№ 1 (65), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 1 (65), 2021.

CONTENTS

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

Irhin Iu.V. Rethinking the Ideas of Keynes and Roosevelt on Public Administration in the Context of the Pandemic Crisis and the Russian Experience

Fedorishchev K.M. The Elements of Augustinianism in the Political Theory of Michael Oakeshott

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Yermakov Yu.A. Origin and Multiplication of Corruption in Socio-Political Hierarchies: the Role of Natural Principles

Alehnovich S.O., Vorontsov S.A., Ponedelkov A.V. Current Problems of Combating Corruption in Modern Russia: Informing and Discussing

Velikaya N.M., Мoiseeva A.N. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Local Authorities: Methodology and Methods

Goptareva I.B. Lobbyism in Public Politics

Pronchev G.B., Shisharina E.V., Proncheva N.G. Cyber Threats for Modern Russia in the Context of the Coronavirus Pandemic

Surma I.V. Information Expansion of the West in the Countries of Central Asia

Tushkov A.A., Fomenko D.A. Search for a Balance of Interests of Global Countries Among Two Competing “Eurasian Projects”

Vafin A.M. Negative in Politics: 10 Technologies of "Black" PR in Russia and Foreign Countries

Otrokov O.Yu. Current Trends, Problems and Prospects for the Development of Internet Channels for Informing Young People with a Political Agenda

Ovchinnikov P.S., Nechay E.E. Barriers to the Transformation of the Socio-Political System of Russia

Eremenko Yu.A., Zhavoronkova Z.A. Emotional Triggers of Attention and Remember of Visual Political Content

Ershow N.A., Omerovich A.R., Popov S.I. Protest Potential as an Election Campaign Tool (Part I: Moscow City Duma Elections 2019)

Falaleev M.A., Sitdikova N.A., Nechay E.E. Video Streaming as a Political Communication Channel: Experience of Modern Russia

Ustyuzhaninov I.D. The Role of «United Russia» Party in the Regional Policy in 2002-2007

Ahmedov J.I. Legitimacy of the Government as a Modern Factor of Society Resilience to Threats

Voscresensky F.A. Study of the Judiciary as an Element of the Political System in the Countries of the Continental and Anglo-Saxon (on the Example of the USA) Systems of Law

Кomarov N.A. Historiography of Interstate Relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova in 2009-2018

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

Shtanko M.A., Tazheva Z.B. Ethnic Conflict Management

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

Mikhaylenko A.N., Umerov D.A. Model of Harmonizing Strategy and Tactics of Russian Foreign Policy

Kuleshova N.S., Sanzhiewa A.D. Cybersecurity as a Condition for Digitalization in Japan

Zherlitsina N.A. Virtual Caliphate: Isis Media Technologies

Bikbulatov E.A. The Image of the Troll Factory in the Confrontation of US Political Parties

Kurilkin A.V. Chinese Cyberdragon: about the Question of China's Capabilities for Information and Cyber Operations

Poltavtseva O.N. Anti-Immigration Rhetoric in Italy and in the USA: a Comparative Analysis of the New Media Content of Donald Trump and Matteo Salvini

Wu Yanbin. Development and Features of China's Military Diplomacy after Reform and Open

Budnik A.I., Grigorieva T.V., Kan A.A. Positions of Russia and Japan around the Kuril Territorial Problem

STUDENT SCIENCE

Bogdanova E.A., Timershova A.S. The Social and Political Crisis in Chile: from Protests to Plebiscite

Burova A.S. Spanish-American Relations in the Twentieth Century

REFLECTIONS ABOUT THE READ

Slyzovskiy D.E. Multiplying Corruption: the Search for Grounds Continues (Review of the Article by Yu.A. Yermakov “Origin and Multiplication of Corruption in Socio-Political Hierarchies: the Role of Natural Principles”)

Our authors № 1-2021

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.001

Iu.V. IRHIN Doctor of Philosophy Sciences, Professor professor of Russian Presidential Academy, professor of Russian Humanitarian State University, Moscow, Russia

RETHINKING THE IDEAS OF KEYNES AND ROOSEVELT ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PANDEMIC CRISIS AND THE RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

The article analyzes the values, theoretical aspects, potential and limits of the ideas of Keynes and Roosevelt on public administration in the context of the modern world crisis, taking into account Russian practice. The author proposes to rethink and supplement the anti-crisis ideas of Keynes and Roosevelt with the experience of integrated use of modern digital technologies and platforms for accelerated state regulation of macroeconomic and macro-political processes in the context of a pandemic, economic and structural crisis; targeted policy of creating effective supply and demand; targeted support for various social groups and business organizations.

