№ 2 (78), 2022

Academic journal “Political Science Issues” Volume 12, Issue 2 (78), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Nikitin A.I. Regionalism and Separatism as Modern Political Ideologies

Osinyuk V.A., Gareev S.V. Models of Digital Democracy: Classification of Approaches

Papchenkova A.N. Modern Studies of Political Leadership: an Evolutionary Theory

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

Seryakov V.D. Preparedness of the Red Army and Wehrmacht Command Personnel on the Eve of the War: Lessons for Modernity

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Мalakhov A.A., Rastimeshina T.V. The Idea of a Welfare State and the Fight Against Poverty

Egorov K.Yu. The Problem of Establishing the Historical Truth about the Paganism of the Eastern Slavs

Vakilova V.R. On the Issue of Constructing the Construct of the Intellectual Environment as a Component of Social Transformation: the Study of the Phenomenon as a Cognitive Unit

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Andreeva Yu.V., Lipatova A.V. Managing the Information Wave in the Context of a Political Media Image

Nizamiev A.G., Egemberdiev A.K. Communication, Information and Integration Skills of Migrant Workers in Connection with the Socio-Economic Development of the Region of Departure

Ananchenko A.B., Nikulin E.R., Khardikova A.S. Discoursive Agenda of Russian Network Agents with a Mostly Youth Audience: Contextual-Discursive Field, Semantic Core, Discourse Triggers and User Portrait

Feldman P.J., Klyashtorin A.A. Actual Problems and Prospects of Participation of Modern Russian Trade Unions in Electoral Processes

Lyakhovenko O.I. Quality of Life and Political Stability: to the Problem Statement

Marukhina A.D. Features of the Implementation of Constitutional Provisions Through Bureaucratic Rationalization of the Municipal Level of Public Authority

Karpikova A.Y. Features of Using Internet Networks as a Channel of Political Communication in Modern Russia

Kuznetsova E.A. Reformation of Local Self-Government within the Framework of a Unified System of Public Authority

Menshikova E.O. Political Leadership as a System of Images in the Age of Deep-Fake

Falaleev M.A., Sitdikova N.A., Nechay E.E. Cybercrime in Politics: Experience of Subject Typology

Shirokova E.O. Awareness of the Residents of the Republic of Mordovia about the Activities of Non-Profit Organizations: Results of the Questionnaire Survey

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Nazarova E.A., Каrnaukhov P.A. Major Activities of the Moscow Healthcare System in the Conditions of Crisis and Institutional Transformations

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Tushkov A.A., Voron-Kovalskaya A.O. To the Question about the Results of Comprehensive Reforming of China's Education System

Taher M.T., Ershad A.S. Geopolitical Consequences of the Transformation of Afghan State After the Taliban Came to Power for the Countries of Central Asia (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan)

Menshikov P.V., Vilchinskii A.S. Catalonia on the Agenda of the Spanish Coalition Government

Bortsov D.V. Formation of Russian Economic Diplomacy: from Ancient Rus to Russian Empire

Okumbekov R.S. The Main Features of Neo-Patrimonialism and the Way Forward in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Poltoratckaia S.K. The Danish Penitentiary System of the ХVIII-XX Centuries: Development Experience and Сurrent State

STUDENT SCIENCE

Lutsiuk D.V. The Relationship Between the USA and Spain in the Field of Culture

Mohammad Anwar Baktash, Visal Abdul Hai, Habibi Mohamad Wasim. Afghanistan is on the Verge of Changes: India’s and Turkey’s Political Relations with Afghanistan

REVIEWS

Mikhaylenko A.N. Ecological Terrorism as a Global Threat (Review of the Monograph by Karatueva E.N. “Ecological Terrorism: Concept, Types, Counteraction”. M.: “Publishing House “Science Today”, 2022

Our authors № 2-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.001

А.I. NIKITIN Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Chair of political theory of MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Director of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Security of MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

REGIONALISM AND SEPARATISM AS MODERN POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES

The article considers the current approaches to working with socio-political information that can ensure effective work with significant arrays of thematic data for analytical purposes. Under the guidance of the author of these lines, a team of professionals created an electronic educational and research resource “Modern political ideologies: the practice of formation, models of influence and dissemination of political and ideological information and technologies to counter ideological manipulation in the Russian and international social environment and public consciousness,” [16] containing an extensive array of materials on a wide range of political ideologies and providing an opportunity for in-depth analysis of the phenomenon of ideologies. The portal “Modern political ideologies ...” is not the first such electronic resource, but the fourth in a row, created by a professional team under the leadership of the author of these lines. The relevance of this “interface” is due to the fact that its content-dense content and operational format, provided an internal conceptual and thematic organization – is not just an electronic thematic library: being formed and internally thematic organized by specialized specialists on the topic, it becomes a tool for professional political analysis.

