№ 10 (74), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 10 (74), 2021.

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Osipov A.V. Theoretical and Methodological Potential of Application of Active-Network Theory for Analysis of Modern Political Institutions, Processes and Technologies

Persidskaya O.A. Politicized Ethnicity: A Theoretical Declaration in the Conceptual Treatment of the Phenomenon

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Tushkov A.A., Voron-Kovalskaya A.O. Problems of Fractal Modeling of Civil Education in China (to the Question about the Educational System in Hong Kong and Main China)

Zubova O.G., Filipova A.G. TikTok: New Opportunities for Communication and Self-Presentation of Modern Teenagers

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Gerasimova I.V., Nesterchuk O.A., Grishin V.O. The Impact of Migration Processes on the Demographic Development of the Russian Federation

Brodskaia N.P. Artificial Intelligence: Social Risks and Challenges

Belov S.I. Prospects for the Use of Video Games and the Industry of their Production as an Instrument of Memory Policy from the Point of View of Specialized Government Bodies and NGOS

Grishin O.E., Belov M.V., Gabdullin K.A. Transformation of Russian Political Campaigns in the Context of Political Stability: Efficiency of Internet Technologies

Kozlov S.E. Internet Memes as a Representation of Political Participation in the Context of the Development of Social Network Communications

Assi Abed El Rahim. Features of the Psychological Image of Donald Trump in the American Media

Belousov G.F. Using the "Incident Management" System in the Electoral Process (On the Example of the Election Campaign of Alexander Beglov)

Laredj Ilyas. Influence of Institutional Factors on the Classification of Regional Conflicts

Loboiko D.A. The Russian Regional Political Elite and its Potential for Self-Renewal

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Vankovska B. Can Solidarity Globalize? Utopia is Possible

Krupianko M.I., Areshidze L.G. Japan Fighting with Pandemic “COVID-19”: One Step Forward and two Steps Backward

Koibaev B.G., Nadzharyan A.B. Influence of the Third Sector on the Process of Development and Implementation of State Policy in the Republic of Armenia

Tushkov A.A., Zhivotova D.A. Erotic Graphics of Abuna-E and Shunga of the Edo Era as a Source of Formation of Japan’s Mass Culture

Kuzyakin A.G., Pogodin S.N. Who's Role in Countering the COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic

Chemschit A.A., Kovalevskiy A.A. Global and European Contradictions in the Modern Geopolitical Discourse in Bulgaria

Musina R.I. Origins and Features of Nationalism in Modern Hungary

Аniskevich N.S. Priorities of Chile's Foreign Policy During the Pandemic

Badaeva A.S. Marine Le Pen and Her Glass Ceiling

Filippenko A.A. Changes in Race and Ethnicity as Concepts in the U.S. Census

Danilova E.V., Danilov V.V. Legal Basis of Italian Migration Policy

Ionova A.N., Popov S.I. System for Separate Collection and Processing of Municipal Solid Waste in Germany

Zhanyshbek uulu Azamat. Development of Civil Society in the Kyrgyz Republic

Pliev S.M., Kulumbegova L.T., Sanakoev I.B., Butorov A.S. Implementation of Georgia's Soft Power Mechanisms in Relation to South Ossetia

Ivanova I.I., Vasileva E.A. Turkey and Egypt: Problems of Relations and the Beginning of "Reset" (2002-2021)

Kolykhalov M.I. Approaches of Russia and Switzerland to the Use of Soft Power, Participation of Subnational Regions in the Implementation of this Concept

Huseynova S.E. Azerbaijan on the Way to the World Trade Organization: Expected Perspectives

To‘Raqulov Zohid. Accelerating Digital Promotion: An Analytical Point of View

Urokov B.A. Uzbekistan's Experience in Ensuring Religious Tolerance and Interfaith Cooperation

Zyuzina A.A. Viribus Unitis: Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean Enters Into Force

Mafuang Supatat. Factors of ASEAN and EU Institutional Failure: A Comparative Analysis of Mechanisms in the COVID-19 Responses

Our authors № 10-2021

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.001

A.V. OSIPOV Candidate of Political Science, Judge of the Leninsky District Court of Rostov-on-Don, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF APPLICATION OF ACTIVE-NETWORK THEORY FOR ANALYSIS OF MODERN POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

The article problematizes the main provisions and concepts of active network theory in connection with the relevance of their application to the analysis of modern political institutions, processes and technologies. The author reveals the specifics of modern phenomena of political power, the elite, civil society, political parties in the context of the network nature of modern political reality and substantiates the theoretical and methodological potential of interpreting them in terms of the theory of network society (M. Castels), actor-network theory (B. Latour, M. Kallon, J. Law). At the same time, the article presents criticism of these concepts, justifies the need to search for the complementarity of absolutist and relational socio-political ontologies, structural-functional and active-network theoretical and methodological approaches in political science.