Key words: Keynesian paradigm, Roosevelt's new deal, COVID-19 pandemic, digital public administration reform in Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.002

K.M. FEDORISHCHEV Doctoral candidate, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE ELEMENTS OF AUGUSTINIANISM IN THE POLITICAL THEORY OF MICHAEL OAKESHOTT

The article identifies the key points of intersection between the tradition of Augustine of Hippo and the political philosophy of the English thinker Michael Oakeshott (1901-1990). The author notes the significant influence of Augustinism in the works of this philosopher, defining the ideological prerequisites for the formation of Oakeshott's theory of human behavior. Based on the analysis of the original works of St. Augustine, M. Oakeshott, C. Abel, H. Deane, P. Riley, G. Worthington, the author traces the philosopher's thought path in the process of his search for an answer to the question – how do Civitas Terrena and Civitas Dei relate in the modern world. As a result of a comparative study of the views of Oakeshott and St. Augustine, the author defines what exactly the philosopher means in the terms religion and world. Contrary to popular beliefs, terms of religion, according to Oakeshott, does not require unconditional agreement with a number of provisions or with a certain creed, it is not dogmatic, it is not a set of moral laws that must be followed. Religion is a way of thinking about the world and acting in it, it is the conviction that life should be accepted as it is, living religiously means living in the present. Oakeshott is not trying to express the naive view that the "physical" world should be totally rejected and that the "spiritual" world should be accepted.

Key words: Michael Oakeshott, Saint Augustine, Augustinianism, civil education, political theory.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.003

Yu.А. YERMAKOV Doctor of Sciences (philosophy), Professor at the Chair of Political Sciences, Director of the Center for Business and Political Communications of the Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia

ORIGIN AND MULTIPLICATION OF CORRUPTION IN SOCIO-POLITICAL HIERARCHIES: THE ROLE OF NATURAL PRINCIPLES

Corruption among those in power today is usually considered as a legal, socio-cultural or economic problem. There are no works in the Russian or foreign social science literature revealing the natural roots of corruption. Such a view of the corruption origin is still considered contrary to the ideas about the social essence of man. Meanwhile, almost 2,500 years ago, Aristotle explicitly called sapiens a “political animal,” emphasizing the key role of human nature in the construction of the collective human life. That is why, according to the author, the group of hierarchical inclinations inherited from the hominid ancestors and fully developed historically is preserved in the specific nature of man. It disposes human individuals to self-serving manipulation of the power and subordination of people in order to form “food chains” between them and kleptocratic extraction of vital resources and benefits. Thus, the management of society and the formation of order in it on the basis of corrupt methods erases the seemingly unshakable socio-cultural line between man and his animal ancestors. The article proves that corruption exists not only because of the manifestations of predatory traits in human nature, but, most importantly, for moral, economic and legal reasons. However, the state anti-corruption policy aimed at the elimination of corruption should also take into account the natural human traits.

Key words: power, domination and subordination, instinctive programs of behavior, official powers, managerial rent.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.004

S.O. ALEHNOVICH Candidate of Sciences (philosophy), Head of the Planning and Economic Analysis Department of the Federal Tariff Service, Moscow, Russia

S.A. VORONTSOV Doctor of Sciences (law), Professor at the South-Russian Institute of Management, Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

A.V. PONEDELKOV Doctor of Sciences (political sciences), Professor at the South-Russian Institute of Management, Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF COMBATING CORRUPTION IN MODERN RUSSIA: INFORMING AND DISCUSSING

Corruption and problems associated with it is a multi-factorial process. Among the factors assisting its prevalence or deterrence, we can consider the scale and quality of information presented to the scientific community, civil society, and government agencies about what is being consistently done here. The article is mainly devoted to additional information about the latest events on the given topic held by a dozen scientific, research and educational organizations. The article is also an attempt to show what real and potential results can be achieved in this direction. It also presents a brief and concise palette of opinions, judgments, and assessments by major scientists, specialists, and experts on corruption and ways of preventing or combating it, the article shows the nature and specifics of the controversy in this regard.

