№ 3 (79), 2022

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 3 (79), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Yanovsky O.S. Language, Intentions and Interpretation in Quentin Skinner's Methodological Research Program for the Intellectual History of Political Thought

Lazebnik A.G. Trajectories of Political Transformations: an Approach to the Study of Political Dynamics

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Ruban L.S. Who are we and How do we Survive in the Modern World without Losing Ourselves? (Problems of Socio-Cultural Evolution of Modern Russian Society)

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Egorov K.Y. Theoretical and Legal and Political Foundations Formation of a Federal State

Menshikov P.V., Yavuz Shefika Melisa Sabahattinovna. Political Communication in Hyperreal World

Valitova A.T. Fake News as a Political and Discursive Phenomenon of the Modern Era

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Ravochkin N.N. Political Management Practices Transformation in Digitalization Realities (Part 1)

Tushkov A.A., Sokolova D.P. Startup as a New Driving Force of Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Korea

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Dubrovina O.V., Dubina A.S., Rozhkova L.V. Un Reform and Development in the Post-Bipolar Era

Karpovich O.G., Shangaraev R.N. Impact of the Withdrawal of American Troops from Afghanistan on the Relations of the Usa and Europe

Koibaev B.G., Nadzharyan A.B. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Development of Civil Society in the Republic of Armenia

Avazov K.H. Socio-Psychological Aspects of the Formation of a Threat-Resistant Society

Wang Juntao, Wang Mingjun. The Attitude of the Largest Countries of the World to AUKUS

Emelianov A.I., Zueva P.A. Germany and the USA. Retrospective and Future Nature of Bilateral Cooperation

Komarevtseva N.S., Gayfutdinov R.I. Russia and Turkey in the Context of the New Turkic World

Smirnov A.N. «Coronavirus Geopolitics» of the Countries of the Vishegrad Group

Xiong Leping. Language Education as a Tool of "Soft Power" of China and Russia

Kovalevskaia N.V., Orlov K.V. The Problem of the Militarization of Space as a Global Problem of Humanity

Bortsov D.V. Development of Economic Diplomacy in the Russian Empire

Bahaduri A.F., Qasem Mohammad Arif. Afghanistan's Political Development after 2001

Ivanhcneko M.A. Party Political Systems in Russia and Argentina at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Mokrova E.M. US Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Activities

Тanimov Sh.M. Spiritual and Moral Mechanisms of Combating Missionaries in the Virtual World

Alimov A.V. Russian National Idea

Musieva D.M., Manuylova Yu.V. US Strategic Competition Against Russia and China on the Example of Ukraine and Taiwan Issues

Chen Zoni. “The Belt and the Road” in the Context of Modern Chinese Geostrategy

Tsymbal I.A. The Influence of a Modern International Context on the Perception by Russian Citizens of Foreign Countries

Chzhan Chen'i. Political Interaction between India and China in the Context of the Expansion of India's Influence

Chen Hanzhi. Analysis of the Mechanism of Formation of Russia's Foreign Policy in the Context of Political Elites on the Example of the Ukrainian Issue: Chinese View

Vlasov A.V. Assessing the Potential of BRICS in the Modern Political Arena

Novikova K.A. Analysis of the Chronology of Social Protests in the EU in the Period from 2005-2020

Tcoi S.V. Military-Political Factors as an Obstacle to the Integration of the DPRK and the Republic of Korea

Poungchingngam Katima. Economic Cooperation between Thailand and Russia: New Opportunities and Challenges

STUDENT SCIENCE

Protsenko A.L. To the Question of the Qualification of Authoritarian Regimes in the Modern World

Soktoeva A.B. Problems of Implementation of International Anti-Corruption Standards in the Russian Federation

Galanina D.S. Improving the Technological Capabilities of International Observation

Our authors № 3-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.001

O.S. YANOVSKY Lecturer, Department of Political Theory, School of Government and Politics, MGIMO, Moscow, Russia

LANGUAGE, INTENTIONS, AND INTERPRETATION IN QUENTIN SKINNER'S METHODOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT

The article is devoted to the specific aspects of Quentin Skinner's methodological approaches in the context of considering the problems of understanding and interpreting works in the field of political theory as historical phenomena created by historical agents. Skinner's methodology is simultaneously considered as part of the broad historical and historisophical methodological tradition of the Cambridge School of Intellectual History and the History of Political Thought, and in the context of the methodological paradigm of interpretive approaches in political theory. The Cambridge School and Skinner, in particular, were critical of the approaches that dominated Western humanities in the mid-twentieth century to consider works in the field of political thought as sacred sources of eternal truths, not subject to the influence of history of any external factors. Skinner, as one of the pioneers of the "linguistic turn" in political theory, challenged these approaches and, together with his colleagues, focused on creating an alternative, historically more sensitive methodological approach.

The article discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations of the Skinnerian approach to the study of the history of political thought, namely the importance of language as a tool for shaping the reality in which the author exists, and the mechanism for shaping reality by the author himself. Also it is important to understand the author's intention (intention) as the key to understanding the true meaning of the text. Thus, within the framework of the methodological paradigm proposed by Skinner, the research foundation is based on the "contextualism" of the author's activity. The author of a political text exists within a number of historically conditioned, dynamically developing restrictions that determine both the language available to him for expressing his ideas, and those intentions that were laid down at the time of their expression.