Key words: political power, political elite, political actor, actor-network theory, network society, relational political ontology, hierarchy and polyarchy of power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.002

O.A. PERSIDSKAYA Junior Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

POLITICIZED ETHNICITY: A THEORETICAL DECLARATION IN THE CONCEPTUAL TREATMENT OF THE PHENOMENON

It is shown that the modern politicized social climate makes us talk about the penetration of political discourse into the issues of personal self-identification, which is of critical importance for the study of problems related to ethnicity. An actual turn in the study of the politicization of ethnicity associated with this trend has been fixed, when the emphasis shifts from considering institutional processes in systemic politics to identifying mechanisms that trigger activity in non-systemic politics through the prism of the consciousness of individual people. The foundations of the theory of critical consciousness, developed on the basis of P. Freire's concept of conscientization, which is applied to the study of the politicization of ethnicity within the framework of the new research optics, are described. Three stages in the formation of critical consciousness are considered: critical reflection, critical action and assessment of political effectiveness. The directions of research are given that could be relevant both for the development of the topic of politicization of ethnicity and for solving problems associated with the need to preserve conflict-free interethnic relations and solidarity between representatives of different ethnic groups in the socio-cultural space of the country.

Key words: politicization of ethnicity, theoretical and methodological foundations of social research, theory of critical consciousness, the concept of conscientization, P. Freire.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.003

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.O. VORON-KOVALSKAYA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

PROBLEMS OF FRACTAL MODELING OF CIVIL EDUCATION IN CHINA (TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN HONG KONG AND MAIN CHINA)

In this article, the authors addressed a current issue – the organization of the civil educational system in China. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of these systems in Hong Kong and Mainland China. The starting point in the study was the conflict between the political systems of the PRC and Hong Kong, the latter of which adopted the values of the democratic West and integrated them into its political, social and cultural spheres during the British colonial rule. At the heart of the conflict are the attempts of the Chinese government to "suppress" the freedom of "Chinese Europeans". The differences in political structures, worldviews, cultures and customs are only consequences, behind which lies the real reason for the contradictions. In this article, the authors consider the impact of the political and social differences in the educational systems of Hong Kong and Mainland China.

Key words: PRC, Hong Kong, fractal modeling of education, Umbrella Revolution, Tiananmen Square, national education.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.004

O.G. ZUBOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social Technologies at the Faculty of Sociology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A.G. FILIPOVA Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Complex Research of Childhood, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia; Senior Researcher Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg, Russia

TIKTOK: NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMMUNICATION AND SELF-PRESENTATION OF MODERN TEENAGERS

In this article, the authors address the problem of using the TikTok app by modern teenagers. The ambiguity of the perception of this application by both adults and adolescents themselves makes the issue of its impact on young people controversial. The purpose of the article was to analyze the influence of TikTok and TikTokers on the communication and self-presentation of modern teenagers. Methods for collecting empirical data are semi-structured interviews with adolescents and expert interviews. In total, 23 adolescents aged 13-17 took part in the survey, as well as five experts – specialists in the media industry and education. We also studied the materials of the discussion "What is TikTok and what is it eaten with?" and A. Turlakov's research “Everything will be TikTok”. The analysis of the collected data was carried out in the context of communication practices and self-presentation of adult tiktokers and teenage tiktokers, as well as adolescent consumers of this content.

For teenagers – authors and users – TikTok provides an opportunity to express themselves, develop communication skills, and relax and have fun. The app attracts teenagers with the format of short videos, feed of recommendations, simplicity of shooting. Self-presentations of popular TikTokers are distinguished by their sincerity and naturalness, emotionality and a sense of humor. Self-presentations of teenage Tiktokers reproduce the self-presentations of adult bloggers. The communication practices of TikTokers and users can be viewed as a model of parasocial relations.

Key words: TikTok, teens, tiktokers, self-presentation, communication, parasocial relationship model.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.005

I.V. GERASIMOVA Candidate of Sciences (economics), Senior Researcher at the Institute of Socio-Economic Problems of Population of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

О.А. NESTERCHUK Doctor of Sciences (political science), Professor at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University); Professor of Political Science and Political Management at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

V.О. GRISHIN Student of the Faculty of History, Political Science and Law of Moscow State Regional University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION PROCESSES ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The study analyzes the relationship between the influence of migration processes characteristic of modern Russia and the existing demographic challenges. The authors emphasize that the growing economic and production needs of modern developed countries cannot be realized at the expense of the national labor market and require the involvement of external resources from demographically active countries. However, the mass attraction of foreign cultural migrants actualizes not only the problems of their adaptation and integration into the host society, but also has an impact on various aspects of national security and domestic political stability. The development of mechanisms for more effective adaptation and integration of external migrants, the allocation of these migration processes in a separate direction of the state migration policy will contribute to the solution of certain demographic problems facing modern Russia.