Key words: corruption, corruption in modern Russia, measures to combat corruption.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.005

N.М. VELIKAYA Doctor of Sciences (political sciences), Dean of the Faculty of Sociology of the Institute of Socio-Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPI), Deputy Director of the Russian State University for the Humanities( RSUH), Moscow, Russia

А.N. МOISEEVA Postgraduate student of the Institute of Socio-Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS

Local self-government not only increases the level of responsibility and transparency of decision-making at the local level, but also relieves social tension by ensuring the participation of residents in solving the problems of socio-economic development of the city. The activity of local self-government bodies makes it possible to accumulate thoughts and ideas of the population in order to transform and reorganize public life. In this regard, the development of local self-government and increasing the effectiveness of its activities are two of the conditions for the development of democracy in Russia. To achieve the highest performance in the state, evaluation methods and standards are created, they allow to identify and correct problems and errors in the implementation of management policies. A key role in evaluating the effectiveness of local self-government bodies is assigned to Presidential Decree No. 607 of 28.04.2008 "On evaluating the effectiveness of local self-government bodies of urban districts and municipal districts", which establishes a list of indicators for determining the effectiveness of local self-government bodies of municipalities. Currently, the developed system of indicators and methodology for assessing the effectiveness of local government bodies are constantly being modernized, which is evidence of the relevance and unsolved nature of this problem. It is concluded that the current system of evaluating the effectiveness of municipal authorities does not take into account the peculiarities of the development of territories; there are structural shortcomings regarding the selected evaluation criteria. All of that lead to the fact that the performance assessment system becomes only a tool for reporting to the authorities and the population, and not an effective mechanism for improving the efficiency of activities.

Key words: evaluation of the effectiveness of local self-government bodies, search for the optimal model of management of large cities, social well-being as the main indicator of the effectiveness of local self-government bodies, methodology and methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of local government bodies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.006

I.B. GOPTAREVA Doctor of Political Science, Associate Professor, Professor at the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Innovations and Mass Media of the Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia

LOBBYISM IN PUBLIC POLITICS

The article examines the role of lobbyism in the system of relations between public institutions of power and civil society. To study this problem, two approaches are used – pluralistic and corporatist, which, despite the contradictions, complement each other: the first approach is focused more on institutions, mechanisms, procedures of influence, and the second is focused on the possibilities of cooperation between the state and civil society on the exchange of concessions and services in the political sphere. The use of these methods helps to understand the construction of a system of interaction between the state and society through a multitude of associated interests, professional mediators – lobbies, public and specialized interest groups. Changing the structure of mediation of interests raises the question: how optimal is the concept of lobbying for analyzing these changes. The study of lobbyism in various political systems helps to comprehend the ways of representing a variety of interests, regardless of the social status and property status of their carriers; to limit the shadow side of lobbying, it is necessary to systematize the subject of lobbying in order to regulate the action of intermediaries between the power and social structures.

Key words: lobbying, interest groups, civil society, corporation, communication process, legitimation of interests, neopluralism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.007

G.B. PRONCHEV Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Sociological Research Methodology at the Faculty of Sociology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

E.V. SHISHARINA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Applied Informatics and Computational Mathematics Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

N.G. PRONCHEVA Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor, Senior Research Scientist of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

CYBER THREATS FOR MODERN RUSSIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC

The article deals with issues related to the information security of virtual social environments in Russia during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic. The article discusses the existing cyber threats for the population of the country, analyzes the consequences of cyber attacks. They discuss threats from foreign countries, primarily the United States and NATO countries, and national security problems in these countries themselves. International efforts to ensure cybersecurity and the policy of the Russian Federation on this issue are discussed. It is shown that during the coronavirus pandemic, the globalization of the media space is increasing, and the number of cyber threats to the citizens of our country is increasing. The article is of interest to specialists dealing with the problems of cybersecurity policy and the development of modern virtual social environments.

Key words: cybersecurity, cybersecurity policy, virtual social environments, SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic, cybercrime.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.008

I.V. SURMA PhD in Economics, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

INFORMATION EXPANSION OF THE WEST IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA

Modern information and communication expansion is a tool of geopolitical influence, which is used along with military and economic expansion to achieve dominance in the target region. The article deals with the question of the West's information and communication expansion in the Central Asian arena, where its collective strategy is focused on the maximum separation of these countries from the Russian Federation in order to hinder Russian influence and its integrating influence. The article analyzes the transformation of the strategies of relations between the US and the EU with the Central Asian countries in modern conditions. The main structures of Western information influence in Central Asia (the OSCE Academy, Internews Network International, the Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) in Central Asia, the Central Asian Bureau for Analytical Reporting (CABAR-Central Asian Bureau for Analytical Reporting), EurasiaNet, etc.) are presented. The article concludes that the creation of a Western, primarily American, information impact infrastructure in the Central Asian region is a natural process, which can only be answered by the creation of a Russian infrastructure of this kind. The author, however, emphasizes that the best way to influence information could be not aggressive propaganda, but joint practical activities, first in the humanitarian sphere, and then in other areas of mutual interest for all parties involved.