Key words: Quentin Skinner, Cambridge School, intellectual history, history of political thought, interpretative theories, intentions, contextualism, history of political thought, linguistic turn.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.002

A.G. LAZEBNIK Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

TRAJECTORIES OF POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS: AN APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF POLITICAL DYNAMICS

The article offers a new approach to the consideration of transformations of political regimes. It is invited to consider groups of countries on the basis of the common path of political transformation they are taking. This will allow to develop a new explanatory model of transformation, as opposed to existing fragmented explanations. The proposed approach is based on the idea of common patterns of behaviour in similar living circumstances as reflected in structural indicators. Countries undergoing various phases of regime transformation can be differentiated by trajectory. Seven consecutive trajectories have been identified, the analysis of which allows us to allocate indicators correlating with the movement towards "democracy", "semi-democracy" and "non-democracy". These trajectories are divided into two types: trajectories of "democratization" and trajectories of "autocratization".

Key words: transformation of the political regime, trajectory of political transformation, democracy, autocracy.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.003

L.S. RUBAN Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Head of the Department of Research of International Cooperation Issues Institute of the Socio-Political Researches of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

WHO ARE WE AND HOW DO WE SURVIVE IN THE MODERN WORLD WITHOUT LOSING OURSELVES? (PROBLEMS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL EVOLUTION OF MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY)

The article examines the process of self-regulation in modern Russian society, the formation of the identity of social individuals, their goal-setting and the formation of the life ideal and principles of social interaction, taking into account the changing reality that is currently in a turbulent state. The problems of socio-cultural evolution of modern Russian society in the context of socio-cultural modernization and the evolution of value criteria and norms are considered, their study is carried out using the methods of system analysis. The methodological basis of the research is the socio-cultural (anthroposocietal) approach. The author conducted a content analysis of specialized scientific works and publications in the media in the context of comparing the largest philosophical, psychological and sociological positions of Russian researchers, namely the dispositional theory of self-regulation of social behavior of the individual, developed by Professor V.A. Yadov, and studies of this profile made at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the concept of Academician V.S. Stepin. the active nature of man and the research of socio-cultural modernization in the process of socio-cultural evolution of modern society as an integral organism of the Center for the Study of Socio-Cultural Dimensions of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the leadership of the corresponding member. Lapina N.I., studies of personality and its value world and norms in modern Russian society, as well as the study of mentality and identity formation of social individuals in the process of development of modern Russian society and socio-humanitarian sciences in long-term research projects of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This comparison shows that together these studies reveal a holistic picture of the socio-cultural evolution of modern Russian society with an emphasis on its socio-cultural modernization.

Key words: the process of self-regulation in society, identification of social individuals, goal setting and formation of the life ideal and principles of social interaction.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.004

K.Y. EGOROV Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy" Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL FOUNDATIONS FORMATION OF A FEDERAL STATE

The article examines the theoretical, legal and political foundations of the formation of a federal state. The basic provisions that are directly related to the formation and development of various models of the federal structure are investigated. The features of the formation and development of the federal structure on the example of the Russian Federation are analyzed and conclusions on the research topic are formulated.

Key words: federal structure, state, democracy, federal subject, autonomy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.005

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

YAVUZ SHEFIKA MELISA SABAHATTINOVNA Assistant, Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN HYPERREAL WORLD

Since the second half of the 20th century, political communication has been studied by specialists from various fields: sociologists, political scientists, psychologists, philosophers, and PR specialists. At the core of communication lie mechanisms aimed at the forming a system of ideological values and behavioral models of society. In the modern hyperreal world, in the face of modified public perception of communication, new factors need to be taken into account when developing a political communication strategy. One should pay attention to the increase in the volume of information, results of the digital revolution, as well as new communication trends generated by New Media.

Key words: political communication, manipulation, asymmetric communication, nowledge-value society, communication channels, digital transformation, infobesity, simulacre.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.006

A.T. VALITOVA Postgraduated student, Saint Petersburg state university, Saint Petersburg, Russia

FAKE NEWS AS A POLITICAL AND DISCURSIVE PHENOMENON OF THE MODERN ERA

Fake news influences public opinion, changes the political, economic, social situation in the world. This article analyzes the phenomenon of creation and wide distribution of fake news. The article attempts to systematize and define the typology of fake news, conspiracy theories were classified as fake news, despite the fact that they are essentially fake news, the problem is more extensive than that covered in this article and requires further research. The problem of spreading fake news through social networks is separately taken out, and separately included in the typology, despite the fact that this is more of a technical issue of spreading disinformation, however, through social networks and instant messengers, the flow of disinformation spread by users who do not verify information, but spread it has increased among your close contacts. Knowledge and ability to distinguish fake news from the truth will help to avoid negative consequences in political, social and economic processes.

