№ 9 (73), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 9 (73), 2021

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Dubrovina O.V., Dubrovina O.Yu., Plotnikov V.S. Glocalization of Modern International Relations: Characteristics and Features

Belov S.I. Methodology of Studying Video Games as a Tool of Symbolic Policy

RUSSIAN HISTORY

Chemshit A.А., Statsenko O.S., Chemshit D.А. "Brezhnev's Stagnation" as a Suppose for the Crisis of Soviet Statehood

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Zorin V.Yu., Astvatsaturova M.A. Big Elections – 2021 as a Context for Strengthening Civil Unity and Ethno-Cultural Diversity of Russian Society

Konko S.G., Slavin B.S. Specifities of the Russian Model of Group Interests Representation

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Tsvetkova O.V. Evolution of Russia's Subnational Political Institutions

Osipov A.V. The Problem of Modernization and Development of the Elite Cluster in Order to Ensure the Consolidation Policy of Modern Russia

Suslonov P.E., Tretyakov A.V. Methodology and Practice of Forming a Regional Socio-Cultural Environment that Prevents the Spread of the Ideology of Terrorism (On the Example of the Sverdlovsk Region)

Pavshukovа A.Yu. Laundering Of Criminal Profits and Financing of Terrorism: the Main Areas of Activities of Criminal Organizations

Shevelyova Yu.R. Communication Regime as a Factor of Reproduction of Political Power

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Mamatкobilov T., Normuratova M.K. Strategic Importance of the Social Policy of the State

Egemberdyev A.К. A State Information Policy in Migration as a Part of Governance of Society’s Development

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Mikhaylenko A.N., Rovchak P.U. Relations of Russia with the Countries of African Continent

Zalysin I.Yu. Transformation of the UN Antiterrorist Bodies in the 2000s

Tushkov A.A., Alekhina A.P. Scenarios for the Development of the U.S. Strategic Course in the Political Process of the Indo-Pacific Region

Mehmet Emin Ikbal Durre. Iraqi Kurdistan’s Economic Policy Before and after the 2017 Referendum

Amiantova I.S., Bakaryukhina A.V. The Correlation of Regional and National Identities in Germany

Kudashev R.Sh. The European Union: A Supranational or Intergovernmental Integration Community?

Merkulov A.L. Foreign Policy of the FRG in the Present Stage

Makarov A.V. Geopolitical Model of the Educational Space of the Nation State

Shen Shan. Rossotrudnichestvo Soft Power Tool in Ukraine

Naryshkin A.A. The Main Approaches to the Tasks of Economic Diplomacy in the Domestic Scientific Literature

STUDENT SCIENCE

Go Syunhao. Crowdfunding Technologies in China's Sustainable Regional Development

REVIEWS

Slizovskiy D.Y. Perestroika in the USSR in Historiography: Current Preferences

Our authors № 9-2021

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.001

O.V. DUBROVINA Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

O.YU. DUBROVINA PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor, Coordinator, National Union of Political Scientists of Russia, Moscow, Russia

V.S. PLOTNIKOV PhD in Social Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Customs Siberian State Transport University, Novosibirsk, Russia

GLOCALIZATION OF MODERN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES

The article is devoted to the current problems of glocalization of modern international relations. The study of the global, regional, and local levels of world processes allows us to comprehend the development of international interaction. The purpose of the article is to show that international relations are based on a triad, at the top of which is globalization, at the base – regionalization and localization, and the relations themselves can be represented as a four-level system, which includes supranational, interstate, subnational (regional) and local levels. All participants in this multifaceted and multi-level process are endowed with certain competencies and powers in the international field, and this fact makes it possible for this international orchestra to sound.

Key words: international relations, international links, international cooperation, globalization, regionalization, localization, glocalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.002

S.I. BELOV PhD, senior researcher, Philosophy Department, State Academic University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

METHODOLOGY OF STUDYING VIDEO GAMES AS A TOOL OF SYMBOLIC POLICY

Within the framework of the presented study, a universal methodology was developed for assessing the effectiveness of a video game as a symbolic policy tool based on a system of quantitative criteria. The integral indicator of the game's effectiveness is formed by summing four indicators – the quality of the key elements of the game's narrative, its availability, the economic efficiency of the product from the developer's point of view, and its popularity among the user community. Each of the selected indicators is measured using a variety of quantitative criteria. In an optional order, when interpreting the results of the assessment of the game, factors such as design, the presence of a consultant, the content of images that are not included in the main part of the game, but demonstrate the original intention of the developers, the views, views of the game writer, participation in the development of the game by representatives of official authorities and related the state of business structures and public organizations, the presence of ideologically tinged "achievements" for the performance of special actions of a symbolic nature, the interpretation of the meanings of the game by the developers or authors of the original source of the plot. The prospects for the development of the methodology are primarily associated with the development of a classification system for video games based on a quantitative indicator of efficiency as a symbolic policy tool.