Key words: ideology, separatism, secessionism, regionalism, discourse.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.002

V.A. OSINYUK Postgraduate student at the faculty of political science, Department of Russian Politics Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

S.V. GAREEV Postgraduate student at the faculty of political science, Department of Russian Politics Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

MODELS OF DIGITAL DEMOCRACY: CLASSIFICATION OF APPROACHES

In this article, the authors consistently consider three main directions of the development of modern electronic democracy: electronic democracy as a global trend, as a kind of fashion for new political technologies and a new political understanding of political processes; features of the development of electronic democracy in Russia and the Russian character, the "Russian spirit" of this development and, finally, modern systemic problems of electronic democracy. The authors come to the conclusion that e-democracy not only continues to be a modern trend in world development, which is emphasized by numerous studies of the last five to ten years, but is also gradually becoming popular among an increasing number of people – both politicians and political technologists, and ordinary citizens. On the other hand, e-democracy has national characteristics depending on each country, including in Russia. However, the introduction of this new digital phenomenon has a number of systemic difficulties, while the advantages and successes of e-democracy are most often national in nature.

Key words: e-democracy, political process, cyberdemocracy, government, digitalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.003

A.N. PAPCHENKOVA Postgraduate student of the Department of philosophy of politics and law, Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

MODERN STUDIES OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP: AN EVOLUTIONARY THEORY

The article analyzes the evolutionary theory of political leadership, examines contradictory studies of dominant leadership in modern society, as a study based on a new scale for measuring the social dominance orientation. In conclusion, it is concluded that evolutionary theory provides researchers with the tools necessary to analyze how the evolutionary past of our species affects modern political leadership and the behavior of followers and can help future scientists and politicians form and understand how to organize a leadership process that will satisfy the most of citizens.

Key words: political leadership, evolutionary theory, orientation to social dominance, political psychology, leadership qualities.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF RUSSIA

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.004

V.D. SERYAKOV Сandidate of military Sciences, associate Professor, rector of the Institute of Economics and culture, Moscow, Russia

PREPAREDNESS OF THE RED ARMY AND WEHRMACHT COMMAND PERSONNEL ON THE EVE OF THE WAR: LESSONS FOR MODERNITY

The article presents a comparative analysis of the qualitative characteristics of the command personnel of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht, the features of their selection and placement on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, the influence of this factor on the results of its initial period. The number and content of the stages of becoming an officer in a command position has been clarified. Based on the results of the study, the profiles of the commander with different levels of readiness to manage the unit in combat are determined, the terms and conditions of their achievement are justified, of which the main one is the formation of the officer's spatial-temporal thinking corresponding to the level of the position.

Key words: preparedness of the red army, stages of formation of professional skills, spatial-temporal thinking, criteria of readiness to control in battle.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.005

А.А. МALAKHOV Head of the Legal Department, A.G. Lorkh Federal Potato Research Center, Moscow, Russia

Т.V. RASTIMESHINA Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor at the Chair of philosophy, sociology and political science, National Research University "Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology", Moscow, Russia

THE IDEA OF A WELFARE STATE AND THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY

Poverty is analyzed as an economic, social, moral and ethical phenomenon. It is shown that helping the poor and protecting those in need in the modern world are important responsibilities of the state. The right of the poor to be cared for by the state is provided for by a social contract concluded between society and the state. It is argued that the absence of poverty and the attention of society to poverty is a social norm. It is emphasized that the goals of the anti-poverty policy are determined not so much by the sociological or economic aspects of poverty as by the moral and ethical aspect of poverty, however, the content and objectives of the anti-poverty policy are related to how the state understands the nature and causes of poverty.