Key words: Fake News, Post-truth, Social media, Misinformation, Disinformation, Clickbait, Mimic content.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.007

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies, Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences, Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TRANSFORMATION IN DIGITALIZATION REALITIES (PART 1)

The rapid penetration of digital technologies into all spheres of public life could not but have an impact on the practices of political management. The current situation associated with the metamorphoses that have taken place in political management in certain empirical contexts is unique for comparative analysis. In this part of the article, the author examines the research approaches and assessments that have developed in the scientific community regarding digitalization. Arguments are given in favor of "positive" and "negative" views on digitalization. It is proved that digitalization has created qualitatively new and at the same time very heterogeneous conditions for the implementation of political management practices around the world. New tools that power actors have acquired due to digitalization have been studied. Practical examples of the use of advanced technologies of political management are given.

Key words: political management, power, digitalization, society, interactions, political participation, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.008

A.A. TUSHKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

D.P. SOKOLOVA Bachelor of the Department of International Relations and Law of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

STARTUP AS A NEW DRIVING FORCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The authors of this article investigated a fairly new and promising phenomenon for the Republic of Korea – a startup. The relevance of the study is due to the markedly decreasing influence of the activities of South Korean big business on the socio-economic progress of South Korea in the current conditions of the world economy. The authors of this study described the mechanism of the South Korean startup ecosystem. Based on statistical data, the prospects and relevance of the startup ecosystem were proved, and its impact on social and economic development was analyzed.

Key words: Republic of Korea, South Korea, startup, socio-economic development, small business, large business, chaebol.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.009

O.V. DUBROVINA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

A.S. DUBINA Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University Penza, Russia

L.V. ROZHKOVA Doctor of Sociology, Head of the Department of Economic Theory and International Relations, Penza State University Penza, Russia

UN REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE POST-BIPOLAR ERA

The Second World War led to the realization by peoples all over the world of the devastating consequences of military conflicts and the need for dialogue and cooperation between countries, so 77 years ago the United Nations was created, which showed both strengths and weaknesses. The UN is recognized as an important actor influencing international processes in the field of socio-political development of the participating countries. In the first forty years of its existence, the organization demonstrated high achievements in ensuring world order and ensuring security, but subsequently these successes were gradually minimized. New and new problems were brewing in the functioning of the UN, the authority of the organization was declining due to the arbitrariness and violation of the principles of the international community of the participating countries, to which the UN has been helplessly turning a blind eye for many years. Perhaps the problem lies in the obsolescence of the organization, since there have been drastic changes in post-bipolar conditions and the original goals do not correspond to modern reality. Among other things, there is a noticeable lack of equality in the process of distributing the constitutional bases of the institute, at the same time there is a discrepancy between some provisions of the Charter and the socio-economic and political processes actually taking place in the international arena. The way out of this situation lies in reforming the UN with the participation of the main persons of all peoples and states at an international conference with the provision of obligations for their equality.

Key words: international relations, international organization, UN, universal Institute of Peace and Security, General Assembly, Security Council, society, state, constitutionalism, democracy, equality.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.010

O.G. KARPOVICH Doctor of Law, Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Vice-Rector, Director of the Institute for Contemporary International Studies of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

R.N. SHANGARAEV Candidate of economic sciences, Associate professor of the Chair of public administration in foreign policy of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

IMPACT OF THE WITHDRAWAL OF AMERICAN TROOPS FROM AFGHANISTAN ON THE RELATIONS OF THE USA AND EUROPE

The adoption by the President of the United States of America Biden of the decision to withdraw American troops from Afghanistan with a clear underestimation of the immigration of armed forces by the Taliban movement strengthened the fears of European leaders regarding the interests and is not inclined to take into account the opinion of partners, including NATO.

Key words: USA, Europe, NATO, Afghanistan, international relations, Taliban.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.011

B.G. KOIBAEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

A.B. NADZHARYAN Post-graduate student, North Ossetian State University K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Republic North Ossetia Alania, Russia

ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

Civil society institutions, and above all non-governmental organizations, play an important role in the formation and development of democratic tendencies in modern States. The study of various aspects of the activities of non-governmental organizations is an important scientific direction in modern political science. The authors of the article attempt to investigate the activities of formed non-governmental organizations in the modern Republic of Armenia. On the basis of a variety of empirical material, the development and functioning are considered, as well as the role and influence of non-governmental organizations in the development of civil society in the Republic of Armenia is revealed. The authors note that the activities of the formed non-governmental organizations in modern Armenia are quite contradictory.

Key words: Republic of Armenia, civil society, non-governmental organizations, Soros Foundation, “Velvet Revolution”.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.012

K.H. AVAZOV PhD in Political Sciences, Head of the Chair for humanities and economic sciences at the Regional Center for Retraining and Advanced Training of Public Education Workers of Surkhandarya region, Termez, Republic of Uzbekistan

SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE FORMATION OF A THREAT-RESISTANT SOCIETY

The article presents the results of the research conducted by the authors on the problems of the influence of destructive ideas and groups on the individuals, the state, and the society. The research was also conducted on the formation of assertive behavior and culture of information consumption among young people, the article also presents conclusions and practical suggestions on these issues. The place and role of the state in the formation of a threat-resistant society is indicated.