Key words: migration, demography, migration policy, labor market, human capital, adaptation and integration of migrants.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.006

N.P. BRODSKAIA Cand. of Science (Politics), Senior Researcher, Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: SOCIAL RISKS AND CHALLENGES

The research is devoted to a fundamentally new phenomenon of the modern world – artificial intelligence. The article discusses the current problems of the use of AI technologies in the modern social space and the possible risks of its adaptation to the realities of the modern world. Particular attention is paid to the impact of technology on the modern labor market and the inevitable deepening of inequality in society, the advantage of AI superpowers in the perspective of global socio-economic development. The main aspects of the concept of universal basic income and the prospects for its implementation against the background of the introduction of AI technologies are analyzed. The topical issue of the correct use of a large array of personal data in the context of the application of modern AI practices is touched upon.

Key words: artificial intelligence, AI technologies, digital dictatorship, personal data, universal basic income, UBI.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.007

S.I. BELOV Ph.D. in Historical Science, Associate Professor of Russian Politics Program Political Science Department Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF VIDEO GAMES AND THE INDUSTRY OF THEIR PRODUCTION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF MEMORY POLICY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SPECIALIZED GOVERNMENT BODIES AND NGOS

This study is devoted to the issue of the prospects for the use of video games and the industry of their production as an instrument of memory politics from the point of view of specialized government bodies and NGOs. The aim of the work is to develop an algorithm for the implementation by the state and related actors of memorial policy through video games. The author comes to the conclusion that the state should now focus on solving the problems of updating the creation of video games with a historical plot for commercial structures and developing mechanisms for correcting the choice of the developers of memorial regimes. This implies the need to promote the formation of the institution of memorial examination of video games. The latter should be carried out on a voluntary basis even before the start of the active phase of game development. Its successful completion must be made a condition of access to the system of benefits on the part of the state and NGOs. Adherence to the original design strategy of the developers who have received peer review should be strictly regulated and monitored on a regular basis.

Key words: video games, computer games, memory policy, memorial policy, expertise, state, non-profit organization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.008

O.E. GRISHIN Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University); Associate Professor of the Faculty of Humanities, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

M.V. BELOV Student of the master’s degree at the Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

K.A. GABDULLIN Post-graduate student of the Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS IN THE CONTEXT OF POLITICAL STABILITY: EFFICIENCY OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES

The article is devoted to the study of modern types of Internet technologies in political campaigns, used as methods of influencing the electoral consciousness in the context of ensuring political stability. The research emphasis is focused on provocative algorithmic methods and methods of political struggle, such as political flash mob and political Internet trolling. These Internet technologies have become the latest trend in the modern socio-political life of the country, requiring detailed study. The authors complement the existing approaches to the problem under study.

Key words: political campaign, political stability, political participation, Internet technologies, virtualization of politics, provocative methods, electoral consciousness, Internet trolling, political flash mob.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.009

S.E. KOZLOV PhD student at the Faculty of Political Science Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

INTERNET MEMES AS A REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

This article is a study of the role of Internet memes in political communication on the Internet. The aim is to identify the influence of Internet memes as network phenomena on political participation. For this purpose, on the basis of theoretical analysis, the key functions of the Internet meme are identified, which allow it to play a role in political communications; analyzes the main functions of Internet memes in modern politics; practical examples are used to identify techniques and contexts of using Internet memes in political communication. The creator creates an effort about the high potential of Internet memes, which, on the one hand, act as a new tool for carrying out a spontaneous and self-organized political struggle, and on the other, as a tool that allows political elites to strengthen their competitors and consolidate their own electorate.

Key words: Internet memes, social networking, political participation, participatory democracy, political communication, digital technologies, social networks, new media.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.010

ASSI ABED EL RAHIM Graduate student, Political sciences and regional studies, Khetagurov North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Russia

FEATURES OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMAGE OF DONALD TRUMP IN THE AMERICAN MEDIA

Political science and analysis of the image of a political leader provides ample opportunities for the study of personality and political statesman programs. Donald Trump is charismatic and flamboyant politician, whose personality attracts attention of professional scientists and the public. In this article we will focus on studying the features of the psychological image of Donald Trump in the American media.

