№ 7 (47), 2019

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 9, Issue 7 (47), 2019.

CONTENTS

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY HISTORY

  • Dubrovina O.V., Salamov R.R. Paradiplomacy as the New Architecture of International Relations
  • Karatueva E.N. Political Stability: the Basic Approaches to the Definition of the Notion
  • Iokhim A.N. Universal Rights are Not for All: Paradox of Modern Humanitarian Discourse

POLITICAL INSTITUTES, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Kryukova E.V. Political Advertising as an Art of the Informational and Psychological Impact
  • Tyan V.V. On the Specificity of Evolution of the Institute of Power in the Context of Sovereign Democracy: Russian Experience
  • Tantsura M.S., Gritsenko R.A., Prokopchuk D.D. The Impact of Internet Technologies on the Electoral Activity of Citizens (on the example of the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 2018)
  • Yalanusyan M.S. Internet as a Tool of Political PR

POLITICAL REGIONALISM AND ETHNOPOLITICS

  • Astvatsaturova M.A. Ethnopolitical Key Points from the Agenda of North Caucasus Federal District
  • Arapkhanova L.Ya. North Caucasian Political Elite in Domestic Historiography
  • Kolbachaeva J.E. Features of Formation of National Identity of Kazakhstan in Modern Conditions

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

  • Ermаchenkоvа V.D. The Influence of the Political Status of Crimea on the Russian-Ukrainian Relations
  • Hawamdeh Houssen Mazen Falah The Syrian Crisis in Russian-Turkish Relations in the Context of the Astana Talks

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

  • Pryakhin V.F. Do Scientists Need Political Puppeteers? (Homage to the Fortieth Anniversary of the CSCE/OSCE Scientific Forum)
  • Dobrynina M.V., Rastimeshina T.V. Policy of Engineering Education in Germany: Rational Experience for Russia
  • Tushkov A.A., Zaretsky D.V. Problems, Search and Solutions to the Japan’s Formation of the Concept of the Military-Political Strategy at the End of XX Century
  • Nazarov A.D. To be Leaders: Regarding some Problems and Prospects of Russia and Belarus Cooperation in the Space Sector
  • Dolbunov N.N., Pyzh V.V. Law as a Factor of Ensuring National Security in Contemporary Geopolitical Reality
  • Voronina N.A. Problems of International Migration Regulation
  • Dubrovina O.Yu. Belgian Foreign Policy: an Institutional Analysis
  • Fedotov D.S. Security Status of the Russian Federation in the Context of Turbulence of the Modern Geopolitical Situation
  • Shamarov P.V. Practical Peacefulness of Russia: Political and Legal Problems of International Participation
  • Esipov I.I. Peculiarity of J. Nye’s Concept of “Soft Power” in the World Politics
  • Gassiev Z.N. German Business and Political Elites Interaction: «Nord Stream-2» Case
  • Haddad Mohannad The Strategy of the Principal Actors of World Politics Regarding to the Middle East and Modern Syria (by the Example of the United States and the European Union)
  • Jia Yuanpei Experience, Prospects and Problems of Cooperation Between China and Turkmenistan in the Field of Natural Gas
  • Shumilov M.M., Shmidt O.I. Participation of the Republic of Austria in International Security Institutions
  • Kalinin O.V. U.S. Soft Power and Public Diplomacy Towards Germany

Our authors № 7-2019

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND POLICY HISTORY

O.V. DUBROVINA D.Sc. (Pol.Sci.), Professor, Chancellor of the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

R.R. SALAMOV postgraduate student of the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

PARADIPLOMACY AS THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The main purpose of this article is an analysis of paradiplomacy as the new architecture of international relations. In this context, there is an analysis of the main theoretical approaches to the definition of the term «paradiplomacy». In addition, on basis of conducted analysis key features of paradiplomacy are defined. Moreover, this article aims to define the role of paradiplomacy in strengthening of modern international relations. The main research methods used in this study are analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, systems approach, institutional method and structure functional analysis.

Key words: international relations, paradiplomacy, theoretical approaches, interregional cooperation, regions.

E.N. KARATUEVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Management of Socio-Political Processes and History of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, St. Petersburg, Russia

POLITICAL STABILITY: THE BASIC APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF THE NOTION

The article is devoted to the study of factors contributing to the preservation of political stability in society. Despite the relative knowledge of this concept, a consensus on its definition in the scientific community has not yet been achieved. Most researchers, considering the categories of "political stability", "political equilibrium" and "political stability", regard them as synonymous. In this regard, the article attempts to identify the essential factors of "political stability". The economic and psychological components of the concept under study are highlighted. The article examines the process of perception of political stability, regardless of the real balance of political forces and the socio-economic status of society. The author analyzed the attitude towards “political stability” in different periods of the formation of Russian society, the consequences of reforms and revolutions on mass consciousness and mass actions.