Key words: threat, risk, societies, factors, geopolitics, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.013

WANG JUNTAO Political candidate Sci., Associate Professor Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

WANG MINGJUN Student of the Graduate School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

THE ATTITUDE OF THE LARGEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD TO AUKUS

This article is devoted to the recently created Trilateral Security Partnership Alliance (AUKUS). The appearance of the alliance caused a contradictory reaction in the world. The article analyzes the attitude and positions of some countries expressed towards the alliance and its purpose. The author examines the goals and priorities of the alliance, the attitude of the international community to the formation of the alliance. According to the study, the attitude of most countries to this union can be divided into three categories: positive, skeptical and neutral attitude. The purpose of the study is to analyze and compare various theories and opinions about the creation of the AUKUS alliance. Empirical research methods, search and analysis of information from mass media, analysis and comparison of data, comparison and generalization were used in the work.

Results. Summing up, AUKUS is a new combination of the "special relationship between the United States and Great Britain" and the alliance between the United States and Australia, as well as the alliance of the so-called "Anglo-Saxon democratic countries", emphasizing ideological antagonism. This is an alliance based on subjective assumptions and aimed at common goals in the field of defense. In fact, we can say that this is an alliance for the collective containment of China and Russia. AUKUS has a serious risk of nuclear proliferation. All this shows that the motivation of the United States, Great Britain and Australia to provoke a "new cold war" was undisguised.

Conclusions. Despite the positive attitude of some countries, the author nevertheless comes to the conclusion that the creation of AUKUS reflects the revival of Cold War thinking, which will inevitably stimulate the escalation of the regional arms race, and this will seriously jeopardize peace, security and stability in the Asia-Pacific region.

Key words: AUKUS, trilateral partnership, cooperation, security and defense, nuclear weapons, regional peace and stability, USA, Australia, United Kingdom.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.014

A.I. EMELIANOV PhD (Political Science), Associate Professor Head of the Department of Theory of Regional Studies Institute of International Relations and Socio-Political Sciences, Moscow State Linguistic University Moscow, Russia

P.A. ZUEVA Student, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

GERMANY AND THE USA. RETROSPECTIVE AND FUTURE NATURE OF BILATERAL COOPERATION

The article presents a study of the main issues in the bilateral relations between Germany and the United States in the XXI century, provoked by external and internal factors. The main purpose of the work is to study the relevance of the US-German bilateral relations for the two actors of the world politics, as well as to identify the main causes of the emergence of crisis phenomena in the partnership of Germany and the United States and to predict the dynamics of the situation in the future. Based on the research conducted by the author, the decline in the activity of American-German contacts is confirmed against the background of a decrease in mutual trust and respect. The author notes that it is impossible to quickly restore the former quality of relations between Berlin and Washington, even with the change of the political elite of both powers.

Key words: foreign policy, Germany, Europe, European Union, import, international relations, NATO, Nord Stream-2, USA, Transatlantic partnership, export.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.015

N.S. KOMAREVTSEVA PhD in Political Science, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Actual International Problems Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

R.I. GAYFUTDINOV Graduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Philosophy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA AND TURKEY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW TURKIC WORLD

This article considers the results of the long-term consolidation of the Turkic world as a new geopolitical reality. An analysis of this process allows us to define it largely as a result of Ankara's foreign policy. The article discusses the role of Turkey in the transformation of the Turkic-speaking space into a full-fledged union. The subject of the study is the prospects, conceptual foundations and main vectors for the development of the project of a union Turkic world as a self-sufficient subject of world politics, as well as its role in the context of Russian-Turkish relations. The Turkic project is assessed in the context of the national interests of the Russian Federation.

Key words: Turkic world, Turkey, Russia, Pan-Turkism, Organization of Turkic States, summit.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.016

A.N. SMIRNOV Candidate of Sciences (Political), Senior Researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

«CORONAVIRUS GEOPOLITICS» OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE VISHEGRAD GROUP

Pandemic COVID-19 has become a difficult test for the countries of the Visegrad Group. It was the tragic cause of numerous human losses and economic losses, but at the same time gave a new impetus to subregional cooperation in the fight against the infectious threat and its consequences. Since the end of 2020, the pledge of victory over the disease has become a mass vaccination. The main conditions for its conduct are beyond the resource potential of the Visegrad states and transfer the medical and social problem to the sphere of geopolitics. The behavior of the group member countries marked a whole range of approaches to solving an arisen problem. The most unequivocal position was occupied by the Poland authorities that use for vaccinations exclusively drugs approved by Brussels. In Hungary initially existed a flexible approach to the problem of vaccination funds, which corresponded to the pragmatic installations of the government of Viktor Orban. The beginning of mass vaccination in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, on the contrary, was accompanied by a series of scandals and fierce internal political confrontation. The conflicting parties here were not simply supporters and opponents of using the Russian vaccine, but carriers of various views on the strategy of relations with Moscow.

