAGE

The migration crisis is flaring up again in Germany; the country cannot cope with the increasing flow of migrants. The uncontrolled influx of refugees into Germany contributes to “growing social tensions” and causes “disappointment” among German citizens, while the authorities are unable to integrate them into local society.

Key words: Germany, political parties, elections, migration policy, migrants, migration crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.028

M. EPREMYAN PhD student of the Department of Philosophy and Social Science, Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia

FEATURES OF POLITICAL POWER IN MODERN ARMENIA

Of particular scientific interest is the study of the political situation in modern Armenia. This fact is due to the fact that after the collapse of the USSR, the country chose its own path of development in the field of political power development, building its own architecture of democracy. It was after the collapse of the USSR that the state became an international full-fledged entity with its own stable institutional and legal model of democratic development. The purpose of the research in this article is to analyze the formation of political power and the political system of Armenia in order to identify its main features. The objectives of the study were: to study the formation of political power in Armenia after the collapse of the USSR, to analyze the introduction of constitutional amendments, to assess the impact of constitutional changes on the peculiarities of political power. The results of the study indicate that in Armenia, the activities of the government and the political elite have been dominated for a very long time by a preference for political pragmatism, a pronounced weakening of state institutions. The main transformation of political power was caused by attempts to prolong the 3rd President of Armenia, S. Sargsyan, as a result of which in 2018 A protest wave began in the country, which had great potential to strengthen political power. Discontent arose in society caused by large-scale corruption and social polarization, which led to the fact that S. Sargsyan did not retain power, and N. Pashinyan was elected Prime Minister of the state. Everything ended with the parliamentary early elections in 2018, where the «My Step bloc», headed by N. Pashinyan, won. In general, Armenia's political system has undergone changes in recent years aimed at a more democratic governance structure. The country still faces various political challenges, but the established institutions and processes are aimed at developing a stable and democratic system of governance.

Key words: political power, political system, Armenia, features of political power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.023

M.I. KRUPIANKO Doctor of Political Sciences, Senior Researcher Institute Oriental Studies RAS, Moscow, Russia

L.G. ARESHIDZE Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor ISAA at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

JAPANESE NATIONALISM AS THE MAIN UNIFICATING AND PROTECTIVE FORCE OF THE NATION IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER OF THE XXI CENTURY PART I

The article analyzes the problems of the revival of the ideology of state nationalism taking place in modern Japan, as a traditional tool for manipulating the mass consciousness of the Japanese during the dramatic periods of the country's recent history, such as the period of formation of the new world order at the beginning of the 21st century in the context of a new confrontation between the united West, led by the United States, in containing Russia. The article emphasizes that the rise of nationalist sentiments aims to unite and mobilize the potential of the nation in the face of a real threat of destabilization of the situation in the Far East. The article analyzes the main carriers of nationalist ideology, shows the role of the institution of imperial power and the authorities in general in the formation of a nationalist worldview among Japanese youth. An attempt has been made to outline the immediate prospects for the development of nationalism in Japan, as well as the consequences of this process for the future of Japanese-Russian relations.

Key words: patriotism, nationalism, Shinto, Japanese nationalists, nationalism in foreign policy, terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.029

LU WANQING Postgraduate student, Department of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA'S INTERESTS IN CENTRAL ASIA

The article is devoted to the review and analysis of Russia's relations with the countries of Central and East Asia, special attention is paid to understanding the prospects for further cooperation, especially in the economic and military-strategic spheres. Thus, Russia's economic cooperation in oil, gas and energy trade with the countries of East Asia and the continuation of Eurasian economic integration with the countries of Central Asia form a positive economic "climate" between the regions and ensure stability and development prospects. This is a collaboration. But cooperation creates not only incentives for development, but also problems and challenges.

Key words: Russia, Central Asia, East Asia, foreign policy, geopolitical interests, development of Russia and China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.030

E.A. MOSAKOVA Сandidate of Economics, Associate professor, Associate professor at the Department of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

I.A. ZOLOTAREV PhD Student, Faculty of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CRYPTOCURRENCIES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCE: CHALLENGES ON THE ROAD TO BECOMING A WORLD CURRENCY

Cryptocurrency has become a popular form of money in a short period of time, primarily for such properties as anonymity and decentralization. Today, the decentralized cryptocurrency market is already a major competitor to the banking system. In addition, the blockchain technology itself can coordinate various human activities. The article is devoted to the current problems associated with the use of cryptocurrencies in the international finance. It could be concluded that they will be able to claim the role of a world currency in the medium termprovided the harmonization of the essential and inextricable independence of cryptocurrencies with the realities of the modern financial system.

Key words: cryptocurrency, exchange rate volatility, cryptocurrency regulation, security, backing, fiat money, financial transactions, financial sphere, means of payment.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.031

A.E. MURAVYEVA Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

EGYPT'S ROLE IN RESOLVING THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFLICT

The key factor in resolving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not only agreements between world leaders and hegemonic countries, but also neighboring countries, for which a stable situation in the region is a necessary factor for economic and political stability. The purpose of our research is to identify Egypt's role in stabilizing the Palestinian-Israeli conflict; Accordingly, the subject of the study is Egypt’s activities in this direction.

Key words: world politics, Egypt, world economy, foreign policy, Palestinian-Israeli conflict, world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.032

A.A. NOVITSKAYA Bachelor's student of the Faculty of International relations of St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

D.S. TULUPOV Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of International relations, lecturer at the Faculty of International Relations St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE PRINCIPLE OF NEUTRALITY OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION THROUGH THE PRESS OF THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT

The purpose of the article is to identify the relevance of Switzerland's status as a neutral state in modern days through the prism of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Since the beginning of this conflict, Switzerland's neutrality status has been criticized by Russia for violating moral and economic neutrality, and by Western countries for insufficient resistance to aggression. The study uses the content analysis method, the historical-comparative method and the updating method. The author comes to the conclusion that despite Switzerland’s active involvement in the conflict, in fact it does not deviate from its status as a neutral state, given its open condemnation of Russia’s actions and adherence to economic sanctions.

Key words: law of neutrality, policy of neutrality, Swiss Confederation, Russian-Ukrainian conflict, military neutrality.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.033

V.A. PRIVALOV Postgraduate student, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE EVOLUTION OF RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND TURKEY DURING PERIODS OF THE NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT ESCALATION

Ethnopolitical conflicts in modern reality are not limited to the participation of only warring parties; a significant role in these conflicts is assigned to third parties – states that have certain geopolitical interests and/or pursue corresponding goals in a particular ethnopolitical conflict and the mechanisms for its resolution. One of such conflicts in the post-Soviet space is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which affects the security of the entire South Caucasus region. The main participants in the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh are not only Armenia and Azerbaijan, but also two external players – Russia and Turkey, which not only have their own goals and interests in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict zone, but also mutual relations – a balance between cooperation and competition – In throughout the South Caucasus region. The purpose of the article is to study the evolution of relations between Russia and Turkey during periods of escalation of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The article analyzes the geopolitical relations between Russia and Turkey as a whole, highlighting approaches to their definition – neorealist and constructivist. The relations of Russia and Turkey with the direct participants in the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh – Azerbaijan and Armenia – are considered. The contradictions between Russia and Turkey during the escalation of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh in 2020 are identified, and the vectors of relations between Russia and Turkey in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 2023 are highlighted. It is concluded that the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and periods of its escalation determined the cyclical development of relations between Russia and Turkey, within which the parties used the approach of “pragmatic partnership” to resolve their foreign policy differences.

Key words: Ethnopolitical conflicts, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, relations between Russia and Turkey, geopolitical relations, pragmatic partnership, foreign policy disagreements.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.021

D.V. SAPRYNSKAIA Research Fellow, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

ZH.S. SYZDYKOVA Doctor of History, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

BETWEEN THE CENSUS OF 1897 AND 1926: SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATIONAL COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF KAZAKHSTAN

The article examines the process of transformation of the population of the Kazakh SSR based on the first population census in 1897 and during the Soviet period in 1926. The main focus of the work is to highlight key differences in census data on ethnic, labor, educational and other factors. It is concluded that despite a number of identified shortcomings, the 1897 census serves as an important source of socio-demographic data on the population of the Russian Empire.

Key words: people, Kazakhstan, number, ethnic composition, Uighurs, Dungans.

SCIENTIFIC CONVERSATIONS AND REFLECTIONS ON A CURRENT TOPIC

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.101.1.034

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Russian political scientist and politician, Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION ABOUT THE SUBJECT FIELD POLITICAL SCIENCE

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 13, Issue 12 (100), 2023

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Maystat M.A., Goryachev G.A. The Confrontation of Modern and Postmodern Ideologies in Modern Politics

Novikova K.Y. E-Democracy as a New Model of Democracy

POLITICAL HISTORY

Slizovsky D.E., Medvedev N.P. Studies in the History of Russia: on the Question about Preferences and Trends

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Savitsky R.S. Patriotism as a Basis for the Development of Citizenship in Russian Society

Samsonova N.N. The Phenomenon of Cancel Culture Through the Prism of the Concept of “Historical Trauma”

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

BudarinYa.S., Chirkov D.K. Knowledge Society – Present and Prospected

Ghercic Iu.V. Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations of the Concept of the State Image

Lenkov D.A. The Participation of Civil Society in Modern Russia in the Formation of a Mental Security Strategy: Problems and Prospects

Kopylov I.A. National Defense as a Scientific Category and Object of State Policy in the Field of Ensuring National Security of the Russian Federation

Tsogoev D.A. Mechanism for Countering Youth Extremism in the Russian Federation in the Conditions of Conducting its

Vyshnepolsky S.V. Analysis of the Program Documents of the "Green Parties" of Russia, Assessment of their Project Activities and Work with Voters

Zamyatin O.A. Multipolar State of the World Political System and Energy Sovereignty of EU Member States

Ivleva T.A. Socio-Cultural Dimension of the Problems of Women Leadership in Modern Russia

Liu Jia. Digital Technologies and Information Projects in the Political Process of China and Russia

Nguyen Thi Anh. The Role of Political Communication for Equality Policy Among Ethnics in Vietnam

Vasilyeva T.A., Volzhanin D.A., Dubkov N.S. Peculiarities of Using Social Networks as a Tool of Political Mobilization in Modern Russia: Problems of Increasing Effectiveness

Guo Zhiren. Application of “New” Media: from Web 2.0 Technologies to Political Significance

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Tushkov A.A., Tikhonov M.L., Nemchaninov A.S. Russia's Technological Sovereignty as a Model of Catch-Up Development? The Military-Political Aspect of the Problem

Marukhlenko A.L., Cheshin A.V., Aleeva S.S., Novoselsky S.O., Biryukov I.A. Information Security Policy in Digital Health: Organizational and Legal Aspects

Solomin A.S. Sanctions as a Political Instrument: Analysis of the Phenomenon of Sanctions from the Point of International Relations

Gurov A.I. The Relationship Between the Effectiveness of Public Administration and the Introduction of Digital Management Systems, Modern Planning and Decision-Making Techniques

Nur A.A., Popov S.I., Novikova A.V. On the Issue of State Policy in the Field of Health. Health Issues in the Zelenograd Administrative District Moscow and Searching for Ways to Solution them

Torik N.Yu. Institutions for the Development of the Business Environment as an Element of the State Innovation Policy

Frolov A.A. Prospects for the Socio-Economic Development of Single-Industry Towns of Russia in the Context of Economic Sanctions

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Lomtev A.V., Sajjad Zeraat Peyma, Medvedev N.P. The Potential of Cuba in the Context of the Transformational Processes of the Modern World Order

Aliev M.R. Comparative Analysis of the National Interests of the Russian Federation and Republic of Belarus

Tushkov A.A., Somova I.Yu., Aulov A.P., Knyazkov I.V. France and the West African Chord: the Rebellion of the Lost Territories or the Burdensome Legacy of «Francafrica»

Zorkin A.A. The Afghan War in the Works of Soviet Journalists and Correspondents

Khvastov A.N. Factors and Conditions that Determined the Need to Conduct Political Work Among German Prisoners of War

Akopyan G.A. The Fight Against International Terrorism in the Context of Globalization

Leon A.U. Political Regims and Institutions of Power of Post-Colonial African States from 1900's to 1960's

Petrosyan F.A. Arctic Strategies for Regional and Non-Regional Actors: the Role of Russia in Areas of Interest

Tamundele Jean-Baptiste Ngey. Selective Diplomacy: a Guarantee of Development and Peace in Africa

Tsaritsyna P.M. Dynamics of Subjectivity of French Political Elites

STUDENT SCIENCE

Bi Yu, Cui Hanyu. Opportunities and Challenges of Sino-European Cooperation in Renewable Energy in the Context of the Crisis in Ukraine

Bondar D.D. The Problems of Legal Regulation of Transnational Corporations' Activity

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.001

M.A. MAYSTAT Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

G.A. GORYACHEV student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

THE CONFRONTATION OF MODERN AND POSTMODERN IDEOLOGIES IN MODERN POLITICS

Modern society is characterized by an information revolution with constant progress in the ideological field and a change in ideologies and traditional meanings. Globalization and the development of information technologies contribute to the transformation of society's values, postmodernist paradigms are replacing the ideology of modernity. At the same time, the heterogeneity of development and cultural differences of modern states lead to the parallel coexistence of heterogeneous ideologies in the world community, giving rise to their confrontation, which simultaneously serves their development. This article attempts to analyze the features of the manifestation and confrontation of the ideologies of modernity and postmodernity in the modern political and cultural space.

Key words: modernism, postmodernism, values, modern politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.019

K.Y. NOVIKOVA Postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

E-DEMOCRACY AS A NEW MODEL OF DEMOCRACY

The high level of development and dissemination of digital technologies is considered one of the main reasons for the transformation of public administration systems and political institutions. The ideal of modernity is becoming an open, transparent and interactive state that provides its citizens with ample opportunities for political participation and decision-making. These ideas acquire theoretical form in the concept of "electronic democracy", in which digital technologies are introduced into the public space, changing it. The author examines the structure of e-democracy, consisting of e-participation and e-government. If e-government is characterized by standardization and optimization in the provision of online services to citizens, then e-participation requires a large-scale modernization of the electoral system. The article emphasizes that the range of tools and mechanisms used by e-democracy is quite extensive and includes: digital platforms and services, electronic voting systems, virtual reception rooms and digital crowdsourcing. The author also highlights the main problems that modern countries can and do face when introducing digital technologies into the political process. Among them, the most common are: 1) financial problems; 2) digital inequality; 3) low level of digital competencies; 4) technological problems related to the security of confidential information; 5) alienation of certain categories of citizens from politics. In addition, the author suggests that the determining factors of success in the development of e-democracy are the type of political regime, the level of civic participation, the nature of social capital, economic efficiency and the general course of digitalization of the state. The article concludes that digital technologies actually have the necessary resources and capabilities to solve many socio-political problems of modern states. However, the consequences of such a transformation of the public political space can be very dangerous even for consolidated democracies. Therefore, the use of electronic technologies is possible, but requires additional consideration of possible risks.

Key words: e-democracy, the main problems of e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, digital tools.

POLITICAL HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.002

D.E. SLIZOVSKY Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Russian political scientist and political activist, Moscow, Russia

STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA: ON THE QUESTION ABOUT PREFERENCES AND TRENDS

The presented review is an attempt to analyze the problem of what is happening in historical research regarding the thematic preferences that dominate historical science today. The looming threats of a global scale over the future of humanity, the large-scale falsification of historical events and processes shock both the consciousness and reason of even high-level and quality historians. Don’t they know by purpose that there was a worse fear, which will no longer be. It is increasingly said about historical science that it is at a dead end. The subject of not only historical research, but also theirs, is not the dialectic of the past, present and future reality surrounding the historian and his life path, his meaning, but only the historian himself, his subjective existence, which sometimes lies on the other side of reason and logic. The analysis carried out, it seems to us, still allows us to see the dominant trend of “good news” in the thematic focus of historical research. The results of the analysis showed that today’s “newfangled” approaches, interpreted in terms of the “digital turn in historical research”, modernist or postmodernist interpretation of traditional and newly-minted values, have not found the level of popularity and recognition among domestic historians that is attributed to it, or which is pompously is declared as a progressive and effective style in the study. The complex issue of scientific thematic and semantic preferences in the situation of a turn in the fate of Russian civilization is shared by almost all historians. And therefore, historical researchers and history as an educational and educational practice are facing a turn towards rediscovering the meaning of conservatism, traditional national values of Russian civilization as true modernity and true progress.

Key words: history of Russia, national traditions, national values, historical research, review of current publications.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.003

R.S. SAVITSKY South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

PATRIOTISM AS A BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIZENSHIP IN RUSSIAN SOCIETY

Within the framework of this article, the analysis of the formation of patriotism and the culture of patriotism based on the features of the modern world order is carried out. The starting point in the formation of both patriotic consciousness among citizens and citizenship is ideology. The author conducted a study of basic concepts and moral frames in the ideology of nationalism and patriotism. The fundamental characteristic of a nation and "patria" is the presence of love and trust in one's fatherland and nation. In this context, the superframe refers to the relation of the subject to various concepts and occupies an important place in the hierarchy of the moral framework of nationalism.