Donald Trump uses Twitter extensively as a tool of political struggle. Victory in 2016 and increased attention to its publications on this social network allow us to say that Donald Trump uses Twitter effectively and efficiently. Donald Trump has created a fundamentally new political image that distinguishes him from competitors and predecessors.

Key words: Donald Trump, image, media, politics, information, social networks, internet.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.011

G.F. BELOUSOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

USING THE "INCIDENT MANAGEMENT" SYSTEM IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN OF ALEXANDER BEGLOV)

The article examines the practice of using the "Incident Management" system in the election campaign of Alexander Beglov in 2019. The empirical base of the study is 392 publications in city media and comments on Alexander Beglov's official page on VKontakte. The analysis shows that in modern Russia the work of a candidate with feedback from users in social networks can have a noticeable electoral effect.

Key words: information technology, electoral process, political technologies, social media, content analysis, incident management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.012

LAREDJ ILYAS Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF REGIONAL CONFLICTS

This article analyzes the methodological foundations of the typologization of regional conflicts. The author singled out the main criteria for identifying the features of ethno political conflicts. The purpose of the study is to establish key classifications that affect the scientific assessment of contemporary regional conflicts. For this, the author used the historical method (the development of regional conflicts), the institutional approach (identifying trends inherent in various conflicts) and the comparative method (comparing regional conflicts in different parts of the world). The author came to the conclusion that the classification of regional conflicts is based on the allocation of certain factors that contribute to their development in a particular case. The influence of institutional and non-institutional factors on the development of conflicts shows a tendency when frequently changing rules for their resolution are adjusted to specific interests.

Key words: regional conflict, ethnic conflict, ethno political conflict, political conflict, conflict ology, political conflict ology, civil conflict, conflict resolution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.013

D.A. LOBOIKO Center “Regional research”, director, Samara, Russia

THE RUSSIAN REGIONAL POLITICAL ELITE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR SELF-RENEWAL

Russia is facing a difficult situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a tendency to increase the centralization of power and reduce the sovereignty of regional entities. The federal center's lobbying of its candidates for posts in state bodies of regional power blocks the self-renewal of political elites, turning the federation into an autocracy. There is a projection of the Soviet nomenclature on the political framework of Russia's domestic policy. According to the author, this causes an increase in protest activity and the need of the population of the regions of Russia to increase sovereignty. The article pays special attention to the information policy and the inadmissibility of the use of so-called “enforced patriotism.” Modern Russian society has outlived Soviet values and requires other approaches to the formation of a unified interregional Russian passionarity. Despite this, the author believes that the course of the incumbent president of Russia will democratize the current domestic policy of the country and mobilize regional society to self-determination of the political situation.

Key words: political elite, regional policy, federal center, centralization of power, governors.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.014

B. VANKOVSKA Professor of political science and international relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia

CAN SOLIDARITY GLOBALIZE? UTOPIA IS POSSIBLE

The article deals with a question of critical consequence for the human survival spelled out as: can solidarity globalize? Between the two poles of optimists and pessimists, there is one that deserves a particular attention: the case for possible-ism. In the view of this standpoint, which has been inspired by the work of Richard Falk [4], there is a possibility to globalize human solidarity, which does not necessarily imply probability it would happen. The author discusses (im)possibility of realization of the global solidarity idea, which has been particularly stressed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, etc. The main argument is that the current state of affairs, which looks rather gloomy in terms of harmonious and cooperative international system, is not predetermined. It is a construct rather than a result of any ‘natural law’. Furthermore, the history offers episodes that prove that human solidarity is not only possible, but also workable option for a societal, regional and international realm. The unyielding scepticism does not arise from any critical acumen. Contemporary expressions of human particularism have been cherished intentionally, in order to preserve the status quo where there is socialism for the rich and capitalism for the poor.

Key words: global solidarity, international order, utopia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.015

M.I. KRUPIANKO Doctor of Political Science, Professor, leading specialists of the Institute of Oriental studies of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

L.G. ARESHIDZE Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Institute of Asian and African countries of Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia

JAPAN FIGHTING WITH PANDEMIC “COVID-19”: ONE STEP FORWARD AND TWO STEPS BACKWARD

Article is analyzing the methods of moderating of Japanese government the pandemic process of «COVID-19» during 2020-2021. The authors emphasize that there were two main period in the pandemic process in Japan. The first was beginning from 2019 and continued till the opening of Tokyo Olympic in 2021. This period was defined by the minimum of lethal cases that seemed very strange for many countries of the world. And the second period that continued from the end of Tokyo Olympic in 2021 and after when the pandemic process boosted rapidly and reached 20 000 of infected persons per day according to the state statistic Data.