Key words: video games, computer games, assessment methodology, efficiency, symbolic politics.

RUSSIAN HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.003

A.А. CHEMSHIT Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of «Political Science and International Relations», Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

O.S. STATSENKO Candidate of Political Sciences, Docent, Sevastopol State University, Law institute, Head of Faculty "Theory and History of State and Law", Sevastopol, Russia

D.А.CHEMSHIT Candidate of Political Sciences, Docent of Faculty "Theory and History of State and Law", Law institute, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

"BREZHNEV'S STAGNATION" AS A SUPPOSE FOR THE CRISIS OF SOVIET STATEHOOD

The article analyzes the "Brezhnev" period in Soviet history, called "stagnation", in order to trace the political processes, the most important political and legal decisions of the leadership and the personal responsibility of the country's leader in the context of the growing crisis of Soviet statehood. The idea is developing that the first impetus for the collapse of the USSR was the "Khrushchev thaw" (primary de-Stalinization) initiated by N.S. Khrushchev.

It is noted that in the Brezhnev period, divided by its significance into early and late, none of the tasks dictated by time was fully solved. In the first decade, some positive trends were revealed that slowed down the crisis of statehood, but in the late period of the government's detachment from solving urgent problems, a serious state crisis increased. It is emphasized that the lost time ("stagnation") also became a prerequisite for the collapse of the USSR.

Key words: Brezhnev, "stagnation", "crisis of statehood", the USSR, social conservatism, Stalinism.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.004

V.Y. ZORIN Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; member of the Presidium of the Council of the President of the Russian Federation for InterethnicRelations; Member of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

M.A. ASTVATSATUROVA Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Director of the Scientific and Educational Center for Political and Ethnopolitical Studies of Pyatigorsk State University, Pyatigorsk, Russia; Professor of the Heilongjiang Institute foreign languages, Harbin, China

BIG ELECTIONS – 2021 AS A CONTEXT FOR STRENGTHENING CIVIL UNITY AND ETHNO-CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY

The article is devoted to the problem of ethnization of partogenesis and party functioning in theoretical and practical terms in the context of the 2021 elections in Russia. Risks of the possible formation of political parties based on ethnicity are identified, as well as trends in the inclusion of ethnopolitical segments in the programs of modern Russian political parties. Ethnopolitical segments of political programs – the main competitors in the 2021 elections – are compared. The broad context of the electoral campaign is considered from the point of view of its resources for strengthening the civil unity of Russian society and at the same time for meeting the ethnocultural interests of the citizens of the Russian Federation. Ethnopolitical segmentation is emphasized in certain regions of the Russian Federation, in particular, in the subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District.

Key words: elections, civil unity, state national policy, risks of ethnization of partogenesis, ethnopolitical segment of the party program, ethnic positioning in politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.005

S.G. KONKO Postgraduate Student of Political Science and Regional Studies at the Siberian Institute of Management-Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Novosibirsk, Russia

B.S. SLAVIN Student of the International Relations course of the Siberian Institute of Management of the branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Novosibirsk, Russia

SPECIFITIES OF THE RUSSIAN MODEL OF GROUP INTERESTS REPRESENTATION

In modern Russia there are a lot of interest groups varying in their composition, interests, structure, financial and political possibilities. The study of these groups, using existing classifications in political theory, makes it possible to define their role and place in the social-political processes taking place in the country more precisely as well as to develop the guidelines for the improvement of legislation in this area. However, the application of existing classifications of interest groups does not always allow to fully evaluate them therefore requiring the introduction of additional criteria.

The study aims to analyse the unique features of the Russian model for the representation of group interests. For this purpose, examining groups of interests represented in the public and political space of modern Russia according to the classifications recognized by the political science, and installing an extra classification by the level of the object of lobbying.

The analysis of Russian interest groups and the regularity of participation at the global and regional levels of interest groups of associative and institutional types, which correspond to the corporate model of representation of group interests, have been carried out with the help of the systematic approach. In the meantime, associative and disorganized groups mostly articulate their interests at the local and regional levels and mostly correspond to the features of a pluralistic model.