Key words: patriotism, nation, citizenship, frames, ideology, morality, culture of patriotism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.004

N.N. SAMSONOVA Junior Researcher, Laboratory of Transdisciplinary Research of Cognition, Language and Social Practices, Faculty of Philosophy Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia

THE PHENOMENON OF CANCEL CULTURE THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE CONCEPT OF “HISTORICAL TRAUMA”

The article attempts to conceptualize the phenomenon of cancel culture as a part of collective memory and the process of oblivion using the concept of historical trauma as a forced change of collective identity leading to the necessity of the reconstruction of collective memory with the subsequent formation of a stable post-traumatic representation. The analysis made it possible to describe the mechanisms of the functioning of cancel culture as a factor of the disruption of collective memory algorithms. It is concluded that the phenomenon of cancel culture is associated with the mechanism of silence and memory repression that can lead to the emergence of the gaps in collective historical memory thus causing the emergence of quasi-representations of traumatic events and maladaptive social behavior of the traumatized community. It is noted that the format of cancel culture makes it difficult to build a post-traumatic narrative necessary to overcome the irrepresentability of traumatic experience.

Key words: cancel culture, collective memory, historical trauma, collective trauma.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.005

YA.S. BUDARIN Student, Institute of Public Service and Management, Russian Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

D.K. CHIRKOV Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Higher School of Business, Management and Law, Russian State University of Tourism and Service, Moscow, Russia

KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY – PRESENT AND PROSPECTED

The main feature of the ideology of the knowledge society should be the quintessence of a human researcher (conscious). A human researcher strives for knowledge not as an encyclopedist, but as a thoughtful analyst who understands the processes that may be behind information or be associated with it in the coordinates of space and time. He uses knowledge as efficiently as possible for the benefit of himself and society, at the same time understands and assumes full responsibility for his actions or inaction in certain circumstances. Such a person is characterized by harmony of the inner and outer world, as well as high demands on himself and others. He is aware of his purpose in society, his role in the world and is not subject to means of manipulation. Truth and morality are the main reference point of a human researcher. Family harmony and harmony with society and nature are important to him. Such a person is a reliable support of the state.

Key words: knowledge society, information society, the state of the future, ideology, UNESCO, human researcher.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.006

IU.V. GHERCIC Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE CONCEPT OF THE STATE IMAGE

This scientific article examines the theoretical and conceptual foundations of the concept of the image of the state. The term "image" is studied from the point of view of domestic and foreign researchers. The essential features of the phenomenon "image. The key components in the formation of the image of the state are identified. The author's concept of the image of the state has been formed.

Key words: image, state, term, policy, process.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.007

D.A. LENKOV Consultant of the Department of Interaction with Public Organizations of the Department of Physical Culture and Mass Sports of the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE PARTICIPATION OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN MODERN RUSSIA IN THE FORMATION OF A MENTAL SECURITY STRATEGY: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The article analyzes the political and social resources of the Russian state-civilization, which must be mobilized and attracted to protect national security, ensure the process of state-civilizational sovereignty. New structures of civil society represented by non-profit organizations and movements are indicated as a basic resource in the aspect of civil activity support for these processes. They are aimed at protecting and supporting society and the state during the period of its own and massive political and economic sanctions pressure from the West on Russia. They are focused on civic service and patriotism, and the enhancement of the public good. At the same time, the ideological, value-based basis of their actions are the priorities of mental security, focusing on the protection of the sovereignty of the state-civilization. The author points to analytical and research sources, including his own, which reveal the trends in the development of new structures of Russian civil society.

Key words: state-civilization, civil society, political innovations, non-profit organizations as a structure of civil society, mental security, patriotism, civil service.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.008

I.A. KOPYLOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia

NATIONAL DEFENSE AS A SCIENTIFIC CATEGORY AND OBJECT OF STATE POLICY IN THE FIELD OF ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

In the article, the author, based on an analysis of current strategic planning documents that define the national interests and strategic national priorities of the Russian Federation, the goals and objectives of state policy in the field of ensuring national security and sustainable development of the Russian Federation for the long term, and scientific works of Russian military theorists, clarifies the definitions “national defense”, “national defense management” and proposes new scientific categories “national defense of the Russian Federation” and “national defense management of the Russian Federation”.

Key words: interstate confrontation, national interests, strategic planning documents, state defense, civil defense, national defense of the Russian Federation, management of the national defense of the Russian Federation, systemic and functional-activity approach.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.009

D.A. TSOGOEV Postgraduate student of North Ossetian State University University named after K.L. Khetagurova, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia-Alania, Russia

MECHANISM FOR COUNTERING YOUTH EXTREMISM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF CONDUCTING ITS

The article attempts to investigate the evolution of youth extremism in modern Russia, after the start of a special military operation that is currently being conducted in Ukraine.

Key words: youth extremism, borders of youth extremism, special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.010

S.V. VYSHNEPOLSKY Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAM DOCUMENTS OF THE "GREEN PARTIES" OF RUSSIA, ASSESSMENT OF THEIR PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND WORK WITH VOTERS

The article highlights the importance of environmental issues in political agendas, especially in the context of the recent successes of the Green parties in Germany. The German Greens have demonstrated the ability to turn initial ideas into a long-term movement, which emphasises the growing public awareness of the importance of taking the environment into account for public well-being.

In addition, the article looks at the case of Austria, where the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) has turned its attention to climate issues after the absence of the Greens in parliament, and France, where many parties have begun to focus more on environmental issues in response to growing public pressure. This research provides a deeper understanding of how environmental issues are influencing electoral processes in Europe and how they are becoming increasingly important on the political agenda of these countries.

The study analyzed that there is an important correlation between economic stability, the quality of life of the population, competition among political parties and the positions of green parties. This relates to their effectiveness in promoting environmental stories and mobilizing voters. Green parties have achieved significant success in the European Union countries.

Key words: ecology, political parties, green parties, environmental activism, Green Party.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.011

O.A. ZAMYATIN Postgraduate student, G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Department of Political Analysis and Social-Psychological Processes, Moscow, Russia

MULTIPOLAR STATE OF THE WORLD POLITICAL SYSTEM AND ENERGY SOVEREIGNTY OF EU MEMBER STATES

The article discusses the concept of energy sovereignty in the context of the multipolar system of global politics and the increased use of energy resources as a tool of political pressure. The article focuses on the concept of energy sovereignty and its application in the European Union (EU), as well as the challenges and threats the EU faces in its energy policy. The article also examines the role of the United States in the energy sector and its impact on EU energy sovereignty. The role of the United States (US) as a net energy exporter has changed in recent years. Previously a major importer of oil and natural gas, the United States has now become a net exporter. The U.S. intends to continue to invest in shale oil and gas technologies, and global energy demand is expected to continue to grow, further increasing U.S. energy exports. Currently, the U.S. has rallied the Western collective against Russia, as manifested in sanctions, and has weakened the EU by forcing it to purchase more expensive liquefied natural gas (LNG) while it transitions to renewable energy sources. The article is that the EU has the potential to restore its energy sovereignty in the long term through a change in political leadership and increased integration, but also faces new threats in the form of increased competition from the US. However, increased US competition for the European energy market poses new threats to EU sovereignty. In addition, the weakening of the US as a global hegemon due to the weakening of the dollar may offer opportunities for the EU, but may also pose new challenges to its sovereignty.

Key words: EU energy policy, energy sovereignty, European Union, multipolarity, United States of America.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.012

T.A. IVLEVA Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SOCIO-CULTURAL DIMENSION OF THE PROBLEMS OF WOMEN LEADERSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIA

The article examines a set of issues related to the problem of the significance of gender models of female behavior in the approach to leadership. The author explores the main cultural and social factors of influence of the sociocultural environment of modern society on the formation of women's life strategy as a social phenomenon. The research methodology is based on systematic and comparative approaches, within which the phenomenon of female leadership is analyzed simultaneously both as an element of the current political process and as an issue raised in society within the framework of the discussion about gender roles. A historical analysis of the development of women's political role shows an evolution from the lack of mechanisms for women's access to the highest echelons of power to the transformation of political and family relationships, as well as patterns of behavior, which is reflected in the style of women's management and leadership at the present time. Changes occurring in gender roles under the influence of globalization and innovations of the information society are considered as the main sociocultural prerequisites for expanding opportunities for the development of women's leadership. The article also provides an analysis of the features of women's participation in government in modern Russia. The current socio-political situation and crises of recent years are taken into account. The prospects for the development of the institution of women's leadership are assessed in the context of possible benefits (such as, for example, reducing the level of corruption) for the state apparatus and society. As a result of the analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the modern world increasingly needs a combination of both “male” and “female” approaches to achieve the greatest success, and the compromise inherent in the decisions of women leaders contributes to the stabilization of the socio-political situation.

Key words: women's leadership, women's management, gender stereotypes in management, gender models of behavior, gender theories of leadership, female leader, emotional intelligence, female management style.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.013

LIU JIA Postgraduate student, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic Tatarstan, Russia

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INFORMATION PROJECTS IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS OF CHINA AND RUSSIA

The integration of digital technologies and information projects into countries' political processes has become a central theme in global discourse, with particular attention paid to countries such as China and Russia. As both countries use technology to shape their political landscapes, numerous issues and questions arise, necessitating a comprehensive investigation into the following key areas of concern: government surveillance and privacy issues, information control and censorship, cybersecurity threats and election integrity, technological nationalism and digital sovereignty, citizen participation and the digital divide, ethical considerations in artificial intelligence (AI) and automated decision making.

By addressing these problem areas, the study aims to provide a detailed understanding of the relationship between digital technologies, information projects, and political processes in China and Russia, contributing to broader discussions about the implications for governance, democracy, and global technology landscapes.

The purpose of the study is to analyze the role of new technologies in the political process of China and Russia. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to complete a number of tasks, namely, identifying forms of introduction of digital technologies and projects into the political process, attitudes of the population and the degree of its readiness for change, the role of political institutions. The main methods were the comparison method and the statistical method.

While China and Russia show similarities in their use of digital technologies for government control, information dissemination, and electoral processes, there are nuanced differences. China's pervasive surveillance and tight controls on information are significantly shaping its political landscape. In contrast, Russia maintains a more diversified media landscape but still exercises significant control over digital platforms and faces similar challenges to freedom of expression and activism. The relationship between technological progress and political control is different, but both countries demonstrate a complex relationship between digital technologies and their respective political processes.

Key words: digital technologies, information projects, political process, artificial intelligence, Chinese policy, Russian policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.014

NGUYEN THI ANH PhD student of the Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION FOR EQUALITY POLICY AMONG ETHNICS IN VIETNAM

In today's world context, the existence and development of the policy communication system is identified as an important means in the entire policy cycle. Because it not only ensures that people are fully and accurately informed about what happened, but also supports social monitoring efforts on the policy implementation of public authorities. Based on an overview of some basic theoretical contents of policy communication, the article presents the role of policy communication in equality policy among ethnic groups in Vietnam and proposes some solutions to Improve the effectiveness of policy communication.

Key words: political communication, ethnic equality, Vietnam.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.015

T.A. VASILYEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Political Science Department, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.A. VOLZHANIN Student of the Political Science Department, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.S. DUBKOV Student of the Political Science Department, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PECULIARITIES OF USING SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A TOOL OF POLITICAL MOBILIZATION IN MODERN RUSSIA: PROBLEMS OF INCREASING EFFECTIVENESS

In the modern information society, social networks occupy an important place in political life, representing a powerful tool of the political mobilization. They have several unique features, such as the speed of information dissemination, the possibility of creating communities and organizations, attractiveness for young people, anonymity and the possibility of creating virtual protests. All these features make social media one of the most effective tools for political mobilization.

The study covers a variety of actors of political mobilization, including political parties, civic organizations, trade unions, religious organizations, and individual citizens. These actors can actively use social media to achieve their political goals.

Real-world examples, such as the mass protests of 2011-2012 and the anti-corruption rallies of 2017, emphasize the importance of social media as a means of organizing and coordinating political events. The paper also examines the amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation in 2020, which used various methods of online political mobilization such as online advertising, social videos and influential personalities.

The study emphasizes that the success of online political mobilization depends on the situation and campaign objectives, and the effectiveness of the methods can vary. However, social media provides many tools and strategies that can be employed to influence public opinion and mobilize citizens.

The study concludes that social media is indeed a powerful tool for political mobilization and promotes a variety of methods to influence public consciousness and political participation.

Key words: social networks, political mobilization, Internet technologies, network political mobilization, subjects of political mobilization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.016

GUO ZHIREN Graduate student, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

APPLICATION OF “NEW” MEDIA: FROM WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE

An increasing number of people are accessing the Internet not only to gain political knowledge, but also to interact within the Web 2.0 political community. It is currently unclear who is using the Internet for “cyberparticipation” as an interactive tool rather than as a modernization of traditional participation. Moreover, there is little information about the impact of this cyberpolitical participation on turnout. This study aims to identify the characteristics of people who use online social networks to participate in cyberspace as a first step to determine whether the Web 2.0 environment is eroding traditional barriers to political participation. Moreover, it demonstrates that participation in cyberspace is a unique form of political participation that is significantly related to voter turnout.

Key words: information space, media, politics, state, social networks.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.017

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor. Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

M.L. TIKHONOV Doctor of Military Sciences Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

A.S. NEMCHANINOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, doctoral student Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA'S TECHNOLOGICAL SOVEREIGNTY AS A MODEL OF CATCH-UP DEVELOPMENT? THE MILITARY-POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

In the proposed article, the authors addressed an urgent problem – ensuring the technological sovereignty of Russia, which is considered in the geo-political plane, having acquired strategic importance for the country. The issue of technological independence and security is becoming fundamental for both Russia and the main players in world politics. This statement requires a more rigorous study of this concept. At the same time, the authors try to approach the problem from the perspective of analyzing the theory of catching-up development of Friedrich List, as the founder of this concept. The authors conclude that it is impossible to ensure technological independence from Western platform suppliers, including the military sphere. At the same time, this problem does not have a simple solution, especially in the conditions of the country's political leadership conducting its own and ensuring the security of the state. The conduct of a special military operation confirmed that it is necessary to solve emerging problems in the process of catching up.

Key words: technology platform, technological sovereignty, Russia, platform of platforms, theory of catch-up development.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.018

A.L. MARUKHLENKO Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Information Security Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

A.V. CHESHIN Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management, Orsk Humanitarian-Technological Institute (branch) of Orenburg State University, Orsk, Russia

S.S. ALEEVA Senior Lecturer Department of Civil Law and Public Law Disciplines Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)», Russia, Moscow

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Scientific Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations of the ANO VO “University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

I.A. BIRYUKOV Student of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

INFORMATION SECURITY POLICY IN DIGITAL HEALTH: ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

Introduction: the article examines the main aspects of information security policy in digital health through the prism of the implementation of the organizational and legal mechanism. The team of authors notes the presence of a number of problematic aspects in the digital space of the domestic healthcare system, focused on the protection of personal data and the security of the information circuit from unauthorized influence. The functioning of the digital ecosystem of a medical institution is associated with a set of risks for the patient, which can be expressed in the form of loss of personal data, unauthorized access to test and diagnostic results, as well as misuse of treatment methods. The key task of a medical institution in this aspect is to mitigate the noted potential risks by ensuring that the digital ecosystem is inaccessible to outside interference and other information leaks. The identified issues require improving the mechanism of legislative regulation, which should be maximally correlated with evolutionary processes in the digital environment, as well as expanding the potential of the sectoral organizational system of administrative regulation of data storage.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to consider certain aspects of information security policy in the digital health space. The objectives of the study are as follows:

– substantiate key aspects of the relevance of strengthening information security in the digital healthcare space, taking into account the need to eliminate objectively existing problems;

– present the basic elements of the regulatory field governing information security processes in healthcare;

– conduct an analysis of the litmus indicators of cybersecurity in the domestic healthcare system.

Research results: the team of authors specified the main problems of information security in the use of information and communication technologies and artificial intelligence in digital health based on a study of existing law enforcement practice, diagnostics of panel statistical data and content analysis of the publishing digital space.

Key words: information security, digital health, telemedicine, digital transformation, personal data protection.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.019

A.S. SOLOMIN Graduate student, Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, Moscow, Russia

SANCTIONS AS A POLITICAL INSTRUMENT: ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENON OF SANCTIONS FROM THE POINT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

In this material, the author examines the phenomenon of sanctions from the point of view of international relations and various theories of international relations. First of all, the role of sanctions as a political instrument is demonstrated, as well as the construction of the idea of sanctions by political actors – mainly the state. The purpose of the article is to determine the phenomenon of sanctions, their role in the international political process and the impact on the economy and development of the country that is under sanctions. The subject of the study is numerous cases of imposing sanctions against some states in order to change their policies. The result of the work is a set of recommendations for public policy in sanctioned countries, based on a qualitative analysis of historical cases of sanctions and their consequences.

Key words: sanctions, political instrument, state, economy, international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.021

A.I. GUROV Marketing director Limited Liability Companies “WARMER”, Moscow, Russia

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE INTRODUCTION OF DIGITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, MODERN PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING TECHNIQUES

Modern society is characterized by a fairly rapid development dynamics. The functioning of society, the development of science, digital technologies – all this has a significant impact on the development of various spheres of life, including public administration. That is why it is necessary to analyze the impact of digital technologies on public administration, as well as the effectiveness of planning and decision-making in management activities.

The work reflects the specifics of the introduction of digital systems at various levels of public administration, and the author also attempts to identify the effectiveness of such activities in the implementation of methods of planned, projective and managerial activities in public administration.

In this regard, the purpose of this work is to study the relationship between the effectiveness of public administration and the introduction of digital management systems, modern planning and decision-making techniques. The object of the work is to concretize the introduction of digital systems into the process of public administration, the subject is the relationship between digital systems and the effectiveness of planning and decision-making in public administration.