The positive results in containment of pandemic process during the first period were conditioned by the accidental cases as well as objective causes. The last causes were depicted by the individual peculates of the Japanese nation, its national traditions, genetic immunology towards the virus of “COVID-19”. Japanese authorities that time refused follow the recommendations of World Health Organization and Japan did not made the tests of urban population – at the end of 2020 only 0,27% of all the population have made the tests of PCR.

In spite of achievements of the Japanese Government in the fighting with coronavirus during the first period begging with September of 2021 there was the burst of infected persons in the mid of August 2021 when during one day were registered more then 20 000 patients.

Though there were problems in the fighting with coronavirus in Japan in the last half of 2021 nobody would deny that the measures to contain the epidemic in Japan were much more effective than in many other countries of the world.

Key words: pandemic «COVID-19», PCR tests, emergency situation, Japanese model of fighting against «COVID-19», face masks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.016

B.G. KOIBAEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

A.B. NADZHARYAN Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

INFLUENCE OF THE THIRD SECTOR ON THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

The authors of the article summarize the results of the study one by one of the most discussed and topical issues that periodically appear on the agenda of Armenian parliamentarians and scientists, and most importantly, the interest in which is shown by a large number the socially active population of the post-Soviet space, after the political events in the Republic of Armenia.

Key words: third sector, non-governmental organizations, civil society, democracy, Republic of Armenia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.017

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

D.A. ZHIVOTOVA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

EROTIC GRAPHICS OF ABUNA-E AND SHUNGA OF THE EDO ERA AS A SOURCE OF FORMATION OF JAPAN’S MASS CULTURE

In this article the authors paid their attention to the topic, which is one of the actual problems in case of the research of Japanese cultural identity – the influence of abuna-e and shunga engraving on common Japanese culture. Ignorance can simplify our view of world cultural heritage. During the centuries political culture of Japan for the European scientists was a closed system. When the borders of great eastern countries – Japan, China and Korea were opened, the European residents were amazed by the variety and wealth of their culture. Firstly, it was the intimate part of the Japanese culture. The brightest examples were abuna-e and shunga engraving. For the Europeans it was incomprehensible perception of sex, mostly coming from Shintoism, which does not bear sexual prohibitions. Moreover, sex was considered as something normal. During the research of the problem the authors try to answer the question about the origins of influence on the common Japanese culture of this genre of graphic art of the Edo Era like abuna-e and shunga engraving.

Key words: Japan, the Edo Era, the genre of the erotic art abuna-e and shunga, cultural identity of Japan, «spring pictures».

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.018

A.G. KUZYAKIN Ph.D. candidate, Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

S.N. POGODIN Doctor of Historical Science professor, Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

WHO'S ROLE IN COUNTERING THE COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC

The impact of coronavirus infection on the life of the world community, on health systems from the standpoint of WHO support is considered. The characterization of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic as a global global problem is given, which requires a solution at the international level and, in particular, coordination by WHO. Attention is paid to a new term introduced by WHO in connection with the coronavirus pandemic – infodemic. The activities of WHO and experts on its assignment regarding the threats of COVID-19 for the world community, its consequences and directions for overcoming are characterized. The criticism of WHO's activities and its effectiveness in overcoming the pandemic from governments and experts is analyzed. The main measures and necessary changes in the activities of WHO have been identified to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic and prepare for possible future pandemics.

Key words: WHO, COVID-19, coronavirus pandemic, coordinating role, epidemiological crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.019

A.A. CHEMSCHIT D.Sc. (political science), Professor, Professor at the Department of Political Science and Philosophy, Institute of Social Sciences and International Relations, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

А.A. KOVALEVSKIY Postgraduate student the Department of Political Science and Philosophy, Institute of Social Sciences and International Relations, Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia

GLOBAL AND EUROPEAN CONTRADICTIONS IN THE MODERN GEOPOLITICAL DISCOURSE IN BULGARIA Part I

The article focuses on Bulgaria, the oldest state in Europe, which emerged in its current borders already in the 700s, long before the majority of other countries, now composing the European Union. This topic is caused by the dynamically developing complex conflict processes in the Balkans, in which Bulgaria, as the "axial" state of the region, occupies a not insignificant place. The article aims to comprehend the formation of the Bulgarian vision of its place and role in the world and the region, its national interests, cultural, historical, mental and cognitive preconditions and foundations of Bulgaria's modern foreign policy, the main differences appearing in the modern national geopolitical discourse, the trends of changes in the Bulgarian public opinion on geopolitical pressures and the search for opportunities associated with this comprehension of the possibilities of strengthening the Russian geopolitical position in this country, the Balkans and the Black Sea region.