Key words: EU, information expansion, Central Asian, USA, mass-media, Russia, Institutions of influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.009

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

D.A. FOMENKO Bachelor of International Relations, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

SEARCH FOR A BALANCE OF INTERESTS OF GLOBAL COUNTRIES AMONG TWO COMPETING “EURASIAN PROJECTS”

This article is devoted to a topical topic: finding a balance of the interests of global countries among two competing "Eurasian projects." Today, we are not only witnesses, but also direct participants in the global restructuring that has already begun, when global players have begun to build large political and military blocs based on geostrategic goals. In this regard, Asia is a prime example of the formation of bloc thinking and the global political processes that have begun. Need to understand what is at the heart of Asian political processes? Which of the proposed concepts is the Chinese project "Community of common destiny of humanity" (SOIC) or the Japanese-American strategy "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" or "Indo-Pacifica" (SOITR), prefer the Asian world?

Key words: Indo-Pacific, Asia-Pacific, China, USA, Eurasian projects, post-Westphalian world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.010

A.M. VAFIN Master of Arts in Counselling, PhD in Political Science, associate professor Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

NEGATIVE IN POLITICS: 10 TECHNOLOGIES OF "BLACK" PR IN RUSSIA AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES

In the modern era the ability to work with the media is of decisive importance. Mass media is an opportunity to address a large audience immediately with minimal costs. The article analyzes the phenomenon of black PR in Russia and foreign countries. The author identifies 10 technologies of negativization of politicians, relying on examples from the experience of the Russian elections, electoral processes in the USA, Great Britain, France and other countries. The study can be useful for politicians and policy makers, political consultants, lawyers, political moralists and show business managers.

Key words: “black” PR, negative campaigning, political advertising, elections, political marketing.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.011

O.YU. OTROKOV Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory of the Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

CURRENT TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET CHANNELS FOR INFORMING YOUNG PEOPLE WITH A POLITICAL AGENDA

The article discusses the main channels of dissemination of information about the work of youth affairs bodies, non-profit organizations and youth self-government bodies in the framework of interaction with the target audience (young people aged 14 to 30 years). The article presents data on communities, groups, and public posts in the most popular social networks in Russia among young people: Instagram, Vkontakte, YouTube, TikTok, and messengers, as well as the impact of their content on the mood of the audience. Based on the results of the analysis, a set of trends and factors affecting the development of the information space of youth policy in terms of the transformation of political moods of young people is presented. Low efficiency of work in this direction of all considered actors with a tendency of expansion of tools caused, among other things, by the coronavirus pandemic is established.

Key words: social networks, youth, non-profit organizations, political participation, youth self-government.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.012

P.S. OVCHINNIKOV student of a bachelor's degree of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University Vladivostok, Russia

E.E. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Assistant Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE SOCIO-POLITICAL SYSTEM OF RUSSIA

The article attempts to identify the main barriers to the transformation of the socio-political system of Russia in the context of the influence of key factors: digitalization, urbanization and generational changes. Among the factors hindering the development of society, the author identifies the following: bureaucratization of the political system, low level of social ties, high rates of distrust in society, pessimism, insufficient transparency of government bodies. In the author's opinion, in order to fulfill their requests, citizens and interested groups within the system will have to overcome the above-mentioned negative factors and become independent actors in the political process (to gain political subjectivity). Overcoming negative factors, increasing the role of social capital and eliminating the trap of distrust will allow Russian society to develop further, becoming a serious political force and an equal actor in the political field.

Key words: transformations of the socio-political system, digitalization, urbanization, bureaucratization, trap of distrust.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.013

YU.A. EREMENKO Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Trade and Customs Affairs, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Russia

Z.A. ZHAVORONKOVA Student of Marketing, Trade and Customs Affairs, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Russia

EMOTIONAL TRIGGERS OF ATTENTION AND REMEMBER OF VISUAL POLITICAL CONTENT

The article shows the importance of visualization as an effective technology of the modern digital age in building a dialogue between the government and youth. The features of perception of visual political content with different emotional contexts (joy, print, anger, neutral emotions) and its influence on such important cognitive processes as attention and memory are considered. An experiment was carried out using the method "Memory Game" proposed by Isola P. The results of descriptive statistics show that the most memorable for young people is political content with the emotion "sadness". The least remembered images are those containing neutral emotions, and the highest number of false alarms is observed for images with an emotional context - anger. The Mann-Whitney test showed differences in image memorability when comparing groups 2 (sadness) and 3 (anger) p = 0.04, as well as 2 (sadness) and 4 (neutral emotions) p = 0.006, which gives us the opportunity to talk about the existence statistically significant differences between them. The results of the experiment can be useful in developing an effective strategy for political communication.