Key words: poverty, state policy, natural state, social contract, political condition, poverty criteria, social protection, democracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.006

K.YU. EGOROV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy", Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF ESTABLISHING THE HISTORICAL TRUTH ABOUT THE PAGANISM OF THE EASTERN SLAVS

The article characterizes the paganism of the Eastern Slavs as a religious, political, social and cultural phenomenon that formed the worldview of the Slavs, and formed the basis for Orthodox Christianity. The facts are presented showing that Orthodoxy is a symbiosis of Greek (Byzantine) Christianity and ancient pagan religion, harmoniously reformatted for the state needs of Russia. The article reveals the problem of flagellation of paganism by Christian authors of the past and public figures of the modern era, forced to spread the Christian state influence, to take care of the fall of the authority of pagan religion or its oblivion. The colossal contribution of ancient pagan culture and religion to the formation of a special Orthodox faith, which had a consolidating significance for the East Slavic peoples, is analyzed. The purpose of the study. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of the religious worldview of the Eastern Slavs, to reveal the origins of the problem of affirming the historical truth about the paganism of the Eastern Slavs, to rehabilitate paganism in the eyes of the descendants of the Eastern Slavs and other peoples, as well as to identify the necessary and justified ways of state policy for educational, educational, educational and patriotic purposes. Conclusions. As a result of the conducted research, the author comes to the conclusion that many Orthodox ideas, holidays, rituals and rituals come from the ancient worldview of the Eastern Slavs, borrowed from the ancient Slavic religion. The author concludes that in recent decades there has been a tendency to increase the demand for information about the culture and religion of the Eastern Slavs, for visits to relevant cultural and sacred sites and events, as well as for Slavic clothing, amulets and other attributes. The growing demand among Russians must be met by: expanding educational programs at all levels, including information about the cosmocentric worldview and religious beliefs of the Slavs; developing special state programs to popularize ancient and medieval Slavic culture and history; restoration and improvement of ancient and medieval pagan cultural and sacred sites and monuments (and their protection); construction of new Slavic cultural centers and ethnic villages; increasing the production of natural ethnic clothing, which is especially important when looking for import substitution.

Key words: paganism, paganism of the Eastern Slavs, East Slavic paganism, Christianity, Orthodoxy, state religious policy, worldview of the Slavs.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.007

V.R. VAKILOVA Senior Lecturer of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines of the Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF CONSTRUCTING THE CONSTRUCT OF THE INTELLECTUAL ENVIRONMENT AS A COMPONENT OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION: THE STUDY OF THE PHENOMENON AS A COGNITIVE UNIT

The scientific community has predetermined the increasing importance of the role of the intellectual environment in socio-political processes: Throughout the history of mankind, knowledge has been a key component of social transformation and the basis of power. Adaptation to the world order and adaptation of the world to one's own needs have indicated the need for a person to constantly develop intellectual potential.

The intellectual environment is a modification of the socio-cultural environment – a complex, diverse set of social, spiritual and material conditions in which an individual realizes his needs and carries out any activity throughout his life. This is a necessary, fundamental condition for social development – as a person goes through the path of intellectual transformation throughout his existence, so the environment in which he lives adapts to the realities created by this person. This article attempts to study the typology of the intellectual environment, as well as its direct agents in the construction of the intellectual environment as a socio-cultural phenomenon.

Key words: intellectual environment, «struggle for minds», «individual evolution», absolute knowledge, «soft power», scientific and technological progress, cultural integration, «intellectual core».

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.008

YU.V. ANDREEVA Professor, doctor of pedagogical sciences, AR-media Director of Publishing House "Logos", Kazan, Russia

A.V. LIPATOVA Senior Lecturer of Management Department University of Management "TISBI", Kazan, Russia

MANAGING THE INFORMATION WAVE IN THE CONTEXT OF A POLITICAL MEDIA IMAGE

The article examines the patterns of information wave modeling in the context of the development of a political media image and the management of the "information" behavior of the audience. In the projection of the interdisciplinary approach, a conceptual view of the "information wave" is proposed and the phenomena of the dissemination of resonant information and the expansion of the range of its interpretations are revealed. The information wave is studied taking into account modern patterns of media consumption and methods of political media influence. On the example of the topic of the name of the highest official of the Republic of Tatarstan, the main stages and mechanisms of its formation (increase, peak, decline, repeated peaks) are revealed. The study summarizes and formulates the features of media influence in the situation of a single information field (information wave). In the process of modeling, the informational initiation of the opinion leader, his role in the formation and management of the information wave is considered.