Key words: public administration, digital management systems, artificial intelligence, long-term planning methodology, digital management, digital platform, management optimization, digital actor, digital transformation, regional policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.020

А.А. NUR Master of the Department of Public and Municipal Administration, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

A.V. NOVIKOVA Senior lecturer of part-time education, Economist, Laboratory of Sociological and Focus Group Research, Department of Sociology, (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF STATE POLICY IN THE FIELD OF HEALTH. HEALTH ISSUES IN THE ZELENOGRAD ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT MOSCOW AND SEARCHING FOR WAYS TO SOLUTION THEM

The article discusses some aspects of Russian state policy in the field of healthcare, issues of implementing healthcare standards, and, based on the identified problems, proposes measures to improve the quality of healthcare in the Zelenograd Administrative District of Moscow.

Key words: state policy in the field of healthcare, Zelenograd Administrative District of Moscow, standards of medical care, healthcare problems.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.022

N.YU. TORIK Applicant for the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

INSTITUTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AS AN ELEMENT OF THE STATE INNOVATION POLICY

The presented study is devoted to the question of the structure of mnemonic actors in the modern space of memory and their role in the formation of negative ideas about terrorism through the formation of a corresponding image of the past. The author constructs a universal model of memorial actors, suitable for use within any socio-political system, regardless of the local context of “memory wars”. The interaction of mnemonic actors with interest groups is traced. It is concluded that the presence of many mnemonic actors naturally determines the specifics of the implementation of policies in the field of countering terrorism through memorialization. The construction of a negative image of terrorism in a historical context cannot be carried out solely through the direct efforts of the state. Institutions of public power must also mobilize other mnemonic actors and the interest groups behind them, as well as coordinate their activities and, if necessary, provide resource support. The latter will not only ensure compliance with the principle of totality within the framework of promoting the anti-terrorist narrative, but will also allow us to significantly diversify its structure, adapting the content to the specific perception of specific groups of the target audience.

Key words: innovation policy, scientific and technical policy, development institutions, efficiency.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.023

A.A. FROLOV PhD student, Department of state politics, Faculty of political science, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-INDUSTRY TOWNS OF RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS

The development of the territories of the Russian Federation, the disclosure of the potential of human capital and the provision of decent living conditions for the population of the country are particularly relevant goals of state policy in the context of economic restrictions. Single-industry towns are particularly sensitive to the scientific validity and compliance of the applied measures with country characteristics, the positive and negative effects of their implementation are not always noticeable even in the medium term. The purpose of our work is to identify the most effective ways to solve the problems of socio-economic development of single-industry towns, taking into account the effect of economic sanctions imposed on Russia and the world experience in overcoming similar problems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to implement the following tasks: 1. To analyze the specifics of the impact of economic sanctions in 2022-2023 on the municipal level of territorial administration; 2. To assess the effectiveness of the system of budgetary federalism in Russia in the context of solving the problems of single-industry towns; 3. To identify potentially effective measures to solve the problem of single-industry in foreign federative states, taking into account their possible applicability in Russian realities. The methods of our research are: historical analysis, comparative analysis, statistical analysis, structural and functional analysis. The results of our study include conclusions on the nature of the impact of short- and long-term effects of economic sanctions on the development of Russian single-industry towns, proposals for the development of measures that can have an effective impact on overcoming the problem of single-industry, taking into account the state of the system of center-regional relations in Russia and experience with similar cases in foreign federative states.

Key words: state policy, economic sanctions, regional policy, social policy, single-industry towns.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.024

A.V. LOMTEV Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

SAJJAD ZERAAT PEYMA Associate Professor at the Department of Engineering and Construction Technology of Peoples’Friendship University of Russia, Tegeran, Iran

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, ex-Deputy Minister of Russia for Cooperation with CIS States, Moscow, Russia

THE POTENTIAL OF CUBA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES OF THE MODERN WORLD ORDER

The devaluation of socialism caused by the collapse of the USSR and the paradigm shift in world politics and economics led to serious cyclical changes both in the ideologies themselves and in socialist/communist regimes. We are currently witnessing a new stage in world history in the transformation of the world order. Against the background of the preservation of the socialist regime, the Cuban economy has been severely affected by the economic consequences of the response to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19 pandemic), the reduction of support from Venezuela and the strengthening of US economic sanctions. The authors analyze the prospects for the development of Cuba's socialist system in the context of global transformations, assessing the stability of Cuban reforms and opportunities for advancing goals and projects.

Key words: world politics, world order, bipolar system, unipolar system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.025

M.R. ALIEV Post-graduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL INTERESTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

While the system of international relations is getting changed by moving towards multipolar entity, the issue of homogeneity of allies’ foreign policies is being stressed. The Russian and Belarussian states are political, economic and cultural allies. To identify the further development of the Union State, it is crucial to investigate and compare their official doctrines.

Key words: national interests, national security, national values, world order, the Union State.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.026

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher in the Sector of Philosophy of Law, Theory and History of State and Law of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

I.YU. SOMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

A.P. AULOV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

I.V. KNYAZKOV Master's student of the direction of foreign regional studies University of world civilizations named after V.W. Zhirinovsky, Moscow, Russia

FRANCE AND THE WEST AFRICAN CHORD: THE REBELLION OF THE LOST TERRITORIES OR THE BURDENSOME LEGACY OF «FRANCAFRICA»

The article examines the current foreign policy situation in West Africa. It is noted that a significant part of this region consists of former French colonies, which attract the attention of all major powers and military-political institutions of the world. This is primarily due to the new round of the liberation movement in the countries of the region, which are multifaceted and can no longer be described within the paradigm of the liberation movements of the Cold War period. Among the factors that give importance to the situation in West Africa, the authors identify the following: the growing complexity of the region in the context of demographic, military-political, climatic and economic challenges that the states of the studied region are forced to face; the intensification of the struggle between the world centers of power for control over strategically important resources, primarily uranium and bauxite, located in the depths of the studied region; deterioration of the internal security situation in West Africa due to the spread of Islamic extremist movements in these countries. The article emphasizes that at the moment the policy of France, other powers and blocs is actively changing in relation to this dynamic and turbulent region, and also gives a preliminary answer to the question of how current trends may affect the policy of the Fifth Republic and the international relations of the countries of the region. A large place in the work is occupied by the consideration of the influence of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China on the ECOWAS countries and analyzes different views on the problems in the region and possible ways to solve them.

Key words: French Africa (Franzafrica), ECOWAS, Operation Serval, Operation Barkhane, Sahel Zone, Boko Haram, Operation Corimbe, G5 Sahel.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.027

A.A. ZORKIN Postgraduate student of the Department of National History of the Leningrad State University named after Pushkin, Nikolskoye, Russia

THE AFGHAN WAR IN THE WORKS OF SOVIET JOURNALISTS AND CORRESPONDENTS

During the events of 1979-1989, the press, represented by journalists and correspondents, had the most complete information. On the one hand, they had to risk their lives, along with the military, to see the real picture of what was happening not only in Afghanistan, but also in other countries. And we saw how the civilian population, who were poorly informed about what was happening on the southern borders of the USSR, really treated everything. Some of them wrote articles, short stories, essays, according to the official version of the state or slightly deviating from it, some began to write after the war or during Perestroika.

Key words: Afghanistan, correspondent, journalist, story, work.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.028

A.N. KHVASTOV Adjunct of the Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FACTORS AND CONDITIONS THAT DETERMINED THE NEED TO CONDUCT POLITICAL WORK AMONG GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR

The article is devoted to the study of factors and conditions that led to the conduct of political work among German prisoners of war. The main directions of the study of political work with prisoners of war during the Great Patriotic War and after its end in modern military-historical research are defined. The author came to the conclusion that the political work with German prisoners of war on the territory of the USSR in 1941-1956 was determined mainly by two interrelated groups of factors: military-economic and political-ideological.

The author focuses on the peculiarities of political work with German prisoners of war in connection with the situation on the Soviet-German front, foreign policy situation, material and living conditions of their detention in prisoner-of-war camps.

Key words: Political work among prisoners of war, German prisoners of war, political work among prisoners of war, All-Russian Bureau of Prisoners, UPVI/GUPVI of the NKVD/Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.029

G.A. AKOPYAN Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE FIGHT AGAINST INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

Currently, terrorism remains one of the main threats to international security. This necessitates the development of effective strategies to curb it. This work explores various areas and strategies for combating terrorism at the global and local levels, analyzes their advantages and disadvantages.

The process of globalization has opened up new opportunities for the development of terrorist activities. The opening of national borders, massive population and labor movements, the development of new information technologies, and the creation of a global economy allowed terrorists to achieve success in their own development.

The work of international organizations in the fight against terrorism is characterized. The United Nations and its specialized units involved in the suppression of terrorist activities are presented as suitable platforms for coordinating joint actions of the participating countries in this area.

At the level of individual States, the key stages of the formation of a strategy to combat terrorism have been identified. The main functions of the activities of law enforcement agencies of the world's states in the field of ensuring state security are described.

Key words: anti-terrorist activities, counter-terrorism strategy, international organizations, sovereign states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.031

A.U. LEON Postgraduate student of political science and regional studies, Samara National Research University named after academician S.P. Koroleva, Samara, Russia

POLITICAL REGIMS AND INSTITUTIONS OF POWER OF POST-COLONIAL AFRICAN STATES FROM 1900'S TO 1960'S

In this article we will talk about the governance of African states in its political diversity. The African continent as a whole was a completely broken state, torn and divided by concerns emanating from the West for a very specific reason – the division of African states to the detriment of democratization in the 1960s and, during this period, a very specific goal: the means of exercising power. This division consists, on the one hand, in the establishment of Western power as a result of colonial rule, in taking stock of the contexts in which democratization attempts were made in the 1960s as ways of organizing state power. We will first analyze the various options based on sources provided by other authors. We will then attempt to identify the main characteristics of post-colonial African regimes.

Key words: transformation of political power, political regimes of post-colonial states, political problems of African states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.032

LU PO LIN Graduate student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF CONSEQUENCES PROFESSIONAL IMMIGRATION POLICIES OF TAIWAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES

Taiwan's high-tech industry and information industry (or IT industry) have been booming in recent years. Discussions about professional immigration often focus on high-tech and IT talent, with the assumption that all countries are seeking these talents. However, these talents suffered from decreased demand and even unemployment following the Internet bubble in 2001, the financial crisis after 2008, and the pandemic in 2020. As a result, the share of Taiwanese immigrants with professional talent has changed. Therefore, this article is inclusive of all professionals and takes into account persistent or at least long-term immigration issues.

Key words: professional immigration, immigration policy, short-term residence, permanent residence, highly skilled immigration, immigration, Taiwan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.033

F.A. PETROSYAN Postgraduate student of the Department of International Security and foreign policy activities of Russia Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

ARCTIC STRATEGIES FOR REGIONAL AND NON-REGIONAL ACTORS: THE ROLE OF RUSSIA IN AREAS OF INTEREST

The topic of the article seems highly relevant, since it directly concerns Russia’s national interests in the Arctic region. The Arctic direction of foreign policy is of strategic importance for Russia, however, in the current conditions of geopolitical turbulence, it is of particular importance to take into account the latest changes in the strategic course of other interested states. The methodological basis of the article was quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis. Two hypotheses were put forward – regarding the frequency of references to Russia in the Arctic strategies of foreign states, as well as the semantic load of such references. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that geographic proximity to Russia and the presence of a common border with it do not have a direct correlation with the more frequent mention of Russia in the strategies of these states. The hypothesis was confirmed that the new strategies adopted after the start of the special military operation were more focused on the military-political confrontation with Russia. The results of this study can be useful both to researchers of the northern direction of Russian foreign policy, and to the authorities responsible for the conduct of foreign policy of the Russian Federation.

Key words: Arctic, Arctic states, non-Arctic actors, strategies, content analysis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.030

TAMUNDELE JEAN-BAPTISTE NGEY Doctoral student in international relations, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

SELECTIVE DIPLOMACY: A GUARANTEE OF DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE IN AFRICA

Peace diplomacy is a function of selective diplomacy. The problems of development and peace are both endogenous and exogenous in origin. It has to be said that Africa, the continent most capable of talking even with its worst enemy, capable of dialogue, capable of diplomacy, is a victim of the choice of its partners. This is why Africa, as a continent torn apart by various armed conflicts, increased poverty, famine, migratory flows, inflation, galloping demographics, armed conflicts, inter-ethnic wars, coups d'état, revolts of the middle class, corruption and bad governance are all evils that gnaw at it, and African diplomats should selectively examine their allies with predefined criteria. So let us develop and commit ourselves to selective diplomacy, the aim of which is to promote quality discernment in the choice of partner states and banish the neo-colonialist system.

Key words: selective diplomacy, Africa, development, peace.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.034

P.M. TSARITSYNA Graduate student, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

DYNAMICS OF SUBJECTIVITY OF FRENCH POLITICAL ELITES

The purpose of this article is to identify the stages of the formation of the subjectivity of the French elites, the formation of their project subjectivity, the problems of national subjectivity and its sustainability. In the first section, the author explores the critical stages of French history in order to understand the origins of the subjectivity of the ruling circles of France. The national political subjectivity of the French elites is determined by the pre-subjective stage of Roman antiquity and subsequent Catholic Christianization. In the second part of the article, the author refers to the legacy of the national French political science school, whose representatives saw citizenship, patriotism, secular humanism, nonconformism, republican radicalism, and thirst for the greatness of France as important properties of the subjectivity of the French. The final part examines the foreign policy problems and challenges that France has faced since the end of the 19th century to the present day, and how these difficulties and achievements affect the subjective status of its political elites.

Key words: ruling elites, subjectivity, dynamics of subjectivity, type of subjectivity, French citizenship, mental and dogmatic foundations, mentalization, political and psychological properties, subjective status, messianism, soft power, global political space, sovereignty, political science, France.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.035

BI YU Master's degree, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

CUI HANYU Master's degree, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF SINO-EUROPEAN COOPERATION IN RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CRISIS IN UKRAINE

On February 24, 2022, the Ukrainian crisis erupted when Russia launched a military operation against Ukraine. As a result of the military conflict between the two sides and the regional situation, Europe's energy supply has been strained and energy prices have risen sharply. In order to cope with the dual challenges of energy security and market stability, European countries are seeking alternatives in the short term, further accelerating the pace of renewable energy development in the medium and long term, and seeking to get rid of their energy dependence on Russia as early as possible. Based on the current policy, market and development trend of renewable energy development in Europe, the opportunities and challenges facing Sino-European renewable energy cooperation are analyzed, and corresponding countermeasures and recommendations are put forward. The study shows that China has a high probability of taking over Russia's energy market share in Europe, relying on multilateral energy cooperation mechanisms, strengthening communication, and utilizing the complementary advantages of market, technology, and industry to promote pragmatic cooperation, while consolidating and developing China-EU partnership to promote China's green low-carbon energy transformation and high-quality development.

Key words: China, Europe, Ukrainian crisis, energy cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.100.12.036

D.D. BONDAR Master in the field of study International Relations, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS' ACTIVITY

The transnational corporations (TNCs) currently play a significant role in the global economy; transnational corporations have significant resources, control over certain areas of the market, and to some extent even have political influence. Since transnational corporations operate all around the world, there are a lot of problems in the legal regulation of their activity caused by the insufficiency of international law, their legal personality not fully defined and numerous differences in national legislation. The aim of the study is to identify, systematize and analyze these problems. The study analyzes the main criteria for identifying TNCs, existing international agreements and Russian law governing their activity. Based on the results, the main problems of the legal regulation of TNCs are identified. These problems are associated with the lack of a specific legal definition of TNCs, with the international nature of their activity, which complicates their prosecution for offenses, with the absence of the obligation of TNCs to bear the social responsibility of business in host countries, with the inconsistency of the universal products produced and services provided with the legislation of the host country. The practice of using various instruments for TNC regulation in Russia and abroad is considered; the development of a separate legal act dedicated to the regulation of the TNC activity in Russia is proposed. Such act is aimed to reflect the concept of a transnational corporation, the features of registration, conduct and liquidation of the business of TNCs in the Russian Federation, the obligation to ensure compliance products produced and services provided to Russian legislation, social responsibility of TNCs, and measures to bring them to justice for offenses.

Key words: transnational corporations, international legislation, foreign investment, legal regulation.