Key words: political content, visual communication, emotions, youth, cognitive processes.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.014

N.A. ERSHOW PhD student, Department of Public Relations and Media policy of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

A.R. OMEROVICH Master, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

PROTEST POTENTIAL AS AN ELECTION CAMPAIGN TOOL (PART I: MOSCOW CITY DUMA ELECTIONS 2019)

The article presents the author's observations and reflections on the emergence, development, organization and political goals of protest movements during the election campaigns in the Russian Federation in the period 2019-2020. The most significant factors affecting the potential of protest moods of actors in the electoral process are identified, and a method of managerial influence aimed at minimizing the political consequences of the phenomenon under consideration is proposed.

Key words: protest movements, political process, opposition, election campaigns, elections, Moscow City Duma, political technologies, media policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.015

M.A. FALALEEV student of a bachelor's degree of the department of «Political Science», Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.A. SITDIKOVA student of a bachelor's degree of the department of «Political Science», Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.E. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Assistant Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

VIDEO STREAMING AS A POLITICAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL: EXPERIENCE OF MODERN RUSSIA

The article presents a consideration of the phenomenon of video streaming in the context of its influence on the development of political communication in modern Russia. The relevance of the study is due to the intensification of the processes of digitalization of public discourse between political subjects and the population of the Russian Federation. The purpose of this work is to determine the characteristics and specifics of video streaming as a channel of political communication. The authors used such research methods as: typology of material, induction, systematization, forecasting and analysis. The result of the work is the typology of political video streaming according to the streamer positioning criteria, the monetization of the content, and video hosting specialization for broadcasting video materials. Based on the research materials, the authors of the article put forward the thesis that video streaming is an effective means of political communication, thanks to this technology it is possible to monitor and systematize the audience's feedback in real time. Moreover, this channel of network communication allows a political actor to optimize his material costs and connect donate platforms in order to ensure financing of political activities. In the conclusion of the work, it is stated that the current dynamics of the development of video streaming in the Russian Federation testifies to the prospects for the growth of its demand as a channel for ensuring two-way political communication.

Key words: political video streaming, video hosting, political communication, donate platform, social networks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.016

I.D. USTYUZHANINOV Post-graduate student, Lomonosov Moscow state university, Faculty of History, History of social movements and political parties department, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF «UNITED RUSSIA» PARTY IN THE REGIONAL POLICY IN 2002-2007

The article reveals the role of the United Russia party in the regional political process in 2002-2007. The object of research is the political process in the Kirov region. During this period, the "party in power" strengthened its position and became the basis of the party-political system in the region. The processes that took place in 2002-2007 in the subject of the Russian Federation, which was not central from the point of view of the federal political process, make it possible to analyze the place of political competition and the role of parties in peripheral regions where the main forces (either the Communist Party of the Russian Federation or local movements) faced a well-organized and supported by the federal government "United Russia". They were unable to maintain their leading positions, and during the electoral cycle of 2004-2006 either ceased to exist or, as with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, went over to the opposition to the "party in power".

The paper analyzes the main tendencies of the regional policy of Russia in 2002-2007, talks about the role of the "party of power" in recruiting the elites of the Kirov region and in local self-government on the example of the monotown of Kirov-Chepetsk.

Key words: "United Russia", political regional studies, political parties, political system, elections in the Russian Federation, State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, political institutions, political process, regional policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.017

J.I. AHMEDOV Working for a degree at the National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

LEGITIMACY OF THE GOVERNMENT AS A MODERN FACTOR OF SOCIETY RESILIENCE TO THREATS

The article analyzes in detail the factor of legitimacy of power structures which forms the basis of society resilience to threats. Attention is also paid to the main criteria of the government legitimacy. A study of the methods used by the state to ensure the political and economic manageability of citizens, taking into account the existing alignment of political forces, is conducted.