Key words: geopolitics, globalism, geopolitical consciousness, the West, Russia, Turkey.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.020

R.I. MUSINA PhD in Political Sciences, Docent, Department of History and Politics Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

ORIGINS AND FEATURES OF NATIONALISM IN MODERN HUNGARY

The article analyzes the historical premises for the formation of the state idea of modern Hungary, the influence of the process of the Hungarian national formation on the content and features of the manifestation of nationalism, its contradictory nature.

Purpose of the work: to reveal the influence of the historical factor on the change in the content and the formation of the characteristics of modern Hungarian nationalism.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, at the state level, it manifests itself as aggressive nationalism, revanchist, anti-Slavic and anti-Romanian.

Over the past decades, Hungarian nationalism has changed and lost its traditional character. An analysis of modern party programs and speeches by statesmen and party leaders allows us to state the disappearance of traditional Slavophobia and anti-Germanism.

Hungarian nationalists are rated not only as Eurosceptics, antiglobalists, ultra-conservatives, anti-Semites and gypsies, which has become customary, but also as a particular danger, from the point of view of European liberals, in the growing pan-Turkist and Turanist sentiments, which are manifested not only in the ideology of the far-right «Jobbik» party, but in the ruling «FIDESZ» as well.

Тhe implementation of nationalism at the level of state policy of the right-wingers, who have been in power since 2010, is regarded as a fundamental feature of modern Hungarian nationalism. Today Hungarian nationalism is non-ethnic and patriotic. Interesting prospects for studying the transformation of the content of nationalism in Hungary are provided in connection with the development of the new Hungarian ideology «Hungarism», which claims to be a state one, designed to support claims to leadership in a new geopolitical Eurasian project.

Key words: nationalism in Hungary, slavophobia, Turanism, Hungarianism, Gypsy phobia, ethnic divisive nationalism, sovereign-state nationalism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.021

N.S. АNISKEVICH Candidate of Sciences (political science), Lecturer at the Faculty of Technological Management and Innovation of ITMO University, Moscow, Russia

PRIORITIES OF CHILE'S FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE PANDEMIC

The pandemic has hit the Chilean economy from several sides, the stagnation of economic growth as a result of falling private investment, restrictions on consumption and production, and the effects of unemployment further weaken the supply and demand situation. The Chilean economy has also been hit hard by the international context, especially due to the fall in copper prices and the appreciation of the dollar and euro. However, the key objective of the work is to analyze the priorities of Chile's foreign policy during the pandemic.

Key words: foreign policy, pandemic, personal hygiene products, Sino-American trade war, rotational quarantine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.022

A.S. BADAEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Researcher of the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relation RAS, Moscow, Russia

MARINE LE PEN AND HER GLASS CEILING

Marine Le Pen is President of the National Rally. It’s the third time when she’s announcing her candidacy for the President of the French Republic. Each time her chances of winning increase and the work of her party image normalization does not stop. A year before the 2022 French presidential election, Marin Le Pen’s approval rating was identical to the rating of current President Emmanuel Macron. The Ipsos poll put Le Pen at 44 percent against 56 percent for Macron in the second round, compared with 34 to 66 in 2017. Meanwhile, Macron and Le Pen fail to make ground in 2021 French regional elections. Record low turnout of their voters showed electoral fatigue from this couple inevitably competing in the final part of the French presidential election. As usual, Le Pen faced her traditional obstacle: elite solidarity didn’t permit her far-right party to entrench in any French region. In addition, Le Pen goes too much into expanding of the second round electoral base, which can cause the loss of National Rally’s key voters, the increasing of inner-party disagreement and even the defeat in the first round of the 2022 French presidential election.

Key words: National Rally, National Front, Marine Le Pen, Nationalism, Populism, far-right politics, 2022 French presidential election.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.023

A.A. FILIPPENKO Candidate of historical Sciences, Senior researcher, Institute of the United States of America and Canada studies, Moscow, Russia

CHANGES IN RACE AND ETHNICITY AS CONCEPTS IN THE U.S. CENSUS

For centuries the United States has been conducting censuses, but never in history have so many Americans (13 million people, 4% of the country's population) identified themselves with two or more racial and ethnic categories as in 2020 census. The increase in multiculturalism and the mixing of races has forced the federal government to seek new approaches to the national question. This article examines how the representation of black Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans has changed in the U.S. Census, which most clearly reflects the government's approach to a complex issue.