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 13, Issue 10-1 (98-1), 2023

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Krutov A.V. Modernization of Classical Political Science Theories Through a Combination of Different Methodological Approaches (by the Example of the Description of the Functions of the Political System)

Leskova I.V. Origins and Causes of Political Populism

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Sviridenko E.A. A Symphony of the State and the Church in the Eyes the Josephlanes and the Non-Covenants

Ashcheulov O.E. On the Question of Soviet Assistance to China in the War Against Japan (1943-1945)

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Brodskaya N.P. Large Language Models: Generative AI Models as a Tool of Influence in the Social Space of Modern Society

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Popov S.I., Grishin O.E., Nesterchuk O.A. Trends in the Transformation of Tools for Holding Elections to State Authorities and Local Self-Government

Bigulov S.A. Comparative Analysis of the Parliament of the Republic of Albania and the Regional Parliaments of Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom

Wang Xiaoqun, Konkov A.E. Problems of Implementation of Development Projects within the Framework of the Cultural Policy of the State

Privalov V.A. Ethno-Cultural Backgrounds for Genesis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Morozov D.A. Interrelation of Geopolitics and Geo-Economics in the Modern World: Features of Scientific Discourse

Stolyarova A.N., Glebova I.A., Khairulina T.P., Knyazeva O.V., Novoselsky S.O. Environmental Policy in Socially Responsible Behavior of Corporations

Gryadunov Yu.Yu. The Regulatory Framework of the State Policy for the Protection of Traditional Values

Ksenofontova K.M., Fadeeva N.V., Ignatova M.N., Novoselsky S.O., Zolkin A.L. Policy for Managing Youth Entrepreneurship as an Instrument for Economic Transformation

Ksenofontova K.M., Chunikhina A.A., Danilov M.V., Ponomarev E.E., Novoselsky S.O. Economic Assessment of the Policy of Socially Responsible Behavior of Corporations

Kovalchuk A.G. Development of State-Civil Interaction in Modern Russia: Federal and Regional Programs

Goncharova N.V., Ignatova M.N., Novoselsky S.O., Biryukov I.A., Panova A.I. Foreign Experience in Implementing the Policy of Digitalization of Healthcare: Economic Assessment of the World Telemedicine Market

Poyarkov R.A. The Use of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in the Digital Transformation of Public Service

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Linkova E.V., Kryazheva-Kartseva E.V., Georgieva N.G., Zverev V.V., Chernikova T.V. The Image of Latin America in the Russian Political Thought of the XIX Century: Features and Evolution

Abramov V.L. Countermeasures by Iran and Venezuela to Overcome Long-Term Sanctions Limitations

Agonnoude Bidoley Vianney Freddy. Digital Transformation During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Experiences from Sub-Saharan Africa

Pisarenko S.S. The Expanding of US Military Presence in the Indo-Pacific

Spasov A.A. The US Military-Political Operation on the Balkan Track as a Threat to Russian-Serbian Interstate Relations

Davydov S.D. US Information Policy in Southeast Asia in the Mid-2010s to the First Half of the 2020s.

Kopylov I.A. Management of National Defense in the Public Administration System of the Russian Federation

Lu Wanqing, Xu Mengzhu. Formation and Development of a New Eurasia

Tushkov A.A., Maximova T.D. International Aspects in the Study of Legitimation and Positioning Socio-Political Structures of Modern China

Khasanova K.E. Countering Global Increase in Drug Use Through the Prism of J. Law’s Social Topology

Shen Lihua, Du Yilin, Suo Lingfeng. Moldova’s Foreign Policy Vectors Against the Backdrop of the Russian Special Military Operation

Poturukhin V.D. Prospects of Globalization and Globalism in International Relations

STUDENT SCIENCE

Rogova Ya.D., Tokareva S.A., Kostina A.D. Unilateral Restrictive Measures: Concept, Types and Specifics

Zhang Zhan. Soft Power and the Status Quo of China's Soft Power

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.001

A.V. KRUTOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia

MODERNIZATION OF CLASSICAL POLITICAL SCIENCE THEORIES THROUGH A COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES (BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM)

In the modern world, it has become increasingly difficult to describe political events using previous methods and approaches. The isolation of doctrines and methodologies in political science leads to its crisis. The article puts forward a hypothesis about the possibility of describing unpredictable political phenomena by combining different approaches without their conflict. The functions of the political system developed in the middle of the XX century by G. Almond and others are considered with the help of A. Badiou's modern event theory and methods of nonlinear dynamics. The purpose of the article is to modernize the concept of the political system, using a methodological synthesis that reveals the cognitive possibilities of combining different approaches in describing an event. Politics (according to Badiou) is the subject's actions on the way to a singular event from a situation with uncertainty. The stages of such development (pre-political situation, the beginning of the formation of the subject, procedure and event) associated with Almond's functions for the political system are revealed. Their new content is shown for two groups: the "internal state" (socialization, recruitment, communication) and the main ones (articulation, aggregation, course development, adjudication). In the course of the study, a theoretical and methodological analysis was carried out, a systematic approach and set theory were applied, the role of the subject was designated. By necessity, Badiou's terms are used in his dialectical ontology. Works by J.-M. Denquin, J. Rancière and other foreign and Russian researchers. The practical significance of combining methodologies is noted, and the "Navalny phenomenon" is used as its illustration. At the end, conclusions are drawn about the expansion of the boundaries of methodologies and process management tools, which improves the quality of event forecasting.

Key words: G. Almond, A. Badiou, methodology, situation, event, functions, system, process, nonlinear dynamics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.002

I.V. LESKOVA Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Candidate of Political Sciences, professor, head Department of Political Science and Applied political work of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

ORIGINS AND CAUSES OF POLITICAL POPULISM

In the article, the authors analyze the problems of political populism, economic, social and cultural causes of populism. The relevance of the topic under consideration is due to the need to consider populism, left and/or right-wing populism in a comprehensive perspective, both in the general theoretical spectrum of research tasks, and at specific levels of certain incidents.

The goal is to analyze the causes and origins of the demand for political populism, to formulate the existing trends of populism as a political phenomenon.

The research methods were general scientific methods, including the logical-intuitive approach to the study of populism, the method of comparative analysis that allows you to compare the signs and foundations of the concepts of populism and existing political cultures.

The scientific novelty of the study lies in the formulation of the causes and origins of political populism, the signs of populism and the relationship between legal populism of the parties of the EU countries and Euroscepticism.

Conclusions. The article states that the reasons for the growth of political populism is the disappointment of citizens with the socio-economic policy pursued by the state, which results in a decrease in trust in the authorities. The article presents the results of sociological research in the EU countries, which state the growing trend of political populism, the growth of the political proposal of right-wing parties in European countries. Populism researchers write about the paradoxes of the category of populism, since, on the one hand, populism acts as a direct manifestation of democracy and the political participation of citizens, on the one hand, on the other hand, populism can have a destructive effect on democratic institutions and processes.

In the article, the authors conclude that populism is gaining a trend of being in demand by society, in conditions when existing political parties cannot offer voters clear alternatives on important issues that concern society, coalitions are formed that blur the differences between parties, which contributes to the demand for populism.

Key words: populism, politics, political parties, coalitions, public sphere.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.003

E.A. SVIRIDENKO M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy of Politics and Law, Moscow, Russia

A SYMPHONY OF THE STATE AND THE CHURCH IN THE EYES THE JOSEPHLANES AND THE NON-COVENANTS

The work is devoted to the study of the views of two church groups within the Russian Church in the XV-XVI centuries on the relationship between church and state and the permissible limits of mutual penetration into each other's spheres. The purpose of the article is to clarify the differences in the views of the Josephites and non-possessors and their ideological struggle with each other at the throne of sovereigns for the primacy of their spiritual and political concepts. Spiritual messages to monks and secular rulers, as well as numerous "Messages" and "Hagiographyes" were taken as historical sources. The main research methods were the comparative-historical method and the cause-effect analysis of relationships between historical events. It can be stated that the leader of the Josephites, Joseph Volotsky, and the leader of the non-possessors, Nil Sorsky, looked at the tasks of the Church itself differently, and from this came disputes about allowable contacts with the secular world. Nil Sorsky represented the Church as a gathering of those who have renounced this world, and they should not have strong contacts with the outside world. Joseph considered the symphony and spiritual guidance of the Church over the sovereign, and the figure of the Sovereign as the defender of Orthodoxy, the best option for the development of the state. Also, Western researchers consider the struggle of the Josephites and non-possessors one of the first stages of the struggle between liberalism and conservatism.

Key words: sovereign, royal power, political philosophy, history, politics, religion, Josephites, non-possessors, Joseph Volotsky, Nil Sorsky.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.004

O.E. ASHCHEULOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Economic Theory of the State Fire Service Academy of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF SOVIET ASSISTANCE TO CHINA IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN (1943-1945)

The article deals with the actual problem of cooperation in the framework of assistance to China by the Soviet Union in the fight against a common enemy – Japan, during the Second World War. After all, the study of Soviet-Chinese relations is of great importance for understanding modern international relations in Asia and the world as a whole. The purpose of the article is to summarize historical material on the issue of mutual assistance of the USSR and China during the war against Japan for the period from 1943 to 1945, as well as to understand exactly what factors and to what extent hindered the cooperation of the USSR and the Republic of China in the joint counteraction of Japanese aggression in the Far Eastern region. The choice of the research object is due to its relevance and insufficient knowledge of the interaction of the two great powers during the Japanese aggression and World War II from the point of view of diplomatic relations. The methodology of the article is based on general scientific methods of cognition common to the humanities and other sciences, as well as special scientific principles (historicism, objectivity, consistency). In conclusion, the author of the article came to the following conclusions: the stages of assistance were carried out within three stages. The first stage – 1932-1937 – is a period of establishing ties between the countries, as well as restoring previously severed diplomatic relations; the second – 1937-1941 – is a period of active assistance to the PRC from the USSR; The third is 1943-1945, characterized by the fact that countries are preparing for the entry of the USSR into the war with Japan.

Key words: history, Soviet Union, Japanese aggression, World War II, Republic of China, foreign policy, diplomacy, Asia.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.005

N.P. BRODSKAYA Cand. Of Science (Politics), Senior Researcher, Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

LARGE LANGUAGE MODELS: GENERATIVE AI MODELS AS A TOOL OF INFLUENCE IN THE SOCIAL SPACE OF MODERN SOCIETY

Nowadays, the development of AI technologies based on the principles of machine learning has led to serious changes in many areas of public life. At the same time, generative models of artificial intelligence, large language models, are one of the most innovative technologies of recent years. The study examines the current problems of the use of generative AI in the modern social space and the possible risks of its adaptation to the realities of the modern world. Particular attention is paid to the impact of AI technologies on the spread of disinformation and manipulation of public opinion.

Key words: artificial intelligence, AI technologies, generative technologies, large language models, ChatGPT.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.006

S.I. POPOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

O.E. GRISHIN Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

O.A. NESTERCHUK Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia; Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management of the Institute of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

TRENDS IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF TOOLS FOR HOLDING ELECTIONS TO STATE AUTHORITIES AND LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

The article analyzes the developing trends in modifying the means and methods of holding elections to state authorities and local self-government. Progress in the development of electoral technologies in the context of the emergence of technical innovations has been demonstrated. The debatable problem field that arises when implementing new technologies in election campaigns is outlined. The vectors for further development of remote electronic voting technologies are shown.

Key words: elections, public authorities, local government, electoral technologies, electoral process, election campaigns, remote electronic voting.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.007

S.A. BIGULOV Postgraduate Junior research fellow at SOIGSI of the Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of RAS, Vladikavkaz, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA AND THE REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS OF GERMANY, CANADA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM

The Parliament of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is not a unique unit of regional policy formation either in the Russian Federation or in world practice. The opportunity to look at regional parliaments in other states allows us to identify similarities and differences in the system of public power in the regions. Such an analysis makes it possible to assess the current practice of the functioning of regional parliaments in various foreign countries and to consider potential ways of further development of the Parliament of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. For such a comparison, we selected Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most developed and richest federations in the world. RAI (Regional Authority Index) Germany is also one of the highest in the world. Canada is the second largest federal state after the Russian Federation. Even under the formal authority of the British Crown, Canada uses the Crown's mandate in regional politics to strengthen the influence of the Legislative Assembly. The United Kingdom, being a unitary state, at the end of the XX century went to regionalism, and revived the parliaments of its constituent kingdoms of Scotland and Wales. The process of regionalization of the unitary state and increasing the importance of regional parliaments makes it possible to verify the possibility of such transformations. The Parliament of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is not something strikingly different from the regional parliaments discussed in this article. Thus, it can be argued that in the potential future, further movement towards the rapprochement of the Parliament of the Republic of Albania and the parliaments of foreign states is likely. However, such changes are possible only as a result of the consensus in society on the further modernization of the political system of the republic in the federal structure of the Russian Federation.

Key words: Parliament of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Regional Authority Index, Bavarian Landtag, Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Parliament of Scotland, Senedd.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.008

WANG XIAOQUN Graduate student at Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

A.E. KONKOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Political Analysis, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE CULTURAL POLICY OF THE STATE

Development projects within the framework of the state's cultural policy make it possible to attract alternative resources, carry out decentralized cultural activities, support partnerships between state structures and non-governmental organizations. In this regard, it is important to consider the challenges faced by major development projects. The article analyzes such problems as the political and legal system of the country, the intangible nature of development projects, the unclear role of sponsors and leaders of development projects.

Key words: cultural policy, project activity, development projects, organizational flexibility.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.009

V.A. PRIVALOV Postgraduate student, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ETHNO-CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS FOR GENESIS OF THE NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT

The purpose of the article is to determine the ethno-cultural backgrounds for the emergence of a conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. Within the framework of the article, both theoretical and empirical studies aimed at studying the ethno-cultural backgrounds for the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh were analyzed. Three basic concepts of ethnic identity have been identified that explain the emergence of ethnopolitical conflicts: primordialism, constructivism and instrumentalism. Regarding the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the opinions of researchers are divided – some of the researchers (for example, T. De Waal, A. Tonoyan) adhere to the primordial concept of the conflict, explaining it by the importance of preserving the historically established ethno-cultural values of the population of Nagorno-Karabakh, other researchers (for example, O.Yu. Kuznetsov, M. Kuburas, L. Papazyan) tend to the constructivist concept, emphasizing that the ethno-cultural factors of the conflict are the result of political processes, and not historical "memory". However, as shown by an empirical study conducted by N. Naromanyan in 2022, the population of Nagorno-Karabakh to a greater extent adhere to the primordial concept – the importance of historical memory and centuries-old ethno-cultural values – religion, culture and language. In general, the study made it possible to conclude that the ethno-cultural factor, including the religious and cultural-linguistic identity of the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh, along with the territorial one, is one of the most significant prerequisites for this ethno-political conflict, regardless of their historical or acquired as a result of political basis changes.

Key words: ethnopolitical conflict, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, backgrounds of conflict, ethno-cultural background of conflict, primordialism, constructivism.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.010

D.A. MOROZOV PhD student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

INTERRELATION OF GEOPOLITICS AND GEO-ECONOMICS IN THE MODERN WORLD: FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE

The article is devoted to the issues of identifying the features, interrelations and mutual influences between geopolitics and geo-economics within the framework of existing scientific concepts. The author substantiates the prospects of using interdisciplinary and synergetic approaches in their analysis and application in political science research. The author comes to the conclusion that within the framework of the dynamics of the scientific explanation of the terms "geo-economics" and "geopolitics", there is an inextricable link between geo-economics and geo-economic strategies with geopolitics as complex parts of a single whole, which indicates the prospects for expanding the scientific understanding of modern geo-economics within the framework of political science. The interdisciplinary approach dictates the need to supplement geopolitical strategies not only with economic aspects, but also with other components: informational, environmental, scientific (intellectual) and cultural.

Key words: geoeconomics, geopolitics, geoeconomic strategy, methodology of geoeconomics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.011

A.N. STOLYAROVA Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Basic Department of Trade Policy FSBEI HE «REU im. G.V. Plekhanov», Moscow, Russia

I.A. GLEBOVA Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Ecology and Environmental Management, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

T.P. KHAIRULINA Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Ecology and Environmental Management Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

O.V. KNYAZEVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory and Economics of Customs Affairs State Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian Customs Academy», Moscow, Russia

S.О. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR OF CORPORATIONS

Introduction: the article examines the theoretical and practical aspects of corporate environmental policy, which is implemented in the wake of socially responsible business behavior. The environmental agenda occupies an important place in the mechanism of corporate social responsibility. The scale of a company's environmental investments depends primarily on the specifics of its economic activities and the level of anthropogenic load on the environment. The need to integrate the environmental component into the CSR space is due to the following reasons: firstly, the overall relevance of reducing the anthropogenic impact on the environment, regardless of the form of profit, secondly, government lobbying for environmental projects, thirdly, close public attention to solving environmental problems, what is important for increasing the social status of the company, fourthly, is the visibility of achieving the desired result, which can be quickly replicated in the information space.

Goal and objectives: the purpose of the work is to consider the features of the implementation of environmental policy in the space of socially responsible behavior of corporations. The article poses and solves the following problems:

– justify the relevance of expanding the scope of the environmental agenda in the structure of corporate social responsibility;

– perform a dynamic and structural analysis of corporate expenses on environmental activities and projects in the socio-economic system of the Russian Federation;

– consider the regional and sectoral distribution of corporate activity in the focus of solving environmental problems.

Research results: the team of authors clarified the theoretical aspects of the substantive essence of corporate environmental responsibility, and also diagnosed key indicators reflecting the environmental activity of corporate structures, including at a regional and industry level.

Key words: environmental policy, socially responsible behavior, corporate social responsibility, environmental costs, environmental measures.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.012

YU.YU. GRYADUNOV Graduate student, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Central Russian Institute of Management – branch, Orel, Russia

THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PROTECTION OF TRADITIONAL VALUES

To date, traditional values characteristic of Russian society are under pressure from the American and European communities and transnational companies, which indicates the relevance of this study. Purpose of the work: to analyse the normative base of the state policy of protection of traditional values (TC). Hypothesis: the category of "traditional values" in Russia is not a speculative concept that exists solely in the minds of the country's leadership and citizens, but one of the most important directions of state policy, reflected in the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and other legislative acts. Results of the work: the provisions of Russian legislative acts were analysed and it was concluded that traditional values in Russia are one of the most important directions of state policy, as they are, firstly, enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Articles 2 and 44). Secondly, the task of their preservation and protection shapes the activities of the following executive bodies: the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, the Federal Security Service, the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.