Key words: resilience to threats, power, people, state, threat, legitimacy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.018

F.A. VOSCRESENSKY Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

STUDY OF THE JUDICIARY AS AN ELEMENT OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE CONTINENTAL AND ANGLO-SAXON (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE USA) SYSTEMS OF LAW

The article presents some of the results of a scientific study of the judiciary in foreign countries, within the framework of the general political system of the state. It is showed the legal thinking of judges within the framework of two main legal systems of the world are shown: Anglo-Saxon and Continental. It is in their consistent centuries-old development and polemics that the role of the judiciary in the political system was formed and interpreted in different ways. In Europe, throughout its historical development, including almost the entire XX-th century, the judicial system was perceived as a derivative of a single state policy formed by the political regime. Judges here were not politically independent subjects, but only the applicants of the law emanating and formed by the monarch (in the past) or the legislature (in the present). Some exceptions are the Constitutional and Supreme Courts. On the contrary is in Common Law countries, especially the USA, the judicial system is perceived as an extension of the political one. There is no difference in approaches to the judicial system or other large institutions operating in the political field. The law is perceived as a product of the activity of judges. In addition, most of the American researchers have been focusing on the micro-level of the behavioral circuit of judges for many decades, while the studies of Europeans are based on the macro-level corresponding to the institutional wing, in general.

Key words: judicial power, political system, law, politics, court decisions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.019

N.А. КOMAROV Postgraduate student of the History Department, Chair of history of social movements and political parties, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HISTORIOGRAPHY OF INTERSTATE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN 2009-2018

The work is devoted to the historiography of the development and crisis of relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The study analyzes the events of 2009-2018 in stages. The starting point is the “color revolution” in Moldova, which took place in 2009. Since that time, the cooperation between Moscow and Chisinau has undergone significant changes.

The aim of the work is a comprehensive analysis of the historiography of interstate relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova during the above period. At the same time, the authors separately study the materials connected with the bilateral cooperation between Moscow and Chisinau, as well as the literature on the Transnistrian crisis. The following research methods were used: system and institutional approaches.

Based on the results of the analysis of the materials on the given topic, it can be concluded that the problem of relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova is of interest to researchers and has been widely covered in Russian historiography.

Key words: Russia, Moldova, foreign policy, CIS.

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.020

M.A. SHTANKO Candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor, Department of Humanities Taganrog Institute of Management and Economics, Taganrog, Russia

Z.B. TAZHEVA Assistant, Department of the Russian language number 1, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

ETHNIC CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

This article is devoted to one of the most pressing problems of our time – the need to reduce the level of ethnic tension. The authors characterize ethnic conflict as part of social reality and as a product of social construction. Within this position, ethnic conflict is defined as interrelated processes of institutionalization of subjective meanings and their inclusion in social structures and the inclusion of social structures in the system of subjective meanings. On this basis, the actions of different agents, their motivation, spontaneous social processes are arbitrarily attributed to an «ethnic» meaning, which is introduced mainly indirectly: things, persons and phenomena are placed in the context of ethnic relations or ethnic conflict. Based on this position, the authors propose to manage the conflict not through the regulation of its dynamics, but through changing the semantic content. In the minds of people, it is necessary to form ideas about the non-conflict of certain peoples or nations, then an ethnic conflict will not arise. The main channel through which such meanings can be transmitted is the secondary education system. If we correct the content of textbooks, then it will be possible to broadcast symbols of tolerance and tolerance in the largest scale. In addition, a special place in the internal policy of the state should be occupied by a change in the requirements for obtaining citizenship, which should also include the requirement for knowledge of the traditions and rules of behavior in the society of which people are going to become a part. It would be advisable to apply a similar requirement to refugees, who are often carriers of ethnic conflict values, transmitting them into a multi-ethnic environment.

Key words: management, ethnic conflict, social construction.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.021

A.N. MIKHAYLENKO Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, chairman, International security and Russian foreign policy chair at the Department of national security, Institute of law and national security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

D.A. UMEROV Postgraduate student of International security and Russian foreign policy chair at the Department of national security, Institute of law and national security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

MODEL OF HARMONIZING STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY

In modern conditions, the significance of ability to provide favorable external conditions for national development is increasing. A serious problem in this regard is discrepancy between states’ strategic plans and tactical actions on world stage. An example in this area can be the US adventure in Iraq in 2003-2011, which marked some military successes, but cost Americans thousands of victims and billion dollars of losses. In this regard, the question arises, what kind of model for harmonizing strategy and tactics of states’ foreign policy could be. To develop this model, it is necessary to learn what elements can make it up, what relationship between them could be and with the help of what methods this relationship could be provided. Answers to these questions make up the content of this article.