Key words: Visegrad Group, Coronavirus, pandemic, vaccination, Sputnik V, Russia, medicine, politics, geopolitics, international relations, EU, domestic political conflict.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.017

XIONG LEPING Ph.D., Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, China

LANGUAGE EDUCATION AS A TOOL OF "SOFT POWER" OF CHINA AND RUSSIA

This article considers language education as a tool of "soft power" of the state. In the context of globalization, there is a tendency to intensify intercultural communication and educational exchanges, foreign language skills play a key role in the process of cultural interactions. In this regard, language education in any country acquires a topical importance, serving as a link with the outside world. Successful organization of language education, active promotion of the study of national languages abroad and high-quality training attract foreign students, form goodwill between the peoples of different countries of the world, contribute to interstate contacts on the basis of mutual trust and understanding. Thus, language education can be a lever of foreign policy influence, has a huge potential impact on the public opinion of the world community, and acts as an effective tool of "soft power" of the country. China and Russia in the 21st century began to support cultural and educational projects, try to attract foreigners around the world to study their national language. Two countries enter the international market of educational services, thanks to the measures taken both countries have achieved success in "soft power". However, the West views China and Russia's performance differently and tries to limit the "soft power" of the two powers. Meanwhile, China and Russia continue to use language education to spread their "soft power" around the world and further develop their humanitarian cooperation.

Key words: soft power, language education, China, Russia, influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.018

N.V. KOVALEVSKAIA Ph.D. in political Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

K.V. ORLOV Student, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF THE MILITARIZATION OF SPACE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM OF HUMANITY

In the context of the transition to a new political and digital order, to the development of innovative industry and disruptive trends, there are growing concerns about changing the principles of warfare geography, which will be divided not only into familiar forms, front and rear, economic and ideological confrontation, the struggle in the information continuum, and in the future will seriously expand to outer space. The leading space powers are actively developing concepts for conducting combat operations in space, and news about the creation of the latest means of space weaponry is becoming more and more frequent. In this context, it is especially relevant to analyze the balance of power in this area and the prospects of using space as a battlefield in future world conflicts. Earth is not the most peaceful and peaceful place in the universe, only today there are about thirty wars of varying intensity on the entire planet and nothing indicates that in the near future anything will change towards the normalization and stabilization of inter-country relations. On the contrary, tensions between states, especially between the great powers, are growing, which may sooner or later lead to open armed conflict and confrontation. However, even the great military powers such as Russia, China and the United States can not afford to get involved in a global war, because the prospect of complete destruction restrains them from full-scale war with nuclear weapons, they use military force only locally, in particularly difficult cases, when other ways to solve the problem is not possible. In this regard, one of the arenas of such a war could also become space.

Key words: global problems of humanity, militarization of space, ban on militarization of space, space weapons.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.019

D.V. BORTSOV Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences; MGIMO MFA of Russia; 2nd Secretary of the Ministry Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA of Russia), Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

The author analyzes the emergence and main stages of the Russian economic diplomacy evolution applying methods of aggregation, dating and evaluation of available sources in the field of history, political science and economics. The stages of transformation of organizational forms of the economic branch in the Russian diplomatic service as well as the formation of the national school of personnel training are studied. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of Russian foreign trade during the mentioned historic period are accumulated and analyzed. Also author describes positive and negative factors influencing on direction and growth rate of foreign economic activities and economic diplomacy at that time as well as highlights key specific features of foreign trade area of Russia throughout its development. The state economic policy, the approaches of the country's leadership to foreign economic issues and the implementation of economic diplomacy activities are consistently considered with a focus on the perception of its importance. The author also identifies the historical features of the Russian political and socio-economic systems which prevented the active promotion of national products to foreign markets. Contribution of separate politicians to development of foreign trade and national export – either country leaders or heads of specialized departments responsible for foreign economic area throughout the abovementioned period – is investigated with estimation of its results. The international situation that took place is studied with focus on its influence on state economic policy and priorities in relations with key foreign partners. The impact of foreign commercial agents’ activities on the condition and transformation of the political and economic landscape in Russia is analyzed. The circumstances of introduction of new or localization of existing and already used in other countries tools of economic diplomacy are described with highlighting of their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the process of changing the attitude of diplomats to this issue: from complete denial of participance in foreign economic activities to gradual acceptance and final inclusion in the circle of key priorities of the diplomatic service.

Key words: russian economic diplomacy, economic diplomacy in the Russian Empire, evolution of economic diplomacy, history of economic diplomacy, Russian diplomatic service, export promotion, diplomatic support of the economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.020

A.F. BAHADURI Lecturer Department of Political Science and International Relations, law and political science faculty Badakhshan University, Faizabad, Afghanistan; PhD student in political science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Comparative Political Science RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

QASEM MOHAMMAD ARIF Postgraduate Student at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, RUDN, Moscow, Russia

AFGHANISTAN'S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER 2001

A dignified and prosperous life is one of the long-standing desires of people. For this, a person created a political institution called government, the purpose of which was to establish order in society. Historical research shows that the distribution of power in political systems took place in various forms, and people were inevitably subjected to the actions of an authoritarian system. In the course of these processes, representatives of authoritarian systems mainly pursued their own personal goals, and the transformation of traditional (authoritarian) systems was an inevitable part of political modernization. With the advent of democratic systems, people's expectations of the system have increased. Perhaps the reason lies in the role of the people in the choice of the political system and its officials. In democracies, people monitor government, and government officials are required to respond to people's inquiries.