Key words: normative framework, traditional values, society, society, patriotism, transnational corporations, strategy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.013

K.M. KSENOFONTOVA Senior Lecturer at the Department of Psychology, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)», Moscow, Russia

N.V. FADEEVA Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Personnel Management of the Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railway Transport – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Irkutsk State Transport University», Krasnoyarsk, Russia

M.N. IGNATOVA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Scientific Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations of the ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

А.L. ZOLKIN Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Informatics and Computer Science, FSBEI HE «Volga Region State University of Telecommunications and Informatics» (PGUTI), Samara, Russia

POLICY FOR MANAGING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION

Introduction: the article discusses the main aspects of managing youth entrepreneurship as a tool for economic transformation. The team of authors notes the relevance of using the potential of young startupers to implement knowledge-intensive transformations and build a track to achieve technological sovereignty. The demographic group of the population studied in the work has a high level of entrepreneurial activity, risk tolerance and innovative thinking. The set of designated criteria creates conditions for the use of youth business initiatives in the vector of transformation of the national economy. Within the framework of the existing geopolitical situation, the state must provide the most favorable conditions for the intensification of business processes among young people on the basis of administrative, economic, educational and consulting tools.

Goal and objectives: the goal of the work is to conduct a retrospective assessment of the development of the youth start-up market and substantiate the possibilities of using its potential to transform the economy. The following tasks are solved in this work:

– substantiate the relevance of youth entrepreneurship as a tool for economic transformation in conditions of low technological sovereignty;

– analyze the dynamics and segmental priorities of youth startups;

– to focus the general trends in the development of the domestic market for youth startups in the current business environment.

Research results: the team of authors, in the focus of studying the intensity of youth entrepreneurship, assessed the variability of the domestic business environment, analyzed the dynamics of the number and segmentation of youth startups, and also substantiated the growth points of this market in the existing business space. The results of the author's generalizations can become an up-to-date information base for searching for optimal tools for stimulating entrepreneurial activity among young people in a theoretical and practical plane.

Key words: youth entrepreneurship, business activity, public policy, technological development, startup.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.014

K.M. KSENOFONTOVA Senior Lecturer at the Department of Psychology, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)», Moscow, Russia

A.A. CHUNIKHINA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

M.V. DANILOV Master of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

E.E. PONOMAREV Master of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

S.О. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE POLICY OF SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR OF CORPORATIONS

Introduction: The paper presents an economic assessment of the policy of socially responsible behavior of corporations. The information base for analytical diagnostics and value judgments was the data from corporate social reporting of Sberbank PJSC, Gazprom PJSC and Lukoil PJSC. The objects of analysis were the directions, targets and volumes of financing of social investments of systemically important domestic corporate structures. The performed dynamic analysis of the basic economic indicators of the implementation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy showed the presence of a stable track of increasing the capacity of socially responsible behavior. The empirical tools used allow us to talk about the existence of a growing trend of social obligations assumed by companies, which are voluntary in nature and are a form of strategic development. The article substantiates the relevance of intensifying processes in the focus of CSR for solving fundamental socio-economic problems in the current turbulent environment. The importance of CSR is caused by the need to relieve social tension, minimize environmental risks, eliminate social defects and improve the quality of the investment climate.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to conduct an economic assessment of the policy of socially responsible behavior of corporations. The objectives of the study include the following:

– justify the relevance of intensifying processes in the wake of socially responsible behavior of corporations in the current turbulent environment;

– focus the key priorities and basic achieved results of socially responsible behavior of leading domestic companies;

– conduct an economic assessment of the social investment activity of Russian corporate structures.

Results of the study: the team of authors carried out a diagnosis of the economic component of the social investment policy of PJSC Sberbank, PJSC Gazprom and PJSC Lukoil, which allows for an objective assessment of the intensity and scale of socially responsible behavior. The results of the study can be used to form a general picture of the existing CSR potential of domestic companies and develop effective tools for its expansion.

Key words: corporate social responsibility, charity, social investment, social effects, long-term development, social transformation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.015

A.G. KOVALCHUK Graduate student, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Central Russian Institute of Management – branch, Orel, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF STATE-CIVIL INTERACTION IN MODERN RUSSIA: FEDERAL AND REGIONAL PROGRAMS

The article reveals an actual problem of civil participation in governing processes in modern Russia within the framework of special programs at the federal and regional levels. The research goal is to consider the essence of the main programs for state-civil interaction in public administration at the regional and local levels. In the study the following tasks were solved: the conceptual foundations of state-civil interaction in domestic and foreign political science were considered; federal and regional programs were considered, within the framework of which interaction between the state and citizens in modern Russia was possible. The research methodology is based on a systems approach and includes general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction); as well as a number of special methods: historiographical analysis of the topic being studied; methods of political analysis (system-historical, structural, system-functional). Based on the research results, the author concluded that at the present stage, programs of state-civil interaction are focused on enhancing the civic position, especially in local and regional governments.

Key words: public administration, public-civil management programs, political participation, mechanisms of public-civil interaction, political analysis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.016

N.V. GONCHAROVA Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Automated Control Systems and Cybernetics FSBEI HE «OSU named after I.S. Turgenev», Orel, Russia

M.N. IGNATOVA Candidate of pedagogical sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

I.A. BIRYUKOV Student of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

A.I. PANOVA Student of the Department of International Relations and government controlled», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY OF DIGITALIZATION OF HEALTHCARE: ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE WORLD TELEMEDICINE MARKET

Introduction: the article reflects the results of an economic assessment of the development of the global telemedicine market, which resulted from the implementation of the healthcare digitalization policy in foreign countries. The tools for using telecommunications and digital technologies to provide medical care are actively developing in foreign countries. The formation of a progressive path for the development of telemedicine in most foreign countries occurs in the presence of a comprehensive regulatory legal framework that corresponds to the current conditions and features of the use of telecommunications and digital technologies for the provision of medical care. The presence of a relevant organizational and legal framework helps expand the potential for the use of various types of telemedicine tools, and also establishes a clear and transparent framework for the functioning of medical organizations in this area. The development of telemedicine occurs with the active participation of government agencies. Forms of state support are of a different nature, which is due to the specifics of the existing socio-economic formation and the peculiarities of the methods of state regulation of the economy used. An important form of government participation is the activation of digital transformation processes of the national healthcare system.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to consider the results of the implementation of the digitalization policy of healthcare in foreign countries through the prism of an economic assessment of the global telemedicine market. The article poses and solves the following problems:

– highlight the relevance of implementing digital transformations in healthcare in the current socio-economic environment;

– analyze key dynamic and structural indicators of the functioning of the global telemedicine market;

– group regional features of the development of the global telemedicine market.

Research results: the team of authors carried out a comprehensive diagnosis of the functioning of the global telemedicine market in the focus of analyzing the dynamics of its value volume and segmentation structure, and also carried out a study of investment activity and regional features of the intensification of the digital transformation of healthcare. The generalizations made allow us to form an objective picture of the current state and trends in the development of digitalization of healthcare in the wake of the use of telecommunication technologies.

Key words: digital transformation, healthcare, telemedicine, global market, foreign experience.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.017

R.A. POYARKOV Post-graduate student, Central Russian Institute of Management – branch (Orel), Orel, Russia; founder, R Group LLC, Moscow, Russia

THE USE OF BIG DATA AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE

In the context of the digital transformation of the public service, the article discusses the features and problems of using arrays of information (Big Data), which are entrusted with making informed decisions in public administration, as well as the relevance of using artificial intelligence technologies in order to improve the type of service under consideration and its mechanism in our state. In conclusion, we come to the conclusion that in modern Russia, which is developing towards the integration of digital technologies into everyday life, public relations in the field of state regulation, bring to the fore new requirements for one of the forms of state activity. That is why it is undergoing changes that will fully respond to digital transformation in the future. In this regard, one of the many long-term strategic projects is being implemented on the territory of our country – the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation, which began in 2018, the implementation of which should be completed in 2024. However, no matter how amazing it may look, not all citizens have mastered or acquired modern means of digital communication, which entails prospects for survival in the conditions of artificial intelligence and competition with it.

Key words: public administration, digitalization, long-term strategic project, artificial intelligence, Big Data, Internet, digital economy, transformation, Russian Federation, neural network, national program, information society.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.018

E.V. LINKOVA Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Russian History of the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

E.V. KRYAZHEVA-KARTSEVA Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History of the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

N.G. GEORGIEVA , Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Russian History of the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

V.V. ZVEREV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Center "History of Russia in the XIX – early XX century", Moscow, Russia

T.V. CHERNIKOVA Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department the World and national history of MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMAGE OF LATIN AMERICA IN THE RUSSIAN POLITICAL THOUGHT OF THE XIX CENTURY: FEATURES AND EVOLUTION

The article reveals the multifaceted image of Latin America formed in the Russian public consciousness of the XIX century. Moreover, the main subject of the study is the picture of ideas about the Latin American continent, which has become a part of the foreign policy constructions of Russian thinkers. It is in their concepts, reflecting all the specifics of Russia's international course, its position on the world stage, and relations with European countries, that it is possible to identify the main features of that image of a distant continent, which at the same time attracted Russian travelers with its uniqueness, and was considered as a possible new force that could influence the pan-European situation.

The authors draw a conclusion about the versatility of ideas about Latin America in Russian society, formed under the influence of the notes of travelers and diplomats, as well as those judgments that were broadcast by representatives of the socio-political thought of Russia on the pages of magazines and newspapers. It is difficult to say unequivocally how objective this image was. However, by the middle of the XIX century for Russian thinkers, it becomes obvious that Latin America has gradually turned into a region that has a significant impact on the European agenda, in a certain way changing the foreign policy course of countries such as, for example, France and the Great Britain. In addition, many events on the American continent (in particular, the Mexican campaign of Napoleon III) took place in parallel with the transformation of the system that developed after the Crimean War of 1853-1856, and this could not but affect the interests of Russia, which wanted to cancel the restrictive articles of the Paris Peace of 1856 as soon as possible. For this reason, both official St. Petersburg and Russian public and political figures closely followed what was happening in Latin America, gave assessments of the current situation, and made attempts to predict how Latin American issues would affect the rhetoric of European countries and their policies on the European continent. Finally, the authors note that by the second half of the XIX century, the processes and events that took place in Latin America were considered in the Russian discursive field not only as part of the global system. Russian thinkers were attracted to this aspect in the context of the development of the theory of cultural and historical types, a kind of civilizational approach of the second half of the XIX century.

Key words: Latin America, imagology, public and politcal thought, foreign policy, history of ideas, Mexico, Brazil, theory of "cultural and historical types".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.019

V.L. ABRAMOV Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, chief researcher at the Institute for International Studies economic relations; Professor of the Department of World Economy and Global Finance (DME and MF) Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

COUNTERMEASURES BY IRAN AND VENEZUELA TO OVERCOME LONG-TERM SANCTIONS LIMITATIONS

The relevance, scientific and practical significance of the article is due to the fact that the Russian economy was subjected to unprecedented sanctions from a number of other unfriendly countries. The purpose of the article is to analyze the long-term sanctions restrictions that were imposed on Iran and Venezuela as sovereign states defending their political and economic interests and national identity. The urgent task was to summarize the best practices and counter-sanction measures that they used to overcome sanctions restrictions, and to assess the possibilities of their use in Russian conditions.

It is shown that over the past decades, sanctions restrictions have become systematically used as an instrument of political economic pressure from the United States and EU countries on states that do not share the ideology of a monopolar world order. It analyzes the countermeasures that target countries use to reduce the impact of sanctions on their economies, circumvent them, or impose the costs of their implementation on the initiating countries themselves. The focus of the analysis is the counter-sanction measures that Iran and Venezuela used to overcome sanctions on the export of oil resources, as an important source of socio-economic development.

The results obtained can be used in the practical activities of state and municipal bodies and Russian companies to overcome sanctions restrictions.

Key words: sanctions restrictions, Iran, Venezuela, counter-sanctions, monopolar world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.020

AGONNOUDE BIDOLEY VIANNEY FREDDY Ph.D. in Political science. Assistant at the Department of Public Policy and history of state and law. Law Institute, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: EXPERIENCES FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

The article is devoted to the issue of digital transformation in the African region. The author examines the digital tools and measures taken by governments in sub-Saharan Africa to mitigate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic is identified by the author as the main driver of digital transformation in African countries in 2020-2022.

Key words: digital transformation, sub-Saharan Africa, Covid-19 pandemic, digital tools, government services.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.021

S.S. PISARENKO Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE EXPANDING OF US MILITARY PRESENCE IN THE INDO-PACIFIC

This article examines the use of the capabilities of countries supporting the "Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision" to provide member states with modern weapons aimed at countering the growing threat from China and North Korea. The article analyzed official statements by heads of state, representatives of the ministries of foreign affairs, and ministries of defense. The study found that the transfer of modern weapons occurs through programs to strengthen coast guards and control shipping lines, as well as on a regular basis through defense programs concluded between allies. Over the past few months, reports, summits, and statements from the US Department of Defense and allied states have traced the agenda of building up military capabilities in the Indo-Pacific region against the “subverters of the international order” represented by China and the DPRK. US foreign policy chiefs, together with allies, are building a certain rhetoric during the game for dominance in the Indo-Pacific region, condemning the authoritarian actions of the People's Republic of China, combining methods of active propaganda and the use of open channels for negotiations with China. Despite the fact that the concept of a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific Region” provides for ensuring freedom of seas and airspace in the Indo-Pacific, the main aim remains to ensure the systematic development of economies, solving climate and environmental problems, to develop humanitarian aid corridor and a modern system of healthcare. The United States, in turn, sees the opportunity to benefit from an indirect clash with its enemy, China, by arming and training its allies under various pretexts, and sometimes without any of them.

Key words: Indo-Pacific region, US foreign policy, Chinese foreign policy, IPR, militarization of IPR, trilateral cooperation between Japan, South Korea and the USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.022

A.A. SPASOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Assistant of the Department of Political Analysis and Socio-Psychological Processes, Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov, Moscow, Russia

THE US MILITARY-POLITICAL OPERATION ON THE BALKAN TRACK AS A THREAT TO RUSSIAN-SERBIAN INTERSTATE RELATIONS

This article examines a modern US military-political operation aimed at a controlled escalation of the Kosovo-Serbian conflict through a partial transport blockade of Serbian municipalities located in Kosovo and Metohija. Political and military pressure was exerted on the Serbian government in order to reorient Belgrade from interstate interaction with Moscow to building cooperation with Washington. The author records two stages of the military-political operation, in which KFOR ("Forces for Kosovo") and the political leadership of Kosovo and Metohija were involved. The operation began after Washington's unsuccessful attempts to influence Serbia's position towards Russia through blackmail and the imposition of sanctions. The author notes that the military-political operation did not lead to proper results for Washington, since interstate relations between Russia and Serbia maintain positive dynamics in the development of bilateral cooperation. At the end of the article, the directions of cooperation between Belgrade and Moscow in matters of security from external threats and military-political operations are outlined.

Key words: military-political operation, Kosovo-Serbian conflict, USA, interstate relations, Russia, Serbia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.023

S.D. DAVYDOV Lecturer, University under the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of EurAsEC, the Chair for Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow, Russia

US INFORMATION POLICY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE MID-2010S TO THE FIRST HALF OF THE 2020S.

A very important part of modern international relations is information policy, which is carried out by various actors. The conditions that currently exist in the information space provide new opportunities for its implementation, for improving the interaction between elements that are one way or another involved in world politics and in relevant processes. The nature of such interaction can be different: from cooperation to informational confrontation. This is often associated with the actor’s desire to expand its own influence on other actors, including cultural, political, value, and technological influence. The purpose of the article is to analyze the characteristic features of US information policy in Southeast Asia (in a number of states in the region) in the period from the mid-2010s to the first half of the 2020s. The main documents of BBG/USAGM (American organizations implementing information policy) concerning the countries of Southeast Asia and the steps taken by these organizations in the region during this period for the purpose of information impact in various forms are considered. As a result, the article provides a description of the information policy of the United States in the region, including the main factor determining its properties and changes.

Key words: USA, Southeast Asia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, information activity, information policy, BBG, USAGM.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.024

I.A. KOPYLOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia SPIN code: 5319-6005, AuthorID: 695158

NATIONAL DEFENSE MANAGEMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article examines the functioning of the Russian public administration system in the conditions of modern interstate confrontation, analyzes its main subsystems, the function of which is to ensure the defense and security of the country. Attention is focused on the need for further scientific research into the subsystem of public administration – national defense management, the importance of which is currently steadily increasing.

Key words: public administration system, interstate confrontation, theoretical and methodological foundations, defense management: management of the national defense of the Russian Federation, ensuring security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.025

LU WANQING Postgraduate student, Department of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

XU MENGZHU Postgraduate student, Department of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EURASIA

For Russia, Asia has been and occupies the second place among Russia's strategic priorities. Russia's partnership with China and India began only in the mid-90s on the initiative of Primakov E.M., who at that time was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. But to take a course to the East, Russia was promoted by the deterioration of relations with the West in 2014.

For Russia, one of the most important aspects were two:

– Close ties with China;

– Bilateral approach in relations with other countries.

The goal of the modern partnership between Russia and Asia is to create and build a "Greater Eurasia", which will include both geopolitical, military, informational and cultural aspects.

Key words: international relations, Russian-Chinese cooperation, regional relations, Russia's foreign policy course, China's economic development strategy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.026

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow, Russia

T.D. MAXIMOVA Postgraduate Student of the Department of International Relations and Law Vladivostok State University, Vladivostok, Russia

INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS IN THE STUDY OF LEGITIMATION AND POSITIONING SOCIO-POLITICAL STRUCTURES OF MODERN CHINA

The proposed article is devoted to an urgent topic that explores the international aspects of legitimation and positioning in the activities of the political leadership of modern China. The author examines some aspects in the activities of a number of states that influence the formation of the internal political landscape of the People's Republic of China to one degree or another. These are such formats of political transformation as "from the translateral form of relations of the post-Westphalian world order to the format according to the rules in the era of chaotic fluctuations of the crumbling world", "practice in the period of geopolitical procrastination" and "asynchronous multipolarity".