Key words: information wave, information behavior, media influence, political leader, regional leader, construction, presidential status.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.009

А.G. NIZAMIEV Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Natural Geography of Osh State University, Osh, Kyrgyz Republic

А.K. EGEMBERDIEV Postgraduate student of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy, Moscow, Russia

COMMUNICATION, INFORMATION AND INTEGRATION SKILLS OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION OF DEPARTURE

The article examines the question of how the socio-economic development of the region from which labor migrants leave determines their personal characteristics, their position on the labor market and in the society of the host country. Migrant workers from a poor region occupy mostly low-paid jobs.

Labor migration leads to the formation of long-term ties between countries and regions. The socio-economic development of a region that sends migrants has a direct impact on the development of the hosting country. This circumstance should be taken into account in the migration policy.

Key words: labor migration, Kyrgyzstan, Osh region, socio-economic development.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.010

A.B. ANANCHENKO Candidate of Historical Sciences, Director of the Institute of History and Politics of the Moscow Pedagogical State University, Head of the Department of Modern National History of the Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia

E.R. NIKULIN Student of the Institute of History and Politics of the Faculty of History of the Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia

A.S. KHARDIKOVA Student of the Institute of History and Politics, Faculty of Applied Political Science, Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia

DISCOURSIVE AGENDA OF RUSSIAN NETWORK AGENTS WITH A MOSTLY YOUTH AUDIENCE: CONTEXTUAL-DISCURSIVE FIELD, SEMANTIC CORE, DISCOURSE TRIGGERS AND USER PORTRAIT

The article is devoted to the study of the discursive agenda produced by network agents of political actors with different ideological orientations in the Russian online space.

With the help of a hybrid model of the methodology, we have identified the specifics of the contextual-discursive field and the semantic core formed by relevant social media communities, discursive triggers that encourage consumers to respond more actively to the agenda and user portrait of the audience of each ideological segment we have identified.

When implementing the study, we determined that the intersection of the discursive field of network agents with different ideological orientations is noted mainly in the framework of discourses that convey distrust of elections (expressed in criticism of the procedure for voting on amendments to the Constitution) and solidarity with Belarusian protesters, and discursive triggers for each ideological segments are unique, which indicates the absence of potential for "overflow" and association of politicized audiences, which is also evidenced by the extremely low level of their intersection.

Key words: discursive agenda, discursive triggers, user portrait, contextual discursive field, network agent.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.011

P.J. FELDMAN Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, Deputy Director of the Institute for strategic studies and predictions at RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

A.A. KLYASHTORIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, Moscow, Russia

ACTUAL PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF PARTICIPATION OF MODERN RUSSIAN TRADE UNIONS IN ELECTORAL PROCESSES

The article discusses the political mechanisms and technologies through which Russian trade unions carry out electoral representation of the interests of employees. The practice of incorporation of so-called "trade union candidates" into legislative bodies of all levels, is subjected to a political analysis. It has been established that at the present stage it is more expedient for the largest trade union center of the country (FNPR) not to create its own party, but to maintain mutually beneficial cooperation with political forces with great electoral potential. This strategy has already proved its effectiveness during federal, regional and municipal electoral campaigns of 2021. At the same time, there is a need for a normative fixation of the duties of deputies who have received the support of trade unions to organizations that have entrusted them to represent the interests of working people.

Key words: elections, electoral representation of interests, trade unions, interest groups, parliament, political decision-making.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.012

О.I. LYAKHOVENKO Candidate of Political Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Chair of Russian politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

QUALITY OF LIFE AND POLITICAL STABILITY: TO THE PROBLEM STATEMENT

This article proposes to consider the problem of quality of life, well studied in social and economic sciences, through the prism of the subject field and functional tasks of political science. The author builds a conceptual model that assesses the relationship between state sustainability and quality of life, emphasizing the need to ensure social consolidation and support for the reproduction of the state system. The author conceptually defines this factor of broad public consolidation through the category of “political sustainability”. The article shows the specificity and evolution of the definition of the concept of “quality of life” in world science, highlights the main approaches to its content – objective-environmental (econometric) and subjective (socio-psychological). The author refers to the empirical base of existing quality-of-life ratings in the regions and cities of Russia and uses it to identify the essential characteristics of political stability in different territories of Russia, which differ in the state of quality of life. Among the conclusions, the author notes that the differences in the quality of life in different territories within Russia determine: 1) the difference in the social demand of society in relation to the Russian state as the governing system; 2) the difference in the course of social conflicts and 3) the difference in the ability of the state to ensure the consolidation of society. In conclusion, the author defines a further research program for studying the quality of life within the subject field of political science in a theoretical and empirical way.