To change this situation, the article suggests to improve the mechanisms for articulating group interests through systems of functional and electoral representation.

Key words: lobbyism, pressure groups, interest groups, corporatism, pluralism.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.006

O.V. TSVETKOVA Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

EVOLUTION OF RUSSIA'S SUBNATIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

The modern system of subnational government institutions has existed for more than two decades and is constantly developing. The regional political system is evolving and these processes are associated with structural differences in the subjects of the Russian Federation: republics, regions, territories, autonomous districts and an autonomous region. Basically, the asymmetry is associated with the peculiarities of the socio-economic situation of the subjects of the Russian Federation and the constitutional and legal status of each subject of the Russian Federation, enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Key words: subjects of the federation, subnational political institutions, vertical of power, asymmetry, contractual practice, separation of powers, centralization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.007

A.V. OSIPOV Candidate of Political Science, Judge of the Leninsky District Court of Rostov-on-Don, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF MODERNIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELITE CLUSTER IN ORDER TO ENSURE THE CONSOLIDATION POLICY OF MODERN RUSSIA

The article proposes solutions to the problem of modernization and development of the elite cluster in order to ensure the effectiveness of the consolidation identification policy of modern Russia. Based on current social monitoring data, the author concludes that in modern Russia, the current consolidation of the elite within the elite cluster, as well as between the elite cluster and the civil society cluster, is still carried out mainly "from above" according to a unifying authoritarian scenario, and not a pluralistic democratic one. This is fraught with an increasing tendency to alienate the elite from civil society, intra-elite conflicts (not only through the federal center – regional elites, but also through the administrative-political elite, based on the information resources of traditional media – the new elite of social media electronic spaces), the stagnation of democratic processes in Russia, as well as the crisis of legitimizing the power of the political and administrative elite. The solution lies in the integration of the main political clusters and their internal content based on strategic values: public good, national security, social protection of the population, through democratization of opportunities and technologies for incorporating citizens into power, intensification of a culture of political participation throughout the social field, democratic development of educational institutions, culture, leadership institutions, independent expert opinion, interactive platforms for effective partnership communication of major political actors.

Key words: political power, political elite, civil society, political clusters, consolidation of political power, socio-political monitoring, political technologies, socio-political management, socio-political trends and contradictions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.008

P.E. SUSLONOV Consultant of the Department of Ethno-confessional Relations and organization of work on the prevention of extremism Department of Internal Policy of the Sverdlovsk Region, Associate Professor of the Department of Organization of Work with Youth of the Ural Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of Theology Ural State Mining University, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Yekaterinburg, Russia

A.V. TRETYAKOV Director of the Department of Internal Policy Sverdlovsk Region, Deputy Chairman of the Interdepartmental Commission on the prevention of extremism in the Sverdlovsk region, Yekaterinburg, Russia

METHODOLOGY AND PRACTICE OF FORMING A REGIONAL SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT THAT PREVENTS THE SPREAD OF THE IDEOLOGY OF TERRORISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE SVERDLOVSK REGION)

The article examines the methodological foundations and practical aspects of the formation of a socio-cultural environment in the region that prevents the spread of the ideology of terrorism. The mechanism of interaction of regional subjects of prevention of extremism and terrorism is revealed. Pedagogical approaches to the formation of anti-extremist and anti-terrorist consciousness are formulated. The conclusion is made about the priority in countering the ideology of terrorism, cultural, educational and pedagogical measures are implemented through interaction with regional civil society institutions.

Key words: regional socio-cultural environment, ideology of extremism and terrorism, extremist attitudes, extremist manifestations, anti-extremist and anti-terrorist consciousness, subjects of prevention.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.009

A.YU. PAVSHUKOVА PhD student at the Faculty of International relations and world politics St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

LAUNDERING OF CRIMINAL PROFITS AND FINANCING OF TERRORISM: THE MAIN AREAS OF ACTIVITIES OF CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS

The spread of the terrorist threat around the world directly depends on the level of its financial and material and technical base. Money laundering and the financing of terrorism are often seen as separate activities. The study of specific forms of manifestation and cases of modern terrorism, as well as the counteraction of this phenomenon by all institutions of the world community is impossible without understanding the mechanism of money laundering.