Key words: China, BRICS, G7, geopolitical procrastination, asynchronous multipolarity, Southeast Asia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.027

K.E. KHASANOVA PhD Student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Department of International and National Security, Moscow, Russia

COUNTERING GLOBAL INCREASE IN DRUG USE THROUGH THE PRISM OF J. LAW’S SOCIAL TOPOLOGY

Introduction. The article studies an application range of actor-network theory (ANT) in political science. By laying a particular emphasis on variable forms of social coordination, J. Law’s concept opens up a wide field of research in current issues of international relations through the prism of social topology. Meanwhile, for more than half a century the question of effectiveness of different anti-drug strategies has been one of the most acute dilemmas of world politics.

Purpose and objectives. The aim of the study was to present a comparative analysis of the punitive and non-punitive drug policy models in terms of ANT. The review allowed to identify the mechanism of building each of the strategies and to reveal specific conditions under which they maintain their integrity. The following tasks were set to achieve the goal: 1) defining the components of two anti-drug models’ ‘network form’; 2) describing the physical level of spatiality in drug policy; 3) exploring stable and unstable connections of the entities.

Methods. The research combines both general scientific (analysis, synthesis and observation) and specific methods, including the structural-functional method.

Results. The author concludes that the core of significant relations of anti-drug policies is receptive to changes in public sentiment. That is exactly why the core is prone to disruption. Therefore, multifold capabilities of J. Law’s social topology let the theory become a far-reaching instrument in forecasting morphogenetic transformations in various regions when it comes to adoption of new counterdrug activities.

Key words: narcotic drugs, anti-drug policy, actor-network theory, social topology, increase in drug use.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.028

SHEN LIHUA Professor of the Center for the Study of Russian Language, Literature and Culture, Director of the Center for Ukrainian Studies, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China

DU YILIN PhD student at the Center for Russian Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China

SUO LINGFENG PhD student at the Center for Russian Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China

MOLDOVA’S FOREIGN POLICY VECTORS AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF THE RUSSIAN SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION

As a small Eastern European country neighboring Ukraine, Moldova has attracted close international attention since the beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. The spillover effects of the conflict have had a significant impact on Moldova's domestic and foreign policy. In the area of foreign policy, Moldova continues the process of integration into the European Union and strengthens cooperation with NATO, but at the same time demonstrates a higher anti-Russian sentiment on the international stage. The competition between Russia and the EU and NATO around Moldova will become more intense, Moldova will face even more difficult choices.

Key words: foreign policy, Moldova, Russian-Ukrainian conflict, geopolitical competition.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.029

V.D. POTURUKHIN Postgraduate student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow, Russia

PROSPECTS OF GLOBALIZATION AND GLOBALISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The modern conditions of the process of international interaction, characterized by the growing geopolitical and geo-economic tension between the hegemon of the world order configuration approved in the last decade of the twentieth century and the newly emerging poles of power of international relations, are accompanied by polarization processes in the trade, economic, military-political, information and ideological spheres of society, demonstrating pronounced deglobalization trends. At the same time, it seems unreasonable to assert the irreversibility of modern disintegration processes due to the fundamental objectivity of the phenomenon of globalization, which is currently experiencing only another downward wave of its own cycle, the long-term trend of which remains unchanged – the growth of interconnection and interdependence of all peoples of the world. At the same time, the statement about the "death" of the phenomenon of globalism, which is currently undergoing a stage of compression and concentration of forces on the eve of a new upward wave with fundamentally new participants and globalization projects, looks premature.

Key words: globalization, globalism, globalization projects, world order, international relations.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.030

YA.D. ROGOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

S.A. TOKAREVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.D. KOSTINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

UNILATERAL RESTRICTIVE MEASURES: CONCEPT, TYPES AND SPECIFICS

The topic of unilateral restrictive measures as an instrument of coercion among international actors is becoming more and more relevant. This tool is widely used in the modern world community and can have serious consequences for economic, political and social relations between states and companies.

In the article the authors define and formulate the concept of unilateral restrictive measures and their classification, study the main principles and mechanisms of their application.

Key words: international relations, security, restrictive measures, legal regulation, sanctions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.98-1.10-1.031

ZHANG ZHAN Bachelor's degree, Faculty of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

SOFT POWER AND THE STATUS QUO OF CHINA'S SOFT POWER

The article discusses issues related to the "soft power" status quo of China's "soft power". The purpose of the study is to study the soft power and the status quo of China's soft power. The main research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others. The current state of China's "soft power" is considered. Next, we will study the system of public cultural services. The system of education reform in China is considered. The author of the article notes that the right to an international voice covers a wide range of areas, such as politics and economics, and attaches greater importance to international public opinion. The importance of strengthening China's "soft power" in the 21st century is emphasized. In addition, the main characteristics of China's "soft power" have been studied. Strengthening cultural soft power is an unavoidable requirement for strengthening comprehensive national power. Strengthening cultural soft power is an important means of protecting national security and interests. Strengthening cultural soft power is an important way to shape the country's image. The concept of "national image" is studied. The process of development of China's "soft power" is considered. The main problems in the development of China's cultural "soft power" are studied, among which are noted: insufficient ability to transform the cultural resources of "soft power", the main part of the cultural construction of "soft power" has certain defects, the development of the cultural industry is backward, and motivation for cultural endeavors is insufficient. The directions for strengthening China's cultural soft power have been studied.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study the soft power and the status quo of China's soft power.

Methods: Basic research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: Today's world is in a historical period of great upheavals, major adjustments, major changes and major development, differentiation and combination of international forces and the continuous evolution of the structure of interests in international relations. The trend of the development of the multipolarity of the world, which has emerged since the end of the twentieth century, meets the objective requirements of cultural diversity and the democratization of international relations. Against this background, the desire for peace, stability, cooperation and development has become an irresistible historical trend. Thus, the commitment to promote the multipolarity of the world structure and the formation of the image of a responsible big country contributes to the improvement of China's national soft power. Regarding China's soft power, many experts have repeatedly stressed in interviews that they should have a clear understanding. China's economic development path and the concept of building a harmonious society have also been confirmed by the world, and its soft power has improved.

Conclusions: In the current international situation, the goal of China's foreign policy should not only be to create a peaceful environment conducive to economic construction, but also to pay attention to how to improve the international image of my country and expand friendly relations, as well as whether it can effectively implement the foreign policy policy of a harmonious world. China should respect the existing international order, protect its national interests in the existing international order, international system and international mechanism, know and effectively apply existing international rules and practices, and actively participate in consultations, formulation and multilateral development of relevant international affairs and international rules. Diplomatic activity, properly maintain diplomatic relations with major Powers, neighboring countries and developing countries, live in friendly relations and cooperate with all countries of the world in accordance with the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and other recognized international relations norm.

Key words: status quo, China's soft power, foreign policy.

Academic Journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 13, Issue 11-2 (99-2), 2023

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Kamenskaya G.V. The Main Stages of the Evolution of Liberalism

NATIONAL HISTORY

Vlasov M.Ya. Features of the Device and Organization of Political Life and Government Practices of Nuclear Cities and Scientific Cities of the USSR

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Duan Ruoyi. Political Potential of Modern Fan Culture

Chuzhikov N.A., Nechay E.E. The Concept of Ethnic Nationalism in the Works of M.O. Menshikov

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Stepanov S.A., Ivanova E.A. Social Networks as a Field of Information Wars in Modern Politics

Smirnov N.M., Popov S.I., Novikova A.V. Methods of Analysis and Methodology in Research Activities in the Development of the Concept of the Electoral System

Kambur P.I. Migration Policy of Russia at the Present Stage and its Influence on the Sovereignty of the State

Pescherov Yu.G. Ecological Migration as a Problem: Approaches of Environmental Management and Environmental Diplomacy

Fadeeva E.A. Political Activity of Young People in Modern Russia Using Digital Technologies and its Regulation

Abduragimov Z.E. Mnemonic Actors and their Role in Shaping Ideas about Terrorism

Volkov G.V. Formation and Development of Informal Political Institutions in the Russian Federation

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Sudorgin O.A., Kovalev A.V., Nitsevich V.F. Analysis of Information Support of Anti-Corruption Policy in Modern Russia

Rudnev S.V., Nesterchuk O.A. Planning, Forecasting, Programming in the Educational Policy of the Russian Federation

Bokova E.I. Measures to Support Young Scientists at the Regional Level in Modern Russia

Broda S.B. Ways to Counter the Shadow Market of Alcohol and Alcohol as a Component of Economic Security of the RF

Vorobev D.I., Burlankov P.S., Dobrinova T.V., Novoselsky S.O., Malyukov K.V. Retrospective Assessment of State Policy for Investment Activity Management

Galieva S.I., Galieva G.M. The Special Measures Aimed at Increasing the Efficiency of State Crime Prevention Policy in Russia

Khairullin M.F., Dyshenova N.R., Novoselsky S.O., Svekolnikov P.A., Mkrtychev V.S. The Influence of the Psychology of Entrepreneurial Expectations on the Level of Business Activity in the Economy

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Maystat M.A., Javad Zeraat Peyma, Medvedev N.P. Features of Energy Relations Between Iran, Turkmenistan and Turkey: Regionalism Issues

Akimov R.H., Gajiev M.M., Magomedov A.K. From "Hierarchical Realism" to "Inclusive Globalism": Evolution of the Chinese Mega-Project "One Belt, One Road" in the Central Asian Region

Grankin V.F., Novoselsky S.O., Krasnoslobodtseva A.D., Andrusova E.E., Danilov M.V. Development of the World Economy in Conditions of Geopolitical Instability

Tereshin A.V., Kuzyakin A.G. International Law: Contemporary Challenges and American Rhetoric

Luo Dongmei, Bo Yang. Russian-Chinese Cooperation in the Field of Cyber Security in the XXI Century: Opportunities and Challenges

Mailov T.D. "Soft Power" as an Instrument of Foreign Policy of the Persian Gulf States

Xu Lili. Polyphony of Worldviews in the Political Culture of Ancient China Following the Chunqiu/Zhanguo Era

Unachev T.Ch. Trends and Mechanisms for Implementing Migration Policy in the Modern Geopolitical Situation: Effectiveness Assessment and Forecast

Hao Dongfang. The Military Influence of the United States on South Korea

Chzhao Dan'yan. Geopolitical Conflict and Food Security: Analyzing the Impact on China

Akopyan G.A. Energy Terrorism in the Modern World

Annenkov V.I., Moiseev A.V. US Geopolitics: Some Modern Aspects

Belkov O.A. National Interests in National Security Coordinates

Shao Jianina. Factors of Convergence of Foreign Policy Foreign Policy of the People's Republic of China and Russia in the XXI Century

STUDENT SCIENCE

Klemushina A.A., Sivogorlo I.A. The History of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China

Rogova Ya.D., Tokareva S.A., Kostina A.D. Unilateral Restrictive Measures as a Tool in Action: the Qatar Blockade in 2017 and the "Great Firewall of China"

Chen Siru. The Role of Digital Propaganda in Russian-Ukrainian Special Military Operations

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.008

G.V. KAMENSKAYA Ph.D. (Political), Leading Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN STAGES OF THE EVOLUTION OF LIBERALISM

In works devoted to the history of liberalism, the main attention is usually paid to the formation of classical liberalism, the subsequent transition to social or progressive liberalism, its transformation into new liberalism or social liberalism, as well as modern ideas of neoliberalism with its absolutization of the free market, demands for privatization and deregulation. The emphasis is also placed on country models of liberal ideology, their conditionality by historical and cultural traditions, and the characteristics of the socio-economic development of individual countries. At the same time, the most important moment of the change from classical liberalism to postmodernism usually remains outside the brackets. The crisis of classical liberalism, primarily the departure from its humanistic principles, became a reality already at the beginning of the 20th century, but the emergence of real socialism as an alternative to the world-capitalist system within the framework of the Modernity project slowed down this process for several decades. Postmodern liberalism received its completed form only in the 70s. XX century. The turning point of the transition from classical liberalism to postmodernism in theoretical terms was the work of J. Rawls “A Theory of Justice” and the debates that followed, which revealed a new understanding of history, society and the individual, completely postmodern in nature.

Key words: liberalism, freedom, Modernity, “new liberalism”, postmodernity, theory of justice.

NATIONAL HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.001

M.Ya. VLASOV Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE DEVICE AND ORGANIZATION OF POLITICAL LIFE AND GOVERNMENT PRACTICES OF NUCLEAR CITIES AND SCIENTIFIC CITIES OF THE USSR

The article provides a detailed examination of the formation and operation of "atomograds" and "naukograds" in the USSR, highlighting their role as key elements of the country's scientific-technical and military infrastructure. Noting their contribution to scientific research and defense industry, the author also emphasizes how these unique cities became centers of socio-cultural development. The main objective of the research is to thoroughly dissect the mechanisms of governance in "atomograds" and "naukograds", as well as analyze the power practices and their influence on the cultural and social landscape of these cities. The study aims to demonstrate how specific historical decisions, political institutions, and social mechanisms impacted the lives of the residents. During the work, the author employs methods of historical analysis, qualitative research, and also draws on archival materials and primary sources to ensure the most comprehensive and objective understanding of the topic. This approach illuminated not only the general picture but also revealed a series of key moments and details. The research findings indicate that, despite their initial focus on scientific and military tasks, "atomograds" and "naukograds" became active participants in the country's socio-cultural life. The government, acting through various institutions and practices in these cities, shaped and directed social and cultural processes, leading to the creation of a unique socio-cultural image for each of these cities. In conclusion, the author emphasizes that the "atomograds" and "naukograds" of the USSR are a vivid example of the interaction of power, science, and society under socialist state conditions. This research offers a fresh perspective on the social and political processes in the USSR, illustrating how science, technology, and power can shape public space.

Key words: Atomograds, Naukograds, USSR, Scientific-technical infrastructure, Defense industry, Socio-cultural development, Governance mechanisms, Power practices, Historical analysis, Socialist state.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.002

DUAN RUOYI Graduate student, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL POTENTIAL OF MODERN FAN CULTURE

The article explores the role and influence of fan culture on political processes in modern society. The author views fan culture as a sociocultural phenomenon that unites people around common interests and passions based on support or devotion to a particular sports club, team or artist. The article emphasizes that fan culture is becoming increasingly politicized, and this is manifested not only in the context of sports, but also in various spheres of public life. The article draws attention to the importance of studying and understanding the political potential of modern fan culture and calls on researchers and politicians to take this phenomenon into account when studying and shaping the political environment.

Key words: fan movement, politics, social and public relations, state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.003

N.A. CHUZHIKOV Student of the Department of Political Science of the Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.E. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Assistant Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE CONCEPT OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM IN THE WORKS OF M.O. MENSHIKOV

The article deals with the concept of ethnic nationalism by M.O. Menshikov, a Russian writer, publicist, politician and ideologist of the All-Russian National Union. The author describes the key postulates of Menshikov's nationalism and the conclusions that follow from them about the essence of the nation, its nature and components. The article also discusses the ideas of the Russian writer about the detrimental impact of progress on national feelings, nature and society. The author pays special attention to the ideas of social Darwinism and biological determinism, which had a direct impact on the concept of nationalism by M.O. Menshikov.

Key words: nationalism, ethnic nationalism, social Darwinism, M.O. Menshikov.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.004

S.A. STEPANOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Institute of Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

E.A. IVANOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Law Institute of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A FIELD OF INFORMATION WARS IN MODERN POLITICS

The article examines the steadily growing role of social networks as one of the most effective communication platforms in the modern information society. The authors consider the development of information and communication technologies as an integral part of society's life. Progress in the development of communication brings with it not only new opportunities and prospects, but also threats and challenges that the state will have to face. Information wars are becoming an integral part of the development of communication in the modern world, and social networks are one of the main platforms for battles. Confrontation in the information war is becoming one of the key tasks of the modern political system of many countries, including the acute one for the Russian Federation.

Key words: information wars, fake, information society, Internet, social networks, modern politics, information and communication technologies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.005

N.M. SMIRNOV Bachelor department of Political Analysis and Management Department, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor Departments of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

A.V. NOVIKOVA Senior lecturer of part-time education, Economist, Laboratory of Sociological and Focus Group Research, Department of Sociology (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM

The article examines the relevance of methodological analyzing components and tools used to implement research activities in the field of designing an effective electoral system; examines and evaluates the effective conceptual and methodological foundations of analytical and predictive techniques in political research, taking into account the applied experience of use; highlights the range of particulars that meet the requirements of modern research in this area of practical scientific activity.

Key words: Political analysis, methodology, technique, conceptuality, analysis of political situation, electoral system, election institution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.006

N.M. SMIRNOV Bachelor department of Political Analysis and Management Department, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor Departments of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

A.V. NOVIKOVA Senior lecturer of part-time education, Economist, Laboratory of Sociological and Focus Group Research, Department of Sociology (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM

The article examines the relevance of methodological analyzing components and tools used to implement research activities in the field of designing an effective electoral system; examines and evaluates the effective conceptual and methodological foundations of analytical and predictive techniques in political research, taking into account the applied experience of use; highlights the range of particulars that meet the requirements of modern research in this area of practical scientific activity.