Key words: quality of life, political sustainability, state stability, socio-political conflicts, social consolidation, political support.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.013

A.D. MARUKHINA Postgraduate Student of the Department of Management, Politics and Law Omsk Humanitarian Academy, Omsk, Russia

FEATURES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS THROUGH BUREAUCRATIC RATIONALIZATION OF THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL OF PUBLIC AUTHORITY

This article discusses the issues of changes in the system of public authority at the regional and municipal levels. In the process of implementing the constitutional amendments adopted in 2020 in the system of public administration in Russia, the relationship between the state bodies of the subjects of the Federation and local self-government bodies is being transformed. The purpose of this study is to reveal the specifics of the implementation of constitutional provisions through the development of optimal management decisions at the regional and municipal levels of government. Due to the changes taking place at all levels of government, the vertical system of relations between the region and municipalities requires a revision of the powers and the mechanism of their delegation between these levels of government. These changes guarantee the rational use of municipal resources and will further strengthen the constitutional unity of the system of public power in the regions.

Key words: system of public power, local self-government body, state body, subject of the Federation, municipality, management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.014

A.Y. KARPIKOVA Postgraduate student of the Department of Management, Politics and Law, Omsk Humanitarian Academy, Omsk, Russia

FEATURES OF USING INTERNET NETWORKS AS A CHANNEL OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN MODERN RUSSIA

In this article, the author conducts a political science study of the introduction of Internet communications into the regional space of modern Russia, considering some features and trends in the use of virtual social networks in Russian politics, including at the regional level. In the author's interpretation, a comparative analysis of the use of individual social media content in election campaigns, the political activities of statesmen and work with the electorate, as well as the influence of virtual social networks on the formation of the image of a politician and the preferences of voters is carried out. It seems important for a political party or an individual politician to build their activities in accordance with the challenges of the surrounding reality, to skillfully shape and promote their image through the current capabilities of current technologies, and above all information, which is reflected in the Internet environment and its system of interactive services.

Key words: virtual social networks, Internet users, Internet environment, portal, regional level.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.015

E.A. KUZNETSOVA Post-graduate student Political Sciences and Regional Studies, Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Tambov State Technical University, Tambov, Russia

REFORMATION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF A UNIFIED SYSTEM OF PUBLIC AUTHORITY

The study of the existence of the theory of democracy in modern conditions remains relevant. International politics demonstrates how often foreign states resort to various manipulations to spread their global influence, including accusing their competitors of violating democratic foundations, human rights, etc.

Relatively recently, amendments to the country's basic law were adopted, which affected all spheres of power relations, and this fact further aggravated the attitude of Western "partners" who reproach our country for building authoritarianism.

In this article, we will consider the key issue of local self-government, both direct and indirect exercise of power by the people as part of the constitutional transformation of the power system and in connection with the emergence of a unified public authority. The purpose of the study is to study the transformations in the Russian power structure and their compliance with the pan-European principles of building democracy.

Historical analysis radically updates our knowledge, including in the study of the modern redistribution of powers, thanks to which we can confidently note that the interaction of state and municipal governments in the public authority system is built on the theory of a contractual state.

Key words: public authority, local authority, dismantling of authority.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.016

E.O. MENSHIKOVA PhD student, Department of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AS A SYSTEM OF IMAGES IN THE AGE OF DEEP-FAKE

The article is devoted to the changing approaches to political leadership, taking into account the development of modern audiovisual technologies. The aim of the work is to reveal the main features of the Russian perception of the image of a political leader as an independent actor of public policy and the related risks caused by the development of deep-fake technology. In order to study this phenomenon, the articles of contemporary authors devoted to the phenomenon of deep-fake in political reality, as well as the risks and challenges associated with this phenomenon, were analyzed. The author made a conclusion about the increasing influence of new technologies on political leadership, as well as about the need to form a legal and other regulatory framework in the sphere of management and verification of political information.