Key words: money laundering and terrorist financing, a source of terrorist financing, countering the financing of terrorism, money laundering mechanisms, terrorist economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.010

YU.R. SHEVELYOVA Trainee of National Research Institute for Communication Development, Moscow, Russia

COMMUNICATION REGIME AS A FACTOR OF REPRODUCTION OF POLITICAL POWER

The article examines the objective necessity of institutionalized and structured communication management in the course of exercising power in a complex adaptive social system. The author describes the mechanism of the influence of the system center on social dynamics in order to maintain its stability through the creation of a communication regime. In addition, the author tries to consider the political system as a generator of such a regime due to the basis it has for this and the need to preserve its influence, describes the functional features of the communication regime at the "entrance", "exit", within the political system and in the societal system of interactions. The author assigns a special place to the regulation and control of the "entrance" and "exit" operation during the formation of the communication regime, because the interactions made on them allow the political system to preserve itself and reproduce political power. The practical significance of the article in modern geopolitical conditions is revealed in the need to use the communication regime to preserve state sovereignty.

Key words: communication regime, political power, political regime, political communication, communication system.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.011

T. MAMATКOBILOV Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor,Academy of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

M.K. NORMURATOVA PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor Department of Humanities of the Academy Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE SOCIAL POLICY OF THE STATE

This article is devoted to the social policy of the state as a tool for implementing the strategy of socio-economic development. The effectiveness of the activities of public authorities depends on the achievement of strategic goals and objectives, the implementation of development priorities and the solution of social and economic problems in the country. The ongoing reforms in the new socio-economic policy of Uzbekistan are considered as one of the most important and key aspects of deepening market reform and socio-economic development of the country.

Key words: “New Uzbekistan”, social policy, strategy, authorities, state policy, economic factors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.012

A.K. EGEMBERDYEV Postgraduate student of the Russian Academy national economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

A STATE INFORMATION POLICY IN MIGRATION AS A PART OF GOVERNANCE OF SOCIETY’S DEVELOPMENT

This article is devoted to a question of definition of term “state information policy”, and a role and significance of the state information policy as a part of governance of society’s development, an information source, a mean of regulation of communication and information exchange. An importance of dual communication with use of state information policy is in the center point of view.

Key words: communication, information, state, migration.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.013

A.N. MIKHAYLENKO Doctor of Political Sciences, professor, chairman, International security and Russian foreign policy chair at the Department of national security, Institute of law and national security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

P.U. ROVCHAK Postgraduate student, International security and Russian foreign policy chair at the Department of national security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

RELATIONS OF RUSSIA WITH THE COUNTRIES OF AFRICAN CONTINENT

In the context of emerging new world order, Russia needs an intensive development of relations with African countries. Its theoretical basis can be a theoretical system consisting of colonial theories, theories of modernization, pan-Africanism and world order. Conceptually, the concept of sustainable development appears to be the most consistent with Russia's interests in Africa. Based on these theories and concepts, large international organizations and leading countries of the world are pursuing active policies towards Africa with their strengths and weaknesses. Russia has achieved certain successes in relations with African countries. At the same time, there are some problems in this domain. The prospects for the development of Russian-African relations depend on the effectiveness of their cooperation in accordance with the goals of sustainable development. Russia should develop cooperation in line with all seventeen SDGs, with particular emphasis on Sustainable Development Goal No. 16, Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. The most important areas of Russian-African cooperation for this purpose may be peacekeeping, military-technical cooperation and the use of Russian private security companies in ensuring the security of African countries.

Key words: decolonization, postcoloniality, neocoloniality, modernization, pan-Africanism, the new world order, the concept of sustainable development, peacekeeping, military-technical cooperation, private security companies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.014

I.Yu. ZALYSIN Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Russian State Agrarian University-МTAA, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF THE UN ANTITERRORIST BODIES IN THE 2000s

The article is devoted to the analysis of the process of changing the organizational foundations of the UN activities aimed at the prevention and suppression of international terrorism. The main directions of the reform of the UN antiterrorist bodies in the 2000s have been identified. The role and importance of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Counter-Terrorism Center, the UN Counter-Terrorism Office in the implementation of the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy adopted by the General Assembly in 2006 are disclosed. Difficulties and problems that negatively affect the effectiveness of the UN fight against terrorism are considered.

Key words: terrorism, countering terrorism, UN, Security Council, UN Institutional Reform, Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, UN Global Compact for the Coordination of Counter-Terrorism Activities, Counter-Terrorism Committee, Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, UN Counter-Terrorism Office.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.015

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.P. ALEKHINA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. STRATEGIC COURSE IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS OF THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

The article deals with an urgent topic – the building of the US foreign policy course in the Indo-Pacific region aimed at comprehensive global domination. Such course is based on the increasing geopolitical presence of the United States in the region, including the military-political component. At the same time, the region-forming factor plays the key role in the formation of a new regional security architecture. The Pentagon's interest in the Indo-Pacific region is obvious. It is this region that is of paramount importance for the strategic plans of the military department. Due to the inextricable historical, cultural, and trade ties with the countries of the Indo-Pacific region, the United States declared itself a “Pacific nation,” giving it the determination and the right to build a new configuration of international relations.