Key words: strategy, tactics, mutual adaptation, harmonization, strategic foresight, new world order, internal and external factors, China, European Union.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.022

N.S. KULESHOVA Doctor of philosophical science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

A.D. SANZHIEWA Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CYBERSECURITY AS A CONDITION FOR DIGITALIZATION IN JAPAN

The research of cybersecurity is relevant to Japan, as the country does not possess sufficient technology in this area and only recently active actions have been taken in this direction. Analysis of the country's level of information security and government measures in the field of cybersecurity is significant in terms of forecasting the future course of Japan's domestic and foreign policies. The study of the country's information security is also of great scientific and practical interest. Thus, the subject of our study – the process of providing security measures to preserve the confidentiality, sustainability and availability of data in Japan – is examined from the perspective of the works of Russian and Japanese scholars using empirical material.

Key words: cybersecurity, digitalization, Japan, political process, information security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.023

N.А. ZHERLITSINA Candidate of Sciences (history), Associate Professor, Leading Researcher of the Institute of African studies, Professor of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), Moscow, Russia

VIRTUAL CALIPHATE: ISIS MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES

Сonsidering that modern terrorist organizations pay great attention to their activities in the media, it seems necessary to study the strategy and methods that allowed radicals to succeed in using modern media for their own purposes. The methodological basis of this study was made up of such general scientific methods as analysis and synthesis. Among the political science approaches used, the network approach is particularly popular in science. The communicative approach examined the features of the new media in general. The work also reflected an institutional approach: new media are also considered as a modern social institution. In addition, comparative analysis was applied in the work, which made it possible to compare various points of view and approaches to assessing the ISIS media organization. Understanding how ISIS is trying to position itself in the international arena is important in the fight against terrorism. The article provides a comparative analysis of two media products of the radical group – the Dabiq magazine and the al-Naba newsletter. A special role in the popularization of ISIS was played by Dabiq magazine. An analysis of its content and media technologies used in its production is key to understanding the success of ISIS recruitment. Various techniques and technologies of influence on readers were used by Dabiq to further globalize the conflict unleashed by ISIS, demonstrating, allegedly, a viable alternative to life in the West, inspiring great hopes for supporters in different countries of the world and stimulating their immigration under the banner of the utopian caliphate. An analysis of statehood coverage technologies in ISIS English and Arabic publications allows the author to conclude that the group used segmentation methods with different visual arguments to target different audience groups.

Key words: international terrorism, ISIS, New Media, propaganda, information security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.024

E.A. BIKBULATOV PhD student, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMAGE OF THE TROLL FACTORY IN THE CONFRONTATION OF US POLITICAL PARTIES

The article is devoted to analyze of «Troll farm» image in US media. The author considers appearance and development of the topic interference of Russia in US President Election of 2016 in US media. It is stated that campaign was launched to accuse Russia of interfering, in which the image of stereotypes was artificially constructed and named. The article reveals the content of the term «Troll Factory», which fills a whole series of figures and symbols. It was concluded that the image of «The Troll Factory» is part of a long propaganda campaign, the main meaning of which was to use this image in opposition to the political situation in the United States.

Key words: «The troll farm», United States Presidential Election of 2016, image of Russia in USA, interference of Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.025

A.V. KURILKIN Post-graduate Student of the School of Public Administration Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHINESE CYBERDRAGON: ABOUT THE QUESTION OF CHINA'S CAPABILITIES FOR INFORMATION AND CYBER OPERATIONS

This paper considers the capability of PRC to conduct operations in informational and cyberspace. The purpose of the article is a comprehensive review and analysis of the PRC experience in conducting information, psychological and cybernetic operations. The objectives of the article include analysis of the PRC legislative base of information security and consideration of the experience in regulating the information space in China; open-source analysis of the PRC tools for manipulating public opinion in the Internet space and possibilities of cyber espionage; analysis of the expansion of the presence of official Chinese mass-media in the global information space. The author comes to the conclusion that today China has wide opportunities to conduct full-scale information and psychological operations to influence domestic and foreign audiences.

Key words: China, cyber espionage, information operation, manipulation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.026

O.N. POLTAVTSEVA Postgraduate student, Faculty of Political Science Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ANTI-IMMIGRATION RHETORIC IN ITALY AND IN THE USA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEW MEDIA CONTENT OF DONALD TRUMP AND MATTEO SALVINI

This article presents a comparative analysis of the new media anti-immigration rhetorical strategies of two influential politicians Donald Trump and Matteo Salvini. Migration has become a hot topic in the political agenda and famine led politicians to speak of a “refugee crisis” in both Europe and the United States. With the appearance of the internet the channels of disseminating political information have changed increasingly. Online media sources, also known as the new media, have become an integral part of modern political processes. Drawing on the rhetoric in their Twitter and Facebook posts our analysis highlights remarkably similar ideas and strategies that regarded immigration as a threat of for the security, the economy and the culture of the nation.