Key words: political leadership, political image, political communications, deep-fake, politics, artificial intelligence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.017

M.A. FALALEEV Student of a bachelor's degree of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.A. SITDIKOVA Student of a bachelor's degree of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.E. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Assistant Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

CYBERCRIME IN POLITICS: EXPERIENCE OF SUBJECT TYPOLOGY

The emergence and widespread use of digital technologies at the end of the 20th century launched a process of significant transformation of communication between individuals, communities, and states. Today, the possibilities of interaction in the Internet environment are used by all types of socio-political actors, since they can significantly increase not only the efficiency, but also the effectiveness of communication. Nevertheless, despite the obvious advantages of the widespread introduction of digital technologies, at the turn of the century, humanity also faced several threats that accompany the rapid development of the global information network. The key one is the problem of cybercrime. Despite the diversity of its forms and types, the study focuses on studying the political component of this phenomenon. This is since in recent years, cybercrime has become a significant tool for exerting indirect pressure on opponents during the struggle for power both at the level of individual states and in the international arena. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to identify the main characteristics and scenarios for the evolution of the phenomenon of cybercrime in politics. The research tools are presented by methods of synthesis of theoretical materials, typology, and forecasting. The results of the work are presented in the form of a characteristic and qualitative assessment of «state-lead» and «non-state-lead» types of cybercrime on the dynamics of the political process. The materials of the article will be useful for further study of the impact of cybercrime on political processes at the national and global levels.

Key words: cybercrime, digital space, cyber security, cyber terrorism, digital sovereignty, global network, digital transformations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.018

E.O. SHIROKOVA Postgraduate student of the department of world history, political science and regional studies at the National Research Mordovian state University, Saransk, Russia

AWARENESS OF THE RESIDENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA ABOUT THE ACTIVITIES OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

The article analyzes the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in the Republic of Mordovia in order to identify the awareness of the inhabitants of the region about the role and activities of non-profit organizations. It is concluded that awareness of the activities of NGOs in the Republic of Mordovia corresponds to the all-Russian trends, but does not reflect the significant contribution of non-profit organizations that they make to the socio-economic development of the region. In general, information about the role of NGOs in the Republic of Mordovia and the degree of their influence on public authorities among the population is fragmentary, which is a significant drawback for the development of a culture of participation and civil society in the region.

Key words: civil society, non-profit organizations, socially oriented NPOs, public awareness, the Republic of Mordovia.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.019

E.A. NAZAROVA Doctor of Sciences (sociology), Professor at the Chair of sociology, MGIMO MFA of Russia, Moscow, Russia

P.А. КАRNAUKHOV Postgraduate student working for the Master's degree at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF THE MOSCOW HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN THE CONDITIONS OF CRISIS AND INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS

The COVID-19 pandemic has become not only a serious test, but also a catalyst for the development of national health systems for almost all countries of the world. For Russia, in many ways, the flagship measures were the adaptation of the capital's health system, as well as innovative technological and organizational algorithms for the prevention and control of coronavirus infection in Moscow, considered in this article.

Key words: healthcare, COVID-19, prevention, healthcare management.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.020

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.O. VORON-KOVALSKAYA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE RESULTS OF COMPREHENSIVE REFORMING OF CHINA'S EDUCATION SYSTEM

This article is devoted to a current topic – the analysis of the results of the implementation of the PRC "Resolution on the reform of the education system of China" dated May 27, 1985, as a result of which the country took leading world positions in all areas of political, economic and social development. The 1950s were a turning point for the People's Republic of China. As a result of revolutionary transformations, almost all spheres of life have been radically changed. However, in the ten years that have passed since the "cultural revolution", it has become obvious that the country has not made the expected "big leap". Deng Xiaoping's famous Chinese reforms, based on the implementation of the "policy of four modernizations" – in industry, the army, agriculture and science, did not bypass the education system. They turned the semi-colonial and semi-feudal education in old China into a socialist one. During the implementation of the Resolution of the CPC Central Committee of May 27, 1985, the term "suzhi jiaoyu" (苏智娇玉) ("education for the purpose of improving the quality of personality") was widely used and assumed the comprehensive development of students in mental, moral, artistic, physical and labor relations. In 30 years, the education system has achieved tremendous development, which has never been seen in the history of China. Considering this Resolution, the authors come to the conclusion that it was a key factor that became the basis for the comprehensive development of China.