Key words: Political analysis, methodology, technique, conceptuality, analysis of political situation, electoral system, election institution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.007

P.I. KAMBUR Master's student of the Department of Public Administration and National Security Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MIGRATION POLICY OF RUSSIA AT THE PRESENT STAGE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE

The article examines the state of migration policy in Russia at the present stage. Priority attention is paid to migrants from the CIS countries and their destructive influence on Russian society and the sovereignty of the state. As a result of the analysis of the factors of such influence, ways to improve the adaptation of migrants in our state were proposed.

Key words: migration policy, migrants, ethno-religious composition of the population, Muslims, adaptation and integration of migrants, labor market.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.010

YU.G. PESCHEROV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Law, State University of Education, Moscow, Russia

ECOLOGICAL MIGRATION AS A PROBLEM: APPROACHES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL DIPLOMACY

This research article examines the issue of ecological migration in the context of global environmental change. The authors analyze modern trends in migration flows caused by ecological disasters and contribute to defining the concept of an «environmental migrant». The study identifies key determinants that promote this type of migration and offers strategies to mitigate their negative impacts based on the principles of sustainable development. The article proposes a comprehensive model for regulating processes of ecological migration, including mechanisms at the global community level, national and subnational administrative units. It also emphasizes the importance of preliminary analysis and risk assessment for an effective response to the challenges of ecological migration.

Key words: Ecological migration, migration flows, environmental migrant, sustainable development, global governance, environmental management, environmental diplomacy, preliminary analysis, migration regulation, settlement of migration crises.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.011

E.A. FADEEVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History, Political Science and Law, State University of Education, Mytishchi, Russia

POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN MODERN RUSSIA USING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND ITS REGULATION

The study of the reasons for the participation of young people in political life and how young people are involved in political activities is an important issue for both developed and developing countries. Research in this area began with general trends, and then moved on to specific country factors.

Objective: This study is aimed at determining the role of digital technologies on the political activity of the younger generation.

Procedure and methods: analysis of theoretical sources on the problem of research, study of the results of surveys conducted (All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTSIOM). The data is then analyzed using the qualitative descriptive analysis method.

Findings: The results of the study show that digital channels as a form of political participation have a positive impact on the political participation of the younger generation.

Theoretical significance. The research materials can be used in solving urgent problems of involving young people in political processes. It is advisable to use research materials in educational activities in the field of political science.

Conclusions: The need to provide the younger generation with broader opportunities and responsibilities in the public sphere, as well as involvement as members of political parties or other socio-political organizations. Therefore, in order to move towards political democratization, agents of political education should be able to use digital channels to transmit ideas, actions and other political activities for the development of political education.

Key words: political activity, participation in political life, youth, digital technologies, expression of political opinion, digital environment.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.012

Z.E. ABDURAGIMOV Applicant for the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MNEMONIC ACTORS AND THEIR ROLE IN SHAPING IDEAS ABOUT TERRORISM

The presented study is devoted to the question of the structure of mnemonic actors in the modern space of memory and their role in the formation of negative ideas about terrorism through the formation of a corresponding image of the past. The author constructs a universal model of memorial actors, suitable for use within any socio-political system, regardless of the local context of “memory wars”. The interaction of mnemonic actors with interest groups is traced. It is concluded that the presence of many mnemonic actors naturally determines the specifics of the implementation of policies in the field of countering terrorism through memorialization. The construction of a negative image of terrorism in a historical context cannot be carried out solely through the direct efforts of the state. Institutions of public power must also mobilize other mnemonic actors and the interest groups behind them, as well as coordinate their activities and, if necessary, provide resource support. The latter will not only ensure compliance with the principle of totality within the framework of promoting the anti-terrorist narrative, but will also allow us to significantly diversify its structure, adapting the content to the specific perception of specific groups of the target audience.

Key words: mnemonic actors, terrorism, image of the past, memory policy, memorial policy, interest groups.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.013

G.V. VOLKOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law, Institute of Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Based on a systems approach, the problems of the development of informal political institutions are considered as determinants of the development of the Russian political system. It has been determined that the formation of Russian statehood was carried out taking into account the high role of informal political institutions. The need to strengthen formal political institutions in order to form a stable political system in the context of international crises is becoming more urgent.

Key words: informal political institutions, political system, political processes, corruption, clientelism.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.009

O.A. SUDORGIN Dr. Political Science, Director of the Research Institute of State Policy and Management of Industrial Economy, State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

A.V. KOVALEV Deputy Director of the Research Institute of State Policy and Management of Industrial Economy, State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

V.F. NITSEVICH Dr. Political Science, Professor, Deputy Director of the Center for Digital Economy State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION SUPPORT OF ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY IN MODERN RUSSIA

Corruption is a serious challenge for the successful development of society and the state. It undermines trust in the Government, increases social and economic inequality, has a devastating impact on the economy, education, healthcare and other fundamental spheres of life. The key element of anti-corruption is the anti-corruption policy, which includes a set of measures and mechanisms to prevent, detect and suppress corruption manifestations. However, the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures depends not only on their development and implementation, but also on the quality of information support for anti-corruption policy.

The purpose of the article is to determine the role of information support in anti-corruption policy, the factors of its effectiveness and the main directions of development.

The research methods used in the work are system and structural-functional analysis, content analysis, as well as the normative method and methods of induction and genesis.

The article compares the concepts of "information policy" and "information support of state sectoral policies" in relation to anti-corruption, analyzes the information support of anti-corruption policy. The scientific novelty lies in the results obtained and the conclusions drawn about the existence of a correlation between quantitative and qualitative characteristics, as well as the structural and functional component of information support for anti-corruption policy and the effectiveness of its implementation. In conclusion, the authors have proposed a list of principles, following which can contribute to improving the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy.

Key words: anti-corruption policy, information policy, state sectoral policies, information support, information and communication platforms, modern Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.014

S.V. RUDNEV Postgraduate student of the Office of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies Russian Academy of National Economy and State service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

O.A. NESTERCHUK Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management of the Institute of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PLANNING, FORECASTING, PROGRAMMING IN THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The purpose of the article is to analyze the implementation of planning, forecasting and programming in Russian educational policy, to identify problematic aspects and to develop directions for their improvement. The methodology is determined by the purpose of the work and is represented by methods such as analysis, synthesis, analysis of regulatory and strategic documents. As a result of the study, problematic aspects in planning educational policy in Russia were identified. Based on the results of the work, it was concluded that planning, programming and forecasting of educational policy in Russia should be long-term. First of all, the implementation of these functions lies with the highest authorities, since it is they who have full freedom of choice and authority in resolving these aspects.

Key words: education, educational policy, national project “Education”, strategic planning.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.015

E.I. BOKOVA Applicant at the Department of Political Science, Financial University, Moscow, Russia

MEASURES TO SUPPORT YOUNG SCIENTISTS AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL IN MODERN RUSSIA

The article is devoted to studying the state of regional support systems for young scientists. The author comes to the conclusion that at the regional level, measures to support young researchers are not unified and exist outside the framework of a uniform system. The natural consequence is that there are significant imbalances in terms of their volume and effectiveness. The most structurally developed and resource-supported systems for supporting young researchers operate in regions characterized by a particularly significant share in the production of national GDP, a high concentration of population, educational and scientific institutions, as well as end consumers of the products of their activities in the form of government agencies and representative offices of large companies.

Key words: support measures, young scientists, grants, scholarships, regional level.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.016

S.B. BRODA Postgraduate student, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

WAYS TO COUNTER THE SHADOW MARKET OF ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL AS A COMPONENT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE RF

The article examines the basic principles of ensuring the economic security of the Russian Federation and carries out a comparative analysis of the definitions of its essence. It is noted that the main definitions of the category and components of economic security do not include countering the shadow economy or countering the shadow market as a special component of economic security, which should be separated into an independent category. The categories and components of economic security are summarized from the position of scientific substantiation of countering the shadow market and ways of countering the shadow market for the sale of alcohol and alcohol are determined as a direction for updating the fight against shadow politics, corruption and economic crimes. The economic nature and spread of the shadow market of alcohol and alcoholic products in the Russian Federation as an independent component of economic crimes in the context of overcoming crisis phenomena in the economy is scientifically substantiated. Separate categories of the phenomenon of modern economy are formulated: shadow economy, shadow politics, corruption, crimes in the sphere of economic activity, economic crimes. The manifestation of the shadow economy in the Russian Federation is considered from the perspective of shadow politics, corruption and crimes in the economic sphere, the phenomenon of the shadow economy at the international level in comparison with the situation in the Russian Federation. The assessments of experts and investigators of the tax police of the shadow market for the sale of alcohol and liquor products are given, confirming the amount of major damage caused to the state, and a list of such violations is summarized. Ways to counteract the shadow market of alcohol and alcoholic products are proposed from the position of scientific substantiation of the shadowization of the economy of the alcohol industry of the Russian Federation.

Key words: economic security, crime, shadow economy, alcohol market, alcoholic products, fight against economic crimes.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.017

D.I. VOROBEV Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

P.S. BURLANKOV Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

T.V. DOBRINOVA Associate Professor, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Customs Affairs and World Economy, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations, ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

K.V. MALYUKOV Master Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

RETROSPECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF STATE POLICY FOR INVESTMENT ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT

Introduction: the article examines the short-term results of state regulation of investment activity within the framework of the economic system of the Russian Federation. The team of authors substantiates the opinion regarding the non-alternative need for state participation in investment processes, taking into account their significant correlation with economic growth and national security. In conditions of geopolitical turbulence, most economic laws lose their relevance, which requires state regulation of the investment space to build a sustainable track of growth in investment volumes, ensuring the organization of expanded production and an increase in infrastructure capabilities. Building an effective combination of direct and indirect methods of government regulation, taking into account the systemic assessment of focal indicators, creates a real opportunity to achieve stable growth in investment activity. The results of retrospective diagnostics showed the stability of the domestic investment space under external sanction pressure, which is confirmed by the positive dynamics of absolute and relative indicators of investment activity. Regionally, there is also a dominance of territories in which there is a growing track of total investment activity.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to retrospectively assess the state policy for managing investment activity. The objectives of the work are characterized by the following provisions:

– substantiate the relevance of state regulation of the investment space in conditions of macroeconomic turbulence;

– consider the key methods, forms and instruments of government participation in investment processes;

– perform diagnostics of key absolute, relative and structural indicators of investment activity in the macroeconomic and regional context.

Research results: the team of authors presented a retrospective assessment of state regulation of investment activity in the Russian Federation based on the diagnosis of the most focused absolute, relative and structural indicators. The results obtained serve as a relevant information base for characterizing the national investment background and can be applied for further theoretical research and the search for optimal practical tools.

Key words: investments, investment activity, investment space, government regulation, macroeconomics, sanctions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.018

S.I. GALIEVA Candidate of Political Science, associate professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

G.M. GALIEVA Assistant professor of Innovative entertpreneurship, law and financial management department of Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia

THE SPECIAL MEASURES AIMED AT INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF STATE CRIME PREVENTION POLICY IN RUSSIA

The article proposes the author's view of the special measures which can be undertaken to increase the efficiency of state crime prevention policy. According to the author such measures may include adopting the programme&strategy document in the field of crime prevention, making use of foreign prevention practicies that have been proven efficient and inproving the crime prevention legislation. Apart from that enhancing the relations between the state bodies and the civil society organizations as well as implementing the mechanism of regional heads' responsibility for crime prevention on entrusted territories are deemed no less significant.

Key words: crime prevention, state policy, efficiency of crime prevention, special measures.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.019

M.F. KHAIRULLIN Candidate of Technical Sciences, Acting dean, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

N.R. DYSHENOVA Senior lecturer at the Department of Psychology Institute of Social Engineering, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian State University named after. A.N. Kosygina (Technology. Design. Art)», Moscow, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

P.A. SVEKOLNIKOV Master's student of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

V.S. MKRTYCHEV Master's student of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EXPECTATIONS ON THE LEVEL OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN THE ECONOMY

Introduction: the work examines current aspects of the influence of the psychology of entrepreneurial expectations on the level of business activity in the economy. Entrepreneurship is a specific type of human activity, which is based on obtaining a certain commercial success in the future, that is, the vector of entrepreneurial initiatives is always directed towards the future. The level of their business activity and the degree of readiness to accept certain risks depend on how confident business entities are in the depth of the time horizon of their development. The presence in the business environment of confidence in “tomorrow” is an important argument for increasing the intensity of commercial processes and building extended production cycles. One of the main designers of the sustainability of entrepreneurial expectations is the state, which must create a stable business environment based on the rule of law, protection of property rights, systematic administrative policies and predictability of the use of monetary instruments. The relevance of managing the entrepreneurial expectations of business entities increases many times over in conditions of macroeconomic turbulence, when it is necessary to make additional efforts to stabilize the national economic space. Lack of due attention to the psychology of the business environment provokes capital outflow, curtailment of business initiatives, and a decrease in the intensity of business processes, which together lead to economic degradation and the onset of recession. Systematic monitoring of the state of entrepreneurial expectations forms a high-quality information base for the selection of relevant management tools that ensure the stabilization of business activity.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to assess the influence of the psychology of entrepreneurial expectations on the level of business activity in the Russian economy. As part of the goal, the following tasks are set:

– highlight the key characteristics of the psychology of entrepreneurial activity;

– analyze basic indicators of the psychological climate of the domestic business environment;

– characterize the fundamental indicators of business activity in the Russian economic system in conditions of macroeconomic turbulence.

Research results: the team of authors identified the key psychological characteristics of business entities that must be taken into account when managing the business climate, and also gave them a quantitative interpretation in the current macroeconomic environment. The generalizations made based on the results of diagnostics of fundamental indicators of business activity form an up-to-date information base for making relevant decisions in the wake of correcting the commercial expectations of business structures focused on expanding the economic potential of the national system.

Key words: psychology of entrepreneurship, business activity, entrepreneurial expectations, national economy, business climate, psychological confidence of business.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.020

M.A. MAYSTAT Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

JAVAD ZERAAT PEYMA PhD student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Tegeran, Iran

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, ex-Deputy Minister of Russia for Cooperation with CIS States, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF ENERGY RELATIONS BETWEEN IRAN, TURKMENISTAN AND TURKEY: REGIONALISM ISSUES

Turkmenistan is currently one of the key suppliers in the global natural gas market, and it is important to examine its competitive position in the world. In the past decades, Iran and Turkmenistan were reliable neighbors, but in order to expand relations and export gas to Europe through Turkey, they have faced obstacles and problems that have not been addressed in recent studies from the point of view of regionalism. This question is raised, what are the opportunities and challenges of transporting Turkmen gas from Iran and Turkey to Europe? In response to this hypothesis, it is proposed that the positive relations between Turkmenistan, Turkey and Iran and Iran's geopolitical position cause opportunities and sanctions on Iran's energy industry by the United States and Russia's monopoly on energy transmission lines cause challenges in the transmission of Turkmenistan's gas to Europe.

The author uses the regionalism theory framework of Louis Cantori and Steven Spiegel to examine the cooperation and competition of governments and combine this model with functionalism to analyze the factors of convergence and divergence in the relations of these countries. The tool for collecting information from library and internet sources and the qualitative research method is based on Peter McLaughlin's functional reasons. The results show that ECO and the Eurasian Union are the first steps of regionalism in the Eurasian region, and gas transfer is a step of regionalism for the three countries of Turkmenistan, Iran and Turkey. The improvement of the relationship between Iran and Turkey and the transfer of gas to Europe will lead to income and economic growth and convergence of these countries, but the US sanctions against Iran in the field of gas export have prevented Iran from getting rich profits.

Key words: Iran, Turkmenistan, Turkey, regionalism, energy, gas diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.021

R.H. AKIMOV Laboratory research assistant at the history laboratory regional processes at MSLU, Moscow, Russia

M.M. GAJIEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Russia

A.K. MAGOMEDOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Chief Researcher and Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Foreign Policy of the Russian State Humanitarian University, Professor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies of the Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

FROM "HIERARCHICAL REALISM" TO "INCLUSIVE GLOBALISM": EVOLUTION OF THE CHINESE MEGA-PROJECT "ONE BELT, ONE ROAD" IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION

This article explores how the Chinese mega-project "One Belt, One Road" has an impact on the economy, infrastructure and local communities of Central Asian countries. The explanatory concept "hierarchical realism" is used in the work, which allowed us to get closer to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of the Chinese megaproject. This concept helps us to reveal the existence of Beijing's hierarchical view of the international system, according to which China plays a much more dominant role than it is expressed in China's official rhetoric. It was the hegemonic approach of the Middle Kingdom that led to the fact that Chinese plans were met very ambiguously in the region. The authors analyze the historical turn in the implementation of the Chinese megaproject, which is associated with the implementation of the Xi'an Declaration. The pioneering nature of the decisions taken at this summit in May 2023 consisted in their humanitarian and social orientation in order to overcome Beijing's previous hierarchical view of the Central Asian region. This turn is being implemented within the framework of the potentially fruitful paradigm of "inclusive globalism" put forward by the Chinese leadership at the mature stage of its megaproject implementation.