Key words: race, census, U.S. population, Hispanic, Latino, Black, African-American, U.S. demographics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.024

E.V. DANILOVA PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

V.V. DANILOV PhD, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

LEGAL BASIS OF ITALIAN MIGRATION POLICY

The migration problem in Italy is not a new phenomenon for Italian foreign and domestic politics. The Apennine peninsula has always been a place of intercultural communication, starting with the formation of Rome as an important geopolitical actor in antiquity. However, returning to modernity, it is the events of the last seven years, beginning in 2014, that have caused not just an aggravation of the migration issue for Italy, but a severe crisis with consequences that have already changed the model of Italian society.

The phenomenon of migration in Italy has become structural and long-term, requiring the shared responsibility not only of all EU member states, but also of the source countries of the migration flows. The solution to this problem lies only in the legal plane, since it is the observance of norms and laws that can prevent the escalation of conflict, reduce the degree of tension among society and between countries, and develop an algorithm of action aimed at minimizing the damage caused by migration and, if possible, preventive measures to stabilize the socio-economic and political situation in the source countries of migration.

Key words: Italy, migration crisis, UN, international organizations, EU, bilateral cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.025

А.N. IONOVA Master Department of State and Municipal Administration, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

SYSTEM FOR SEPARATE COLLECTION AND PROCESSING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN GERMANY

The article presents the author's observations and reflections on the experience of handling solid municipal waste (municipal waste) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The existing normative legal base regulating the issues of the investigated sphere in the country is highlighted, the Dual system of collection, sorting and disposal of waste introduced in 1990 is analyzed.

Key words: waste, municipal solid waste, municipal waste, dual system, European legislation, German federal legislation, economic stability, political stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.026

ZHANYSHBEK UULU AZAMAT Researcher at the Department of Expertise of Socio-Political Research and Problems of Public Administration, National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

The newly independent states faced the need to develop their own conceptual foundations for building a civil society that adequately meets the needs of their development in the changed conditions. Taking into account the heterogeneity of the composition and the diversity of the political and socio-economic aspirations of the new states, the nature and dynamics of the processes of building civil society developed in them in different ways. In a number of countries, the events in the post-Soviet period were characterized by acute drama, up to the outbreaks of the so-called color revolutions, which radically changed the political structure of society and the guidelines of socio-economic development in them.

The article analyzes the development of civil society in the Kyrgyz Republic. Due to the fact that civil society in Kyrgyzstan is considered the most developed of all the states located in Central Asia, the study of this topic arouses a wide interest on the part of learned public figures. In our work we tried to reveal the role of civil society in the political processes taking place in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Key words: civil society, modernization, political process, dialogue, politics, state authorities, public unrest, democracy freedom.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.027

S.M. PLIEV Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science and Sociology, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia

L.T. KULUMBEGOVA Senior Lecturer, Department of Political Science and Sociology, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia

I.B. SANAKOEV Ph.D., Professor of the Department of Political Science and Sociology, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia

A.S. BUTOROV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF GEORGIA'S SOFT POWER MECHANISMS IN RELATION TO SOUTH OSSETIA

The study examines the main approaches of Georgia to the implementation of the concept of soft power in relation to South Ossetia. The paper analyzes the main strategies and programs of Georgia's soft power and traces the dynamics of the transformation of approaches, starting from 2008 to the present day. The analysis showed that at the present stage, these programs cannot fully work in the Republic of South Ossetia due to the lack of conditions identified during the study. This work showed that despite the transition from methods and instruments of hard power to methods and mechanisms of soft power, Georgia's goals in relation to the Republic of South Ossetia remain unchanged.

Key words: soft power, South Ossetia, Georgia, manipulations, methods of influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.028

I.I. IVANOVA Dh.D. (History), associate Professor of Middle East Languages Department of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO-University, Moscow, Russia

E.A. VASILEVA Lecturer of Department of Middle East Languages of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO-University, Moscow, Russia

TURKEY AND EGYPT: PROBLEMS OF RELATIONS AND THE BEGINNING OF "RESET" (2002-2021)

Relations between Turkey and Egypt have gone through a number of stages since the Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to power in Turkey. With the removal of M. Morsi from power in Egypt, the AKP lost an important partner and ally in the Middle East, which led to an aggravation of relations between Turkey and Egypt. A new round of deterioration in relations is observed due to the contradictions between the two countries on solving problems in the Eastern Mediterranean and Libya. At the same time, in recent years, despite the deepening crisis in relations between the two countries, there has been an intensification of trade and economic cooperation. Since 2021, Turkey has been striving to renew ties with Egypt, and the first steps have already been taken.