Key words: PRC, Resolution of the CPC Central Committee of May 27, 1985, "cultural revolution" in China, China's education system, university autonomy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.021

M.T. TAHER Doctor of Laws, Lecturer at Balkh Governmental University, Afghanistan

A.S. ERSHAD Post-graduate student, Federal State Autonomous Institution of Higher Education “Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University”, Kazan, Russia

GEOPOLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF AFGHAN STATE AFTER THE TALIBAN CAME TO POWER FOR THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA (TAJIKISTAN, UZBEKISTAN AND TURKMENISTAN)

This article dwells upon the process of dissipation of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan due to the Accession to Power of the Taliban movement in this country. Special attention is given to the present geopolitical situation with respect to the three states of Central Asia: Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, for which the events taking place in Afghanistan, in its northern provinces, give serious cause for concern. Analyzing the reasons of the said dramatic transformation of the Afghan state system, the authors try to give an unbiased assessment to the acts of the world community, as well as of those countries that are Afghanistan’s immediate neighbors, within the context of the national Afghan social-political crisis. The article raises the following highly topical issue: is Taliban capable of creating an effective state, and can it this way convince the world that the new power of Afghanistan is to be reckoned with? The authors examine different scenarios and come to the following final conclusion: the “Afghan question” has presently turned into the key factor determining geopolitical stability across the whole territory of Central Asia.

Key words: Afghanistan, Taliban movement, Central Asia, world community, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.022

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), Moscow, Russia

A.S. VILCHINSKII Post-Graduate Student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Expert of the Institute for Contemporary International Studies, Moscow, Russia

CATALONIA ON THE AGENDA OF THE SPANISH COALITION GOVERNMENT

The article is devoted to the analysis of the interaction between the Spanish coalition government and Catalonia. The urgency of this issue is explained by the escalation of the Catalan problem after the unilateral referendum in the region held on October 1, 2017. Moreover, following the Spanish parliamentary elections on November 10, 2019, the role of Catalan parties increased. It caused the need to resume active talks with the autonomy. The aim of the research is to identify the main approaches of the PSOE-Unidas Podemos coalition government to renew the system of relations between the central authorities and Catalonia. Official documents of the Kingdom of Spain, analytical works of Russian and Spanish academics, as well as of sociological surveys were used to conduct the research. The paper describes the changed role of the Catalan parliamentary parties after the 2019 elections. The authors assess of the importance of negotiations with Catalonia in the context of the effectiveness of the functioning of the coalition government. In addition, the paper identifies the basic principles of the of “multilevel Spain” concept which is being developed by the cabinet of Pedro Sanchez. The study also compares changes in the public support for the ruling coalition and the opposition forces against the background of negotiations between the Spanish government and Catalonia. In conclusion, the authors highlight that the concessions of the Spanish coalition government in relations with Catalonia may lead to the decline of public support before the parliamentary elections scheduled for 2023.

Key words: Spain, Catalonia, PSOE, Unidas Podemos, regionalism, coalition, ideology.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.023

D.V. BORTSOV Specialist with Degree in Economics, 2nd Secretary of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russia, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION OF RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY: FROM ANCIENT RUS TO RUSSIAN EMPIRE

The author analyzes the emergence and main stages of the Russian economic diplomacy evolution applying methods of aggregation, dating and evaluation of available sources in the field of history, political science and economics. The stages of establishment and further transformation of organizational forms of the economic branch in the Russian diplomatic service as well as the formation of the national school of personnel training are studied. Also author describes positive and negative factors influencing on direction and growth rate of foreign economic activities and economic diplomacy at the mentioned historic period as well as highlights key specific features of foreign trade area of Russia throughout its development. The state economic policy at that historical stage, the approaches of the country's leadership to foreign economic issues, the implementation of economic diplomacy activities are consistently considered with a focus on the perception of its importance. The author also identifies the historical features of the Russian political and socio-economic systems which prevented the active promotion of national products to foreign markets. Contribution of separate politicians to development of foreign trade and national export – either country leaders or heads of specialized departments responsible for foreign economic area throughout the history – is investigated with estimation of its results. The international situation that took place in the mentioned period is studied with focus on its influence on state economic policy and priorities in relations with key foreign partners. The impact of foreign commercial agents’ activities on the condition and transformation of the political and economic landscape in Russia is analyzed. The circumstances of introduction of new or localization of existing and already used in other countries tools of economic diplomacy are described with highlighting of their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the process of changing the attitude of diplomats to this issue: from complete denial of participance in foreign economic activities to gradual acceptance and final inclusion in the circle of key priorities of the diplomatic service.