Key words: crisis, immigration, migration, new media, populism, rhetoric, Facebook, Twitter, Donald Trump, Matteo Salvini.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.027

WU YANBIN Post-graduate student of the department of international security, School of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT AND FEATURES OF CHINA'S MILITARY DIPLOMACY AFTER REFORM AND OPEN

The article summarizes the achievements and features of the PRC's military diplomacy after reform and open. After reform and open, the PRC experienced four eras of administration: Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping. The People's Liberation Army of China actively adapted to national strategic changes, deeply understood the world situation and general trends in military development, and restored the strategic policy of active defense. As an important part of the foreign policy and military policy of the PRC, the military-foreign policy of the PRC fully embodies the distinctive features, that is, the military obeys politic, the military strategy obeys the political strategy, and based on the fact that the protection of national interests is always the supreme principle, it has been constantly improved. Constantly expanding military cooperation and interaction with countries around the world, as well as actively participating in military diplomatic operations within the framework of multilateral and international organizations, the PRC has demonstrated completely new looks and features of military diplomacy. As the PRC's influence on the world stage grows over time, and its military power continues to grow, how does Beijing demonstrate its own concept of renouncing hegemony? Military diplomacy will play an increasingly important role, the peculiarities of China's military diplomacy are also worth researching further.

Key words: PRC, military diplomacy, reform and open, development, features.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.028

A.I. BUDNIK Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

T.V. GRIGORIEVA Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. KAN Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

POSITIONS OF RUSSIA AND JAPAN AROUND THE KURIL TERRITORIAL PROBLEM

The article is devoted to one of the most problematic issues today, which prevents the building of stronger, trusting relations between Russia and Japan – the territorial delimitation of the Kuril Islands, as well as their official positions on this issue through historical discourse. The attempts of the parties to settle the disputed territories for a long time have not been successful, since the parties cannot come to a consensus on the division of territories that would suit both parties.

Key words: Kuril Islands, Russia, Japan, territorial disputes.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.029

E.A. BOGDANOVA Bachelor of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

A.S. TIMERSHOVA Bachelor of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CRISIS IN CHILE: FROM PROTESTS TO PLEBISCITE

This article examines the main prerequisites, phases and features of the socio-political crisis in Chile, initiated in October 2019. A kind of parallel is drawn between the historical heritage of Pinochet and the current political situation. The specificity of the Chilean protest movement is analyzed, the most important intermediate results of protest activity are characterized, in particular, the adoption of the "New Social Agenda" by the government of Sebastian Piñera, as well as the holding of a constitutional plebiscite in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Key words: Chile, mass civil protests, social inequality, “New Social Agenda”, Sebastian Piñera, COVID-19.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.030

A.S. BUROVA Lomonosov Moscow State University, student of the Faculty of Global Processes, Moscow, Russia

SPANISH-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Today, the world community is a system of States integrated in economic, political and cultural aspects within the framework of the functioning of the United Nations. Over the past twentieth century, countries have had to overcome a long path of domestic and foreign policy searches. The Spanish Kingdom also made such a journey. The country's transition from the Franco regime to a developed European democracy was complicated by a number of problems in connection with the attitude of the world community to Francoism as a phenomenon. In the early 1930s, European countries that had recovered from the war found themselves facing a global crisis. After the victory of the Nazis in the elections in Germany, the "ghost" of war once again hovered under the sky of Europe. Socialism was replaced in Europe by national socialist ideas. In Spain, as a result of the protracted crisis of statehood, right-wing nationalist forces are gaining strength, which are beginning to fight against other political forces in the country. On July 17, 1936, a military mutiny broke out in Morocco, Spain's Achilles ' heel, throwing Spain into the maelstrom of civil war.

Key words: society, politics, relations, structure, formation.

REFLECTIONS ABOUT THE READ

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.65.1.031

D.E. SLYZOVSKIY Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), Moscow, Russia

MULTIPLYING CORRUPTION: THE SEARCH FOR GROUNDS CONTINUES

(Review of the article by Yu.A. Yermakov “Origin and multiplication of corruption in socio-political hierarchies: the role of natural principles”)

The review analyzes the urgency of the problem covered in the article by Professor Yermakov Yu.A., gives an assessment of the scientific and political importance of the research into the nature of corruption. The reviewer in the context of his discussions with the author of the article under review highlights the features of corruption in the government of Russia.

Key words: corruption, power structures, socio-political hierarchies, natural principles.

   
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