Key words: Turkey, Egypt, Turkish-Egyptian relations, Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.029

M.I. KOLYKHALOV Candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of World Economy and tourism SGUPS, Novosibirsk, Russia

APPROACHES OF RUSSIA AND SWITZERLAND TO THE USE OF SOFT POWER, PARTICIPATION OF SUBNATIONAL REGIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS CONCEPT

In the modern world, in the context of increasing confrontation between leading powers, the development of globalization processes based on information and communication technologies, the use of “soft power” approaches based on public diplomacy tools is acquiring new importance and relevance. Subnational regions are significant participants in the implementation of this concept. The purpose of the article is to study the basic principles and forms of the implementation of the concept of "soft power" in modern conditions based on illustrative cases – Russia and Switzerland, as well as to analyze the participation of subnational regions in these processes.

Key words: subnational region, soft power, public diplomacy, constituent entity of the Russian Federation, canton of Switzerland.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.030

S.E. HUSEYNOVA Postgraduate student working for the Doctoral Degree at the Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan

AZERBAİJAN ON THE WAY TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: EXPECTED PERSPECTIVES

Membership to the 65-member World Trade Organization WTO is on the agenda and of importance for the Republic of Azerbaijan attaches great importance. The country's application for WTO membership was submitted to the WTO Secretariat on 23 June 1997. Azerbaijan also has close ties with the European Union. As it is known, in 2004 Azerbaijan was included in the European Neighborhood Policy, and in 2009 in its Eastern Partnership program, which is a format of multilateral cooperation. Today, globalization is an irresistible "compulsory" process, and Azerbaijan can not stay away from this proccess. In addition to the political and economic benefits that WTO membership can bring to the country, this article discusses the current prospects and key points for the country to achieve from this membership, as well as the need to accelerate the WTO membership process in the current context.

Key words: World Trade Organization, membership perspectives for Azerbaijan, European Union, status of the developing country.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.031

TO‘RAQULOV ZOHID Deputy Director of the Republican Center for Spirituality and Enlightenment of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

ACCELERATING DIGITAL PROMOTION: AN ANALYTICAL POINT OF VIEW

This article analyzes the current issues of digitalization and its specifics in all spheres of public life around the world, as well as the practice of spiritual and educational work and the widespread introduction of the method of "digital propaganda" in activities related to propaganda.

Key words: information technology, digitalization of society, propaganda, national economy, strategy of action.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.032

B.А. UROKOV Head of the Department at the Republican Center of Spirituality and Enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

UZBEKISTAN'S EXPERIENCE IN ENSURING RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE AND INTERFAITH COOPERATION

The article is devoted to the role of religion in the conditions of globalization, religious tolerance and interfaith harmony as the main factors in ensuring the stability of the country.

Key words: religion, tolerance, stability, denomination, tolerance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.033

A.A. ZYUZINA Postgraduate of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Foreign Policy of the Russian State University for the Humanities, member of the National Union of Political Scientists, Moscow, Russia

VIRIBUS UNITIS: AGREEMENT TO PREVENT UNREGULATED HIGH SEAS FISHERIES IN THE CENTRAL ARCTIC OCEAN ENTERS INTO FORCE

The article presents an analysis of the "Agreement on the Prevention of Unregulated Fishing on the High Seas in the Central Arctic Ocean". The study identifies the critical points of the Agreement, its importance and relevance for the Arctic zone and countries that have access to the Arctic Ocean basin. In this paper the author highlights the main goals, objectives, prerequisites, and conditions of the Agreement. In conclusion, the value for the global politics of the document under consideration is emphasized and the arguments why this Agreement can be considered historical are presented.

Key words: unregulated fishing, Arctic zone, international agreements, Arctic marine resources.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.74.10.034

MAFUANG SUPATAT  Master Ρeoples’ Friendship University οf Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

FACTORS OF ASEAN AND EU INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS IN THE COVID-19 RESPONSES

This article addresses the issue of mechanisms in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU). The purpose of this article is to explore efficiency of the mechanisms used in depth and to conduct a comparative analysis of the mechanisms used in the COVID-19 response within the ASEAN and EU. Analysis of similarities and differences based on the effectiveness of mechanisms, significant resources, determination of the region's political elites and expectations of member countries, duration on depth of integration of their anti-crisis mechanisms allow us to determine their factors of institutional failure. The article shows that their mechanisms in responding to COVID-19 proved to be ineffective in the beginning, as expected in the region. However, with the success of European institutional integration, as a result, the EU was able to use its more horizontal mechanisms based on solidarity to combat the pandemic better than ASEAN.

Key words: COVID-19, ASEAN, EU, Regional Mechanisms.

   
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