How did these changes take place in Afghanistan? What is the meaning of political development after a long period of authoritarian regimes and the establishment of a democratic state after the ouster of the Taliban in Afghanistan? Has the political system been modernized in this country? The results show that the country's political development is directly related to the emergence of a democratic government after the collapse of the Taliban regime in that country. But the country also faced significant challenges. This study is aimed at analyzing the essence of political development in modern Afghanistan.

Key words: political development, structure, political system, government, democracy, Afghanistan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.021

M.A. IVANCHENKO English Department №1 Lecturer MGIMO, Moscow, Russia

PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA AND ARGENTINA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY

This article introduces the problems and features of the development of political systems in Russia and Argentina at the beginning of the 21st century. Both countries experienced complexities, economic crises that occurred at the end of the 20th century. For each country, the political system is a global space that links government and society and at the same time enhances the development of the political socialization of citizens and the developing participation in the political life of all spheres of society. A comparative analysis of the systems of Russia and Argentina, as the basis for the development of any democratic state, has been carried out. The features of the political system are excluded, as an institution with multi-party system of political power. Party systems reflect the alignment, influence and reflection of power, interaction with legitimate authorities, representative authorities, and leaders of countries. The determining factors in the development of political systems are considered, in conditions specific to Russia and Argentina, in which political systems evolve and function.

Key words: political system, multi-party system, the party of power, opposition, legitimacy of elections, crisis of political power, stability.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.022

E.M. MOKROVA Senior lecturer at English Language Department № 6, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

US INTERSTATE OIL & GAS COMPACT COMMISSION ACTIVITIES

There is a great number of lobbying structures in USA directly connected with the US government: think tanks, councils, associations, ethnic lobby groups. Relations between US lobbying groups and legal authorities are unique due to the special system of organization and regulations. According to various studies US lobbyism is of corporate character and is used in defense, energy, banking and even pharmaceutical industry. The article considers Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission activities, a non-lobbyist organization providing interests of US oil and gas industry on a governmental level.

Key words: lobbyism, Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission, US foreign policy, US foreign course.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.023

Sh.М. ТANIMOV Independent researcher of the Republican Center of Spirituality and Enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

SPIRITUAL AND MORAL MECHANISMS OF COMBATING MISSIONARIES IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD

This article is devoted to the study of the place and role of spiritual security, including its cultural-historical, informational-psychological, religious, ideological, scientific, educational and other components) as one of the complex components of national security. The author analyzes the spiritual and moral mechanisms for combating missionaries.

Key words: missionary work, religion, threat, societies, youth, national security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.024

A.V. ALIMOV Postgraduate student of the Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN NATIONAL IDEA

The article examines the need to develop a Russian national idea as the main condition for the unity of the state community. The article consists of two parts. The first examines the ontology of the national idea, its ethnogenesis. It is proved that the historical code of Russia is laid down by passionaries of different eras. Variants of patriotism for the internal (spiritual) and external (organizational) content of the national idea are proposed. During the period of contradictions between liberalism and conservatism, it is proposed to integrate the concept of empiriomonism into the system of public administration. The second part explores patriotism as a basic element of mental and organizational experiences in creating a strong state. In the course of the study, two ways of reform in the education system are proposed: transformation of the system-active approach into a humanistic paradigm supplemented by the acmeological principles of Christian existentialism, based on the cultural values of Orthodox civilization; step-by-step modeling of the education system (V.B. Titov). In conclusion, it is proposed to institutionalize the Russian world in order to exercise control over the key areas of the formation of national consciousness: culture, education, the media.

Key words: national idea, Russian world, patriotism, humanistic paradigm, passionarity, existentialism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.025

D.M. MUSIEVA Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Yu.V. MANUYLOVA Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

US STRATEGIC COMPETITION AGAINST RUSSIA AND CHINA ON THE EXAMPLE OF UKRAINE AND TAIWAN ISSUES

The article deals with the issues of interstate confrontation between the largest powers of our time, namely the United States of America with the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, on the examples of the Ukraine and Taiwan issues. The purpose of this study is to prove that the actions of Russia and China in the international arena are aimed at establishing a polycentric world order, that is contrary to the interests of the United States. During the study, methods of historical and comparative analysis, a prognostic method, a systematic approach, content analysis of the media and strategic documents, and a number of other general scientific methods were used. Based on the analysis, the authors reveal that the current events in Ukraine are part of a general attempt to transform the current global order, that can be continued in the Indo-Pacific region as a clash between the United States and China.