Key words: USA, Indo-Pacific Region, National Defense Strategy, China, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.016

MEHMET EMIN IKBAL DURRE Associate Professor in the Department of Regional Science of Moscow State Linguistic University (MSLU), Moscow, Russia

IRAQI KURDISTAN’S ECONOMIC POLICY BEFORE AND AFTER THE 2017 REFERENDUM

As expected, the referendum in northern Iraq on September 25, 2017 confirmed that the vast majority of residents of Iraqi Kurdistan and its surrounding territories (over 90 percent of those who took part in the referendum with a rather high voter turnout) are in favor of the independence of the Kurdish region. Moreover, not only Kurds voted, but also representatives of other ethnic groups from among the local population (Arabs, Turcomans, Armenians, Assyrians, etc.). The referendum led to a deepening economic crisis in autonomy: after the complete cessation of salary payments to employees of the Baghdad region, having conducted a military operation, Erbil deprived the oil fields in the province of Kirkuk, which brought him half the income from all exports of "black gold". More than a hundred thousand refugees who fled their homes located in the disputed territories after the arrival of Iraqi military and Shiite militias from al-Hashd al-Shaabi added problems to the Kurdish authorities. Despite all that, there are considerable prospects for the economic revival of the region, which, of course, will take a long time and will depend on the position of the authorities and representatives of all nations of its population.

Key words: Iraqi Kurdistan, Kirkuk, referendum, constitution, parties, economy, budget, potential, oil, gas.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.017

I.S. AMIANTOVA PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

A.V. BAKARYUKHINA Student, Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

THE CORRELATION OF REGIONAL AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES IN GERMANY

The German identity today represents an ambivalent complex phenomenon, which appears on both a regional and national level. This complexity is conditioned by the historical development of the state, which for a long time had no cultural, linguistic and dimensional integrity und whose nature is formed for centuries under the influence of independent stem duchies. The processes of sociopolitical and cultural integration of the territories led to the formation of a national identity of the Germans. And this raises the question of the relationship between the two sources of self-identification.

This article examines such categories as regional and national identities, the historical conditionality of their formation, the ways of their manifestation at the present time, and concludes about the ratio of 2 identities.

Key words: regional identity, national identity, Germany, stem duchies, German language, German dialects, German mentality, regional stereotypes in Germany, Martin Luther, "cultural nation", national state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.018

R.Sh. KUDASHEV Post-graduate student of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE EUROPEAN UNION: A SUPRANATIONAL OR INTERGOVERNMENTAL INTEGRATION COMMUNITY?

The definition of the European Union (EU) is difficult, since it cannot be attributed to federations, like the United States of America, or to classical international organizations, like the WTO or the UN. This raises the question of how the EU can be defined – as an institution standing above all European countries (supranational) or as an association for cooperation between EU states (intergovernmental).

The purpose of this article is to answer the question of what kind of integration community the EU is today. In order to classify the EU, it is necessary to define the concepts of «supranational» and «intergovernmental». Then, some of the main European institutions will be considered in terms of their composition and competence in relation to the EU states.

Key words: European Union, European integration, European Commission, Council of Ministers, Court of Justice of the European Union.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.019

A.L. MERKULOV PHD of International Relations, Nord-West Institute of Management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

FOREIGN POLICY OF THE FRG IN THE PRESENT STAGE

The foreign policy course of Germany at the present stage is determined by a number of factors connected with global changes that occurred in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. both on the world stage and in Germany itself. The most important of these, as we know, include the end of the cold war, the disintegration of the socialist camp and the Soviet Union, the unification of western and eastern Germany into a single state. The FRG, as well as other European countries, faced the tasks of overcoming the consequences of the split caused by the long-standing conflict between East and West, as well as finding a solid place in the context of globalization in order to successfully resist growing competition in the field of economy and foreign policy.