Key words: Russian economic diplomacy, evolution of economic diplomacy, history of economic diplomacy, Russian diplomatic service, export promotion, diplomatic support of the economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.024

R.S. OKUMBEKOV Postgraduate, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communication, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN FEATURES OF NEO-PATRIMONIALISM AND THE WAY FORWARD IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

The author's main thesis is that the transitional nature of the ongoing political processes in the Republic of Kazakhstan indicates that the conceptualisation proposed by Sh.N. Eisenstadt is not applicable to modern Kazakhstan. The author reveals the factors and logic of post-Soviet Kazakhstan development, development and natural strengthening of presidential power, legislative prerequisites for preparation of the change of political power, dynamics of its development in the context of political power transit. The chronology describes the events that led to the final transit of the supreme power in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Key words: neopatrimonialism, Kazakhstan, transit of political power, political regime.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.025

S.K. POLTORATCKAIA Graduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE DANISH PENITENTIARY SYSTEM OF THE ХVIII-XX CENTURIES: DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE AND СURRENT STATE

The article analyzes the philosophical and political approaches to the idea of punishment, defines the specific features of the development of the penitentiary system in Denmark. The historical path of the idea of punishment in the country is analyzed, on the basis of which a conclusion is made about the main problems of the development of the system in modern times, the unique features of the penitentiary system, largely borrowed from the United States, are determined, which make it possible to find out that the issue of effective punishment in the country has not been resolved, the idea of «social convenience» punishment described in the article, could not solve the actual problems of punishment in the country.

Key words: penitentiary system, punishment, Denmark, Scandinavian countries, the idea of punishment, new prison principles, resocialization.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.026

D.V. LUTSIUK Student, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USA AND SPAIN IN THE FIELD OF CULTURE

The article discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of the implementation of the foreign cultural policy of Spain. On the basis of domestic and foreign studies, as well as official documents, the features and weaknesses of Spain's external cultural activity are analyzed and a conclusion is made about the directions of its further development. In addition, the article contains materials about how the cultural industry has developed in Spain and for what reason it is closely linked to it now, and why programs are being adopted to strengthen ties between the United States and Spain, as well as what will lead to Spanish becoming the second international language in the world. The specifics of relations between the United States and Spain are due to the fact that in the 18th and 19th centuries they were strained in every industry, mainly economic, but due to the large number of Latin American population, governments had to choose a joint strategy for interethnic development.

Key words: foreign cultural policy, foreign cultural activity, Spain, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.78.2.027

MOHAMMAD ANWAR BAKTASH Postgraduate student working for the Master's degree at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Kabul, Afghanistan

VISAL ABDUL HAI Postgraduate student working for the Master's degree at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Kabul, Afghanistan

HABIBI MOHAMAD WASIM Postgraduate student working for the Master's degree at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Kabul, Afghanistan

AFGHANISTAN IS ON THE VERGE OF CHANGES: INDIA’S AND TURKEY’S POLITICAL RELATIONS WITH AFGHANISTAN

The article is an overview study of the relations between Turkey and Afghanistan, as well as India and Afghanistan in the period from 2019 to 2021. The period was full of events, mainly connected with the transition of power from the elected government of A. Ghani to the Taliban movement. Such a rapid convergence of the whole country could not but come as a surprise, including for the Indian side, since the forecasts were different: the elected government, with which India cooperated in the implementation of its projects, had to keep power in the country within the framework that existed before the withdrawal of coalition troops.

Thus, India continued to implement large-scale projects in Afghanistan. Currently, India, despite the initial decision to completely withdraw from Afghanistan, has no other optimal solution than to make every effort to maintain its presence, at the first stage – within the framework of the “pre-Taliban” period. As for Turkey's interests in Afghanistan, their vector is primarily in the direction of developing the idea of a “Turkic world,” where it plays the role of an ideological center. It is also shown that by its presence in Afghanistan, Turkey seeks to advance as a member of the pro-Western coalition. But it should not be ignored that Turkey is pursuing an independent policy, which is conditioned by its status as the main actor in the territory of the countries of the conditional “Turkic world.” Turkish interests in Afghanistan are currently concentrated mainly in the political plane, make every effort to maintain its presence, at the first stage – within the framework of the “pre-Taliban” period.

Key words: cooperation, national interests, presence, leadership, influence.

REVIEWS

Reviewer:

A.N. MIKHAYLENKO Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, chairman, International security and Russian foreign policy chair at the Department of national security, Institute of law and national security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

ECOLOGICAL TERRORISM AS A GLOBAL THREAT REVIEW of the monograph by Karatueva E.N. “Ecological terrorism: concept, types, counteraction”. M.: “Publishing House “Science Today”, 2022

   
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