Key words: strategic competition, Ukraine issue, Taiwan issue, global order rebalancing.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.026

CHEN ZONI Postgraduate Student at the Chair of European studies, Faculty of International Relations and World Politics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

“THE BELT AND THE ROAD” IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN CHINESE GEOSTRATEGY

Since the end of the Cold War, changes in China's neighborhood have made China's traditional geostrategy inadequate in the face of the new geopolitical landscape that has taken shape since the Cold War. This article discusses and analyzes the relationship between China's security space, traditional strategies, and national security, which will allow to determine the relationship between the "Belt and Road" and China's geostrategy.

Key words: China, geopolitics, Belt and Road, geopolitical tradition, national security, geopolitical space.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.027

I.A. TSYMBAL Graduate student, Department of Sociology and Psychology of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF A MODERN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT ON THE PERCEPTION BY RUSSIAN CITIZENS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES

The article analyzes the importance of studying the reflection of symbols in the understanding of the modern political map of the world, studies the trends in the formation of perception of states, the course of foreign policy changes and relationships, and the creation of a space of symbolic representations. The classification of the most important factors influencing the perception in the mass consciousness of the images of both one's own country and other countries of the world has been formulated and outlined. It is noted how, in the process of forming the images of foreign countries, about which Russian respondents are not sufficiently aware, the transfer of characteristics of the political or economic union to which these countries are included is manifested. The process of correlating the components of a complex image of other countries with their own country by Russian citizens when trying to formulate a set of characteristics of foreign states is considered. The most significant countries in the system of international relations are classified as new centers of growth or centers of power, in one area or another opposing the global domination of the United States. The process of constructing images of foreign countries under the influence of a number of situational factors – the most significant events that influenced public opinion – has been carefully studied. It is shown how the authorities and the media use these events in the formation of national-state identity. The data of current public opinion polls support the reasoning about how situational factors influence the formation of images of "friend countries" and "enemy countries" in the mass consciousness. Based on the analysis of international content, conclusions were drawn about the duration of the influence of stable and changeable factors and the risk of transforming the images of countries under the influence of these factors.

Key words: political image of the country, mass consciousness, stable and changeable factors, situational and communicative factors, images of "friends" and "enemies".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.028

CHZHAN CHEN'I Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INTERACTION BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EXPANSION OF INDIA'S INFLUENCE

The article examines the interaction between India and China, analyzes the main trends of bilateral relations in the last decade. The study uses an integrated approach to identify a set of problems related to the formation of India as a new center of regional and global influence, which causes the formation of new directions in China's foreign policy strategies, and the issue of competition between China and RI in the region is also being updated. The obtained result of the study suggests that positive and negative trends in Sino-Indian relations are equally likely. The forecast of the dynamics of Sino-Indian relations depends not only on China's position, but also on India's diplomatic choice and the involvement of other major countries associated with it.

Key words: political interaction, security, Indo-Pacific region, territorial issue, Tibet issue, Pakistani factor, competition, NPT, UNSC, NSG, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Belt and Road, Africa, Middle East, Quad, Modi, RICK.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.029

CHEN HANZHI Intern at the Chinese Institute of International Studies, China

ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF RUSSIA'S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF POLITICAL ELITES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE UKRAINIAN ISSUE: CHINESE VIEW

The most important foreign policy decisions not only largely determine the fate of the country, but can also cause a number of chain reactions of the world order. The well-known scientist Bobo Lo believes that foreign policy depends on the consensus of the broad elite. For the implementation of scientific and rational foreign policy decisions by mature countries, especially powers with global influence, the process of making foreign policy decisions does not simply consist in organizing a meeting or making a decision directly by individuals, but usually has a formed mechanism for implementing foreign policy that corresponds to national conditions and interests. Diplomacy is a continuation of domestic politics. The study of the mechanism of formation of Russia's foreign policy requires an analysis of the mechanism of its internal regime. Any political system is the result of the activities of political elites, and the participants in this process include elite ideas and behaviors. This article examines the mechanism of formation of Russia's foreign policy in the Ukrainian issue from the point of view of Russian political elites.

Key words: political elites, the Russian Federation, foreign policy concept, foreign policy course, the situation in Ukraine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.030

A.V. VLASOV Postgraduate student of the Institute of Law and National Security Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL OF BRICS IN THE MODERN POLITICAL ARENA

The study examines the transformation of the existing world order, which resulted in the emergence of a group of countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). The global pandemic has become a global challenge for modern political reality, when the BRICS countries have shown not only their viability as a political tool, but also as a sustainable socio-economic space. The object of the study is interstate stable political and socio-economic communities. The subject of the study is the potential as a complex multi-component category that determines the viability and prospects of interstate entities. The purpose of the study is to establish the potential of the BRICS group of countries as a viable interstate entity. The result of the study is the establishment and objectification of the effectiveness and viability of the BRICS interstate education on the basis of public data of official statistics.

Key words: interstate education, regional powers, international financial institutions, global governance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.031

K.A. NOVIKOVA PhD student, European studies department, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE CHRONOLOGY OF SOCIAL PROTESTS IN THE EU IN THE PERIOD FROM 2005-2020

Protests are one of the most important ways of political socialization and expression of the will of the population. The European Union laws do not restrict the right of citizens to peaceful demonstrations. Over the past decade, the level of such socio-political activity has increased significantly. The article analyzes the causes and trends of the protest movement in the EU including during pandemic situation.