Thus, this article will consider the modern foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Key words: republic, foreign policy, economy, priorities, policy of peace.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.020

A.V. MAKAROV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Administration and National Security, Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

GEOPOLITICAL MODEL OF THE EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF THE NATION STATE

The article examines the features and prospects of geopolitical modeling in different planes of public relations and areas of international interaction. Special emphasis is placed on geopolitical modeling in the educational sphere, which is an effective tool for implementing the “soft power” strategy. Based on the example of Russia, a geopolitical model of the educational space of the nation state has been developed, the basis of which is a multipolar approach, inextricably linked with the production of diversity, within which it becomes possible to implement the controlled and observed homeostat proposed by V.B. Titov.

Key words: educational space, state, geopolitical model, controlled homeostat, multipolar approach, institutional mechanism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.021

SHEN SHAN Ph.D. student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, School of world politics, Moscow, Russia

ROSSOTRUDNICHESTVO SOFT POWER TOOL IN UKRAINE

After the Ukrainian crisis, the distance between Russia and Ukraine has increased. This article is devoted to one of the aspects of interaction between Russia and Ukraine in the humanitarian sphere, the understanding of "soft power" in Russia is investigated not only on the basis of the work of Russian and foreign scientists, but also on the basis of Russian official public documents and speeches of government leaders, the main directions of activities and goals are analyzed. representative offices of Rossotrudnichestvo in Ukraine and prospects for the development of future relations between Russia and Ukraine. Ultimately, the author concludes that humanitarian ties between Russia and Ukraine are the most direct manifestation of current Russian-Ukrainian relations. Nevertheless, even in the context of tense relations between Russia and Ukraine, the Rossotrudnichestvo office in Ukraine remains an effective tool and platform for the implementation of Russian foreign policy and the use of soft power, and still has a positive potential for improving relations between Russia and Ukraine.

Key words: Russia, Ukraine, «soft power», Rossotrudnichestvo, public diplomacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.022

A.A.NARYSHKIN Ph.D. Politics, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN APPROACHES TO THE TASKS OF ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN THE DOMESTIC SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

What is more important the state's focus on economic projects or domestic company’s profits growth or probably achievement of long-term political goals? This issue has been considered by many prominent Russian and foreign scholars. Historically international economic relations rise the importance of this issue. It rises even more sharply in the context of the global crisis caused by the coincidence of two global trends at once: the oil prices fall and the global COVID-19 pandemic.

This article reviews the relationship between domestic economic diplomacy and foreign policy in the Soviet period and over the past decades. This approach allows to understand better the experience of Russian economic diplomacy, to define it in the past and present, to develop and determine practical points for improving efficiency of its measures aimed at interaction between the state and business in order to achieve better results in foreign economic activity.

Key words: foreign policy, economic diplomacy, economic development, practical experience.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.023

GO SYUNHAO Master's Student of the Northwestern Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

CROWDFUNDING TECHNOLOGIES IN CHINA'S SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

This article considers crowdfunding as an innovative mechanism for attracting extra-budgetary funds for the development of the regional economy in China. The aim is to identify the position of crowdfunding technologies in China and their role and potential opportunities in the development of regions. We consider both the strengths and challenges that this mechanism faces in China, its Chinese specifics and prospects. Although the development of crowdfunding technologies in China has slowed down somewhat now, they have good potential, but for this it is necessary to clearly identify the most favorable areas of financing.

Key words: investment, regional development, China, crowdfunding, legal regulation, innovation, small business.

REVIEWS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.73.9.024

D.Y. SLIZOVSKIY PhD in History and Politics, Professor at the Peoples'Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), Moscow, Russia

PERESTROIKA IN THE USSR IN HISTORIOGRAPHY: CURRENT PREFERENCES

The concept of "perestroika", which entered the scientific lexicon and reflects the events in the USSR from 1985 to 1991, after more than thirty years, still not only arouses scientific interest. But science (historical, political science, and others), its representatives have not yet formed about the restructuring of the system of knowledge and ideas. There is also no theory that would formalize at least the basic scientific parameters of perestroika. This one, apparently, will be issued later. But perestroika gave scientists a fantastic feeling, some-gratitude, others-indignation. In connection with the possible publication by the publishing house "Science Today" of the article by Smirnova Yu.V. "Modern historiography of perestroika", there is an opportunity not only to comment on the advantages and disadvantages of this article, but also to offer in this context the author's version of the interpretation of the main and secondary problems covered in the historiography of the topic by Russian and foreign researchers. As a result of our reasoning and our analysis of the available material, we come to a simple conclusion: in modern Russia, in its cities and villages, there are still millions of those for whom perestroika is still the most important and real story, and its interpretation is an essential task of their daily life and the near future.

Key words: perestroika in the USSR, historiography of perestroika.

   
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