Key words: Chinese mega-project, «Belt and Road», Central Asia, hierarchical realism, intentions, Xi'an Declaration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.022

V.F. GRANKIN Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Expertise and Real Estate Management, mining», Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Southwestern State University», Kursk, Russia

S.O. NOVOSELSKY Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

A.D. KRASNOSLOBODTSEVA Master of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

E.E. ANDRUSOVA Master of the Department of Management and state municipal government Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

M.V. DANILOV Master of the Department of Management and state municipal Government, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Moscow State Technical University named after. K.G. Razumovsky» (PKU)», Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD ECONOMY IN CONDITIONS OF GEOPOLITICAL INSTABILITY

Introduction: the article presents the key patterns of development of the world economy in conditions of geopolitical instability, and also examines the basic indicators characterizing Russia’s place in its structure. The team of authors concludes that it is necessary to transform the country’s socio-economic system in the context of sanctions pressure, which should be focused on achieving technological sovereignty, improving the quality of human capital and increasing corporate investment activity in the domestic market. The existing geopolitical turbulence generated conditions for significant deformations of the world economy, which are caused by radical changes in the vectors of foreign economic relations. A consequence of this kind of deformation can be considered a change in the structural and dynamic indicators of the development of the world economy, as well as key macroeconomic indicators of individual countries. The study of the fundamental indicators of the world economy allows us to form an opinion about the degree of influence of geopolitical instability on its development in conditions of imbalance of long-term systemically existing trade, economic and financial ties.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to highlight the main aspects of the development of the world economy in conditions of geopolitical turbulence based on analytical diagnostics of fundamental dynamic and structural indicators. The objectives of the study are as follows:

– reveal the essential characteristics of the world economy in the context of its evolution and subjective composition;

– perform diagnostics of the dynamics of fundamental indicators of the world economy and individual national economic systems;

– characterize the structural features of the current state of the world economy and Russia’s place in the world economic system.

Research results: the team of authors presented the results of analytical diagnostics of the development of the world economy in conditions of geopolitical instability, and also highlighted the current structural and functional indicators of Russia’s position in the world economic system. The generated information base allows a relatively objective assessment of the impact of the imbalance of systemic financial and trade communications on the transformation processes of the world economy.

Key words: world economy, geopolitical instability, Russian economy, sanctions, GDP, technological leadership, world economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.023

A.V. TERESHIN Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University Master's degree, Humanitarian Institute, Department of International Relations, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.G. KUZYAKIN Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant, Humanitarian Institute, Department of International Relations, St. Petersburg, Russia

INTERNATIONAL LAW: CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES AND AMERICAN RHETORIC

This article examines the issue of the current state of international law taking into account the current geopolitical situation, as well as the current state of international relations. The issue of America's interpretation and interpretation of the concept of "international law" is investigated. The correlation and interaction of the concept of "international law" with such concepts as "rules-based order" and "the right of the strong" are analyzed. Using such documents as the U.S. National Security Strategy, the United Nations Charter, and the UN conventions as examples, an attempt is made to analyze the current state of international law. Challenges and conflicts presented by contemporary geopolitical realities and the dynamics of international relations are also examined and analyzed using current events as examples. The question of adaptation and change of international law to modern world realities is raised. The theme of relevance of flexible and balanced approach to change is touched upon, including the creation of an effective system, which will be based on dialog and cooperation of various actors of international relations, as well as taking into account modern global challenges.

Key words: rules-based order, USA, international law, conventions, right of the strong, geopolitics, international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.024

LUO DONGMEI Postgraduate student at thefaculty of global studies Department of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

BO YANG Candidate of Philology, Professor of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia Institute, Deputy Director of Russian Studies Center, Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, China

RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF CYBER SECURITY IN THE XXI CENTURY: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

Since the 21st century, competition between major powers in various fields has intensified, and cyberspace has turned from an originally nascent strategic field into a major battlefield. After the launch of Russia's special military operation, the Western countries led by the United States continue to strengthen sanctions against Russia, while the United States restrains and suppresses the rise of China, the relationship between Russia and the United States has reached an impasse, and the relationship between China and Russia has changed from mutually friendly to comprehensive strategic cooperation. In this paper, government reports of the United States, China and Russia, scientific articles, reports of think tanks and media reports are taken as the object of research. The author analyzes the main, problems and challenges faced by China and Russia in the field of cybersecurity cooperation by means of content analysis, comparative analysis and SWOT analysis methods, and considers the ways and methods of achieving breakthroughs in the relationship between China and Russia, which has important theoretical significance and practical significance for ensuring cyber sovereignty and protecting cybersecurity of the two countries.

Key words: cybersecurity, China-Russia cooperation, Russia-Ukraine conflict, comprehensive sanctions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.025

T.D. MAILOV PhD student at the Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

"SOFT POWER" AS AN INSTRUMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY OF THE PERSIAN GULF STATES

The article analyzes a “soft power” of the Persian Gulf states as one of the key tools for the implementation of their foreign policy course. The problem of “soft power” in the theory of international relations and its significance in the foreign policy of the Gulf states is a relevant area of research, since it has not enough scientific development, moreover, there is not a single study that examines a “soft power” of all the Gulf states. This paper considers the underlying mechanisms of “soft power” used by the Gulf states to promote conservative values and religious worldviews. The purpose of the study is to examine the features of the concept of “soft power” which are used in the foreign policy activities of the Persian Gulf states.

Key words: “soft power”, Persian Gulf states, Islam, “small states”, foreign policy, GCC.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.026

XU LILI PhD student, Bishkek State University named after Karasaev, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

POLYPHONY OF WORLDVIEWS IN THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF ANCIENT CHINA FOLLOWING THE CHUNQIU/ZHANGUO ERA

The article examines ancient Chinese political culture in its diversity of worldviews after the Chongqiu-Zhangguo era. An analysis of the relevant terminological concepts is proposed; aspects of interaction between Legist and Confucian teachings are differentiated. The main elements of the political culture of the ancient Chinese state of that period are revealed. Scientific research methods are shown. The main ideas of political culture were formed in the 5th-3rd centuries BC. The study of the doctrines of Legalism and Confucianism made it possible to assess their role in the formation of Chinese political culture today.

Key words: ancient China, doctrine, ideology, worldview, polyphony, political culture, Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism, Chongqiu-Zhangguo era.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.027

T.CH. UNACHEV PhD student, Faculty of Global Processes, Moscow State University named after. V.M. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

TRENDS AND MECHANISMS FOR IMPLEMENTING MIGRATION POLICY IN THE MODERN GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION: EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT AND FORECAST

This article examines the importance of trends and mechanisms for the implementation of the migration policy of the Russian Federation in the context of the current geopolitical situation. The migration policy of the Russian Federation is studied from the point of view of its impact on demography, economy, social stability, and international relations. The current approaches to migration, strategies, as well as the dynamics and structure of migration flows are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the influence of the international geopolitical context on the implementation and effectiveness of Russia's migration policy. This analysis helps to see the problems and opportunities that Russia faces on the way to implementing its migration policy and suggests directions for further research and political development.

Key words: migration, migration policy, geopolitical situation, emigrants, domestic and foreign policy, labor migrants.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.028

HAO DONGFANG Master degree, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

THE MILITARY INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED STATES ON SOUTH KOREA

This article analyzes the history of the United States' military influence on South Korea, highlighting its key role in ensuring security and stability on the Korean Peninsula. It discusses South Korea's foreign policy strategies, aimed at collaboration with various countries, including the United States, in the context of achieving peace and prosperity. The article also emphasizes the peculiarities of internal and external factors influencing South Korea's foreign policy and its aspiration for autonomy in security matters.

Key words: South Korea, United States, military influence, foreign policy, security strategy, Korean Peninsula, collaboration, international relations, diplomatic efforts, peaceful resolution, military partnership, geopolitical dynamics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.029

CHZHAO DAN'YAN PhD Student, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

GEOPOLITICAL CONFLICT AND FOOD SECURITY: ANALYZING THE IMPACT ON CHINA

This study examines the impact of the geopolitical conflict between Russia and Ukraine on China's food security. As the world's largest food importer, China has found itself at the epicenter of a global storm in food security triggered by this conflict. This research report analyzes the direct consequences of the conflict, including the reduction in Chinese corn supplies from Ukraine and the increased dependence of China on corn imports from the United States. Furthermore, it identifies the long-term implications of this conflict, such as the increased risk to China's food security due to unstable partnerships in food supply. The study also underscores changes in global food trade leading to a more closed system and exacerbating challenges in ensuring national food security. Additionally, it discusses the role of global financial markets and speculative capital in shaping global food prices and how this affects China.

Key words: geopolitics, food security, corn, food trade, speculative capital.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.030

G.A. AKOPYAN Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

ENERGY TERRORISM IN THE MODERN WORLD

Energy terrorism is one of the most urgent and dangerous types of terrorist activity in the modern world. Illegal violence by terrorist groups around the world entails catastrophes on a global scale. There are many reasons for the implementation of illegal violence by terrorists. At the same time, the main targets of physical impact are energy infrastructure facilities. In this case, energy resources are the means by which terrorists can exert violence, the ultimate goal of which is intimidation.

Nuclear terrorism as a kind of energy terrorism remains a key threat capable of leading to a global crisis of humanity. Modern terrorist formations are capable of causing failures in the system of nuclear reactors being limited in the level of supply of material and technical means. Moreover, with the help of UAVs and modern means of warfare, terrorists are able to cause damage to critical nuclear infrastructure facilities in a remote format.

In connection with the above provisions, there is a need for systemic global security. There are international organizations specializing in monitoring activities, ensuring security in the current realities of the global conjuncture.

Key words: energy terrorism, terrorist organizations, global security, international organizations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.031

V.I. ANNENKOV Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor, Senior Researcher at the Research Center of the Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, Balashikha, Russia

A.V. MOISEEV Candidate of Military Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Strategic Communications and Public Administration of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

US GEOPOLITICS: SOME MODERN ASPECTS

The article examines the geopolitics of the United States, which is currently represented by the concept of American leadership in the conditions of building a multipolar world. It is noted that when implementing the provisions of the concept, one of the main geopolitical tasks of the United States is to prevent the creation of military-political alliances (coalitions) between such powers as Russia, China, India, Brazil and the European Union. It is considered how certain provisions of US geopolitics are implemented in relation, in particular, to Russia, the European Union and China. It is considered that recently the United States has been restraining the development of Russia as a center of power in a multipolar world, including by unleashing armed conflicts, where Russia is being drawn into. Scenarios of the development of the armed confrontation between Ukraine and Russia are presented. It was noted that global elites and TNCs associated with the military-industrial complex are interested in a new regional war. It is established that in Currently, there is a high probability of the troops of NATO countries – Poland, Hungary and Romania - entering western Ukraine. It is emphasized that it is expedient for Russia to state harshly that if the Ukraine-Russia armed conflict turns into a regional war with Ukraine-NATO, then TNW strikes on NATO strategic military facilities in various NATO countries will be carried out in response. It is established that US military analysts have analyzed the course of the Ukraine-Russia armed conflict and made certain conclusions. It is noted that the task of the Task Force on Strategic Options is to avoid the high cost of intervention from the point of view of the death of military personnel and the loss of valuable assets in the event of a direct military conflict with countries that seek regional power. The conclusion says that the United States has staked on victory over Russia, destabilization and collapse of Russia after the victory of the Ukraine-NATO alliance in the armed conflict.

Key words: US geopolitics, center of forces in a multipolar world, coalition, new regional war, Ukraine-NATO alliance, TNW.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.032

O.A. BELKOV Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, full member of the Academy of Military Sciences, Leading Researcher at the Research Center for the Study of the History and Development of World Civilizations ANO VO «University of World Civilizations named after. V.V. Zhirinovsky», Moscow, Russia

NATIONAL INTERESTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY COORDINATES

Introduction: the article reveals the two-way relationship of the title categories. On the one hand, security is the basic interest of the nation, on the other hand, national interests are the basis and goal of security policy. The author believes that the object of national security is not interests as such, but their bearer – the nation, a multinational people, understood as the bearer of sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation, and those highest and eternal values, the preservation of which is important for it in any time conditions and places. The need for these values constitutes national interests. The proposed set of them resists their extremely narrow interpretation (reduction to security and sustainable development) and excessive fragmentation by including security, the absence of which does not undermine or destroy the nation. The security of the Russian Federation and security in the Russian Federation are interconnected but different phenomena. In principle, unchanging national interests can be ensured by various – even opposite – means and methods.

Purpose and objectives: the purpose of the work is to consider the key aspects of national interests in the coordinate system of the national security of the Russian Federation. The objectives of the work include the following provisions:

– reveal the meaning and content of national security;

– highlight the basic focus of national security policy objects;

– consider the main points of correlation and contrast between national interests and national security;

– clarify the objective-subject nature of national interests;

– characterize the dialectic of national interests and policies to ensure and implement them.

Research results: the author presents a scientific subjective assessment of the features of the dialectical relationship between national security and national interests through the prism of clarifying the essence of the complex nature of these categories, their subjective-objective nature and the opportunistic conditions of development within the framework of geopolitical turbulence.

Key words: national security, state, National Security Strategy, national interests, sovereignty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.033

SHAO JIANINA Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

FACTORS OF CONVERGENCE OF FOREIGN POLICY FOREIGN POLICY OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND RUSSIA IN THE XXI CENTURY

The article analyzes the factors contributing to the progressive deployment of cooperation between Russia and the People's Republic of China, describes the historical Sino-Russian interrelations, on the basis of which the military, economic and cultural interaction between the peoples of the two great powers grows, lists the areas and directions that are especially important for the mutually beneficial development of the states in the XXI century, provides scenarios for the development of Sino-Russian cooperation.

Key words: China, Russia, cooperation, factors, scenarios, historical prerequisites.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.034

А.А. KLEMUSHINA Student, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

I.A. SIVOGORLO Student, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE HISTORY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA AND THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

This article is devoted to the history of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China. It examines the historical background, key events, and important milestones in the establishment of bilateral relations between the two countries. Not only the political, economic, and cultural aspects of diplomatic relations are examined, but also the cooperation and conflicts that both countries faced. For centuries, Korea and China have shared geographic proximity and deep cultural ties that have influenced their political and economic relations. From ancient times, when the two civilizations interacted through trade and cultural exchange, to the modern era marked by political alliances and economic cooperation, their relationships have evolved and transformed in response to various historical events and developments. In terms of political aspects, diplomatic relations between Korea and China have also been shaped by the geopolitical landscape of the region. The influence of major powers such as the United States and Japan has often played a significant role in shaping bilateral relations between the ROK and the PRC. Despite conflicting interests in the region and historical grievances, both countries have demonstrated a commitment to finding compromises and maintaining stable diplomatic relations, recognizing the importance of cooperation not only for peace and prosperity in the region, but also for the economic growth of both powers. The purpose of this article is to study and analyze the factors that influenced the formation and conclusion of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China. By studying the political, economic, historical, and cultural aspects, one can fully understand not only the complexity and complexity of Sino-South Korean relations, but also the importance of bilateral relations between the ROK and the PRC for the entire region as a whole.

Key words: People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea, diplomatic relations, bilateral relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.035

YA.D. ROGOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

S.A. TOKAREVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.D. KOSTINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

UNILATERAL RESTRICTIVE MEASURES AS A TOOL IN ACTION: THE QATAR BLOCKADE IN 2017 AND THE "GREAT FIREWALL OF CHINA"

Unilateral restrictive measures are an important tool in international relations and foreign policy of states. These measures may include sanctions, trade restrictions, financial restrictions and other actions taken by one country or group of countries against another country. The purpose of such measures may be to punish a violation of international norms and standards, to protest, or to influence the behavior of another country.

In this article, the authors examine the use of unilateral restrictive measures in practice. Examples include the blockade of Qatar in 2017 and the use of unilateral restrictive measures in the field of communications, using the example of the Great Firewall of China.

Key words: international relations, security, restrictive measures, legal regulation, sanctions, Qatar, China, blockade, economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.99-1.11-1.036

CHEN SIRU Bachelor's degree, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE ROLE OF DIGITAL PROPAGANDA IN RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATIONS

The article discusses issues related to the role of digital propaganda in Russian-Ukrainian special military operations. The purpose of the study is to understand the idea of information warfare and what it means for world politics today, as well as to predict the direction of future wars. The main research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others. The hour frame of the research topic of this article is mainly the 21st century. This time is a stage of rapid development of the network. Therefore, information propaganda is developing rapidly accordingly and is widely used in various revolutions and wars. This article explains the importance of information warfare, discusses the role of information propaganda in creating hostility and social mobilization at the political level, as well as how other countries use "cyberchips" in this conflict to change the trend of public opinion, and whether it is possible to predict the direction of public opinion can determine the opinions and opinions of international organizations. The evolution of the role of digital propaganda, its main causes and goals are studied. The "information war of public opinion" and "digital propaganda" are considered on the example of Russian-Ukrainian special operations in this war. It is studied how Russia reacts to the "information war". A future forecast of the development of events has been compiled.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to understand the idea of information warfare and what it means for world politics today, as well as to predict the direction of future wars.

Methods: Basic research methods: the method of analysis, comparison, decision-making, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: The idea of information warfare and what it means for world politics today is studied, and the direction of future wars is predicted.

Conclusions: With the support of the highly developed Internet and high-tech technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Russian-Uzbek conflict is developing both online and offline, depicting a new form of power struggle and geopolitical games in the context of a new technological revolution. The parties to the conflict carry out information confrontation in the virtual space by traditional or unconventional, legal or fabricated, real or false means, in order to control the direction of public opinion, create an international environment of public opinion favorable to themselves, and, finally, get broad support from the international community. The purpose of support. Due to the lack of effective oversight of social media platforms, the main media platforms controlled by some Western countries apply double standards, cooperate with the United States and Western sanctions against Russia, and suppress and block Russia, which leads to chaos on the "online battlefield". The Russian-Ukrainian conflict. The use of social networks as a weapon, information conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, as well as between Russia and some Western countries have destroyed mutual trust, increased mutual hostility and slowed down the process of diplomatic negotiations, which deserves great attention from the international community.

Key words: digital propaganda, military operations, Russia, Ukraine, politics, direction.

   
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