Key words: public opinion, protest movement, European Union (EU), economic crisis, migration crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.032

S.V. TCOI Postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

MILITARY-POLITICAL FACTORS AS AN OBSTACLE TO THE INTEGRATION OF THE DPRK AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

The purpose of the article is to analyze topical issues of the settlement of relations between North and South Korea in the context of the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. To do this, the following tasks are solved in the article. The possibilities of reunification of the two Korean states in the context of the transformation of the North Korean regime are considered. It is concluded that in the current conditions it is an unlikely scenario of development. The current events of recent times are analyzed, indicating an increase in the risks of destabilization of the military-political situation on the territory of the Korean peninsula. To solve these problems, general scientific methods (analysis, induction, historical method) and content analysis of public speeches and news publications on the topic were used. The result of the article is the conclusion about the long-term nature of the possible integration process, which will inevitably entail many obstacles and costs, starting from the current regime of the DPRK and ending with the economic and social planning of the development of the two states.

Key words: North Korea, South Korea, Korean peninsula, Pyongyang, Russia, reunification.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.033

POUNGCHINGNGAM KATIMA Postgraduate student at School of International Relations of Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THAILAND AND RUSSIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

The article is devoted to the current economic cooperation between Thailand and Russia. Its goal is to study Thailand's current challenges as well as potential opportunities for economic cooperation with Russia. The Neoliberalism and Linkage Theory are used as a conceptual framework in this study to examine the opportunities and obstacles of economic cooperation between the two countries. Qualitative research methodology is used in analyzing collected data. This article is on in-depth analysis of both primary and secondary data.

The findings suggest that the development of a free trade agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union is currently an opportunity to strengthen Thai-Russian economic cooperation. However, the obstacles to cooperation are the current regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union, Thai trade competitors in Southeast Asia, the Covid-19 pandemic affecting goods exports and travel, and Thai internal political problems and the implementation of Thailand’s foreign policies. The novelty of the article concludes that the role of governments and international organizations in promoting economic cooperation is significant. The opportunities and obstacles of bilateral economic cooperation in the present period are new initiatives and trade barriers that have arisen in addition to the previous ones. Furthermore, the data in this article is the most up-to-date information and viewpoints from the Thai side. The findings of this article are useful for people who are interested in Thailand-Russia economic ties.

Key words: Thailand, Russia, Economic cooperation, Eurasian Economic Union, Covid-19 pandemic, Opportunities, Challenges, Obstacles.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.034

А.L. PROTSENKO Master's Student at the Chair of history and theory of politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CLASSIFICATION OF AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AT THE PRESENT STAGE

Authoritarian regimes are one of the most common types of political regimes in the world. The aim of the study is to analyze the classification of authoritarian regimes and study their development at the present stage. The objectives of the study include an analysis of the features of various authoritarian regimes and the development of authoritarian regimes in the context of the spread of Internet technologies. As a result of the study, authoritarian regimes without elected authorities (military authoritarian regimes and monarchies), authoritarian regimes with elected authorities (personalist regimes, party regimes) and hybrid authoritarian regimes are distinguished. It is concluded that the active and uncontrolled use of modern Internet technologies negatively affects the existence of authoritarian regimes, and therefore many states with authoritarian regimes are trying to control this area (in particular, the concept of an internal sovereign Internet in China).

Key words: types of authoritarian regimes, autocracies, authoritarian regimes and the Internet, personalist autocracies, party autocracies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.035

А.B. SOKTOEVA Master's Student at the Institute of Public Administration and Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STANDARDS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article reviews the problems occurring in the process of implementation of international anti corruption standards with the emphasis on the experience of foreign countries. International anti-corruption conventions are based mainly on imperative international legal prescriptions that oblige states to implement them into national legislation upon entry into force of relevant international treaties. Often, these international legal acts contain their own implementing provisions that specify the norms of general international law. In conclusion the author sums up the experience of foreign countries which may be helpful for Russian regulation in the fight against corruption. Some novelties are proposed for the successful operation of the organizational and legal mechanism for fight against corruption.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption, anti-corruption standards.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.79.3.036

D.S. GALANINA Student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES OF INTERNATIONAL OBSERVATION

In the past decade, international election observation has spread to the Caribbean as part of a global trend among developed nations, indicative of their commitment to the liberal democratic tradition shaped by the post-Cold War international order. Developed countries see the need to note that they have achieved and are maintaining basic levels of democratic governance and stability. The question was whether the invitation of international election observers is evidence of a country's acceptance or readiness to accept and adhere to international electoral standards of "free and fair elections". In some cases, political rhetoric implies such acceptance without a real commitment to improving and ensuring the integrity of the electoral process. However, studies in the Caribbean have shown that countries consider it important to have this international seal of approval and demonstrate a commitment to achieving acceptable standards. In most cases in the Caribbean, elections in a given country will be observed by one large group of observers. As a general rule, international monitoring teams adhere to internationally agreed operating guidelines, but allow some leeway.

Key words: observation, developed countries, states, international relations, Caribbean, trends.

   
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