Key words: political stability, political stability, political equilibrium, conflict, violence, mass consciousness.

A.N. IOKHIM postgraduate student of the faculty of Political Science of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

UNIVERSAL RIGHTS ARE NOT FOR ALL: PARADOX OF MODERN HUMANITARIAN DISCOURSE

This article is devoted to the analysis of the main directions of research of international relations, which were made in the framework of the post-positivist approach. The author notes that post-positivism is formed in the theory of international relations as a criticism of the rationalist program of international policy research, as well as the ideas of neo-realism and neoliberalism. The key issues that post-positivists critically interpret are the issues of the international structure, the principles of its transformation and the possibility of methodological pluralism in IR theory. The author notes that the first post-positivist concepts for the first time actualized the problem of collective identity and political discourse as an object of analysis in the IR theory.

Key words: theory of international relations, post-positivism, postmodernism, neorealism, collective identity, discourse, K. Waltz, A. Wendt, R. Ashley.

POLITICAL INSTITUTES, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

E.V. KRYUKOVA Candidate of political Sciences, associate Professor, State University of management, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL ADVERTISING AS AN ART OF THE INFORMATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT

The article is devoted to analysis of the features of Russian presidential candidates advertising campaigns in various periods. The author concludes that the art of using tools and tactics of information and psychological impact determines the success of political advertising.

Key words: political advertising, mass consciousness, informational and psychological impact, participants of the presidential race, manipulation.

V.V. TYAN Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of Advertising and Public Relations ChU OOVO Institute of Economics and Culture, Moscow, Russia

ON THE SPECIFICITY OF EVOLUTION OF THE INSTITUTE OF POWER IN THE CONTEXT OF SOVEREIGN DEMOCRACY: RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

The article discusses the specificity of the evolution of Russian power in the context of sovereign democracy.

Attention is paid in the 90s. Twentieth century at the dawn of Russian democracy, the “team of young reformers” carried out a number of the most important democratic transformations and almost completely withdrew from power.

At the turn of the century, the new government of Russia faced problems that were complicated in the context of democratic transit (the inertial wave from the memorable “parade of sovereignties”, separatism, terrorism), the authorities had to take a number of political, political, legal, administrative decisions aimed at strengthening the state sovereignty, adhering to the high principles of democracy. Attention is drawn to the genesis of Russian democracy, which goes back to two sources (Western democracy and the historical experience of democracy by the people). Sovereign democracy is a transitional type of democracy. The protective nature of sovereign democracy determines the specifics of the evolution of the institution of power. Sovereignization of the current government is carried out by specific methods (municipal filters, succession, disabling the social elevator, etc.). Hour formed on the wave of liberalism of the state apparatus is noticeably noticeable towards traditionalism and conservatism.

Since the decisive factor in the choice of forms of government is the people's will, the evolution of sovereign democracy largely depends on the level of political consciousness of society, the political situation and the ethics of power.

The inertial nature of the political development (overcoming the crisis, minimizing the sanctions pressure, “responding” measures to environmental challenges, etc.) is due to the protective intent of the authorities under the umbrella of sovereign democracy.

Key words: power, genesis, institution, context, national, Russian, political, sovereign democracy, evolution.

M.S. TANTSURA candidate of political science, associate professor of department «Political Science» Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

R.A. GRITSENKO Master Student of the Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.D. PROKOPCHUK Master Student of the Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE IMPACT OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES ON THE ELECTORAL ACTIVITY OF CITIZENS (on the example of the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 2018)

Today, the virtual network "Internet" is an important component of our life. This fact makes political actors pay special attention to the Internet space, which leads to the emergence of a new concept of “Political Internet” and its influence on the electoral preferences of citizens. The purpose of this article was to consider the influence of the “Political Internet” on the electoral activity of citizens. Using the example of the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 2018, it analyzes which methods and technologies were used to attract elections to the Internet audience and which technologies and methods were used to reduce the turnout to elections. Two conclusions are made: about the low efficiency of the methods used to attract young people to polling stations, and about reassessment, or rather, about the increasing role of the Internet space in the communication system between the government and society. The author proposes two strategies for using the political Internet in modern conditions.

Key words: Internet technologies, political Internet, elections, electoral preferences, electoral activity, electoral technologies.

М.S. YALANUSYAN North-West Institute of civil service, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, St. Petersburg, Russia

INTERNET AS A TOOL OF POLITICAL PR

In today's world, the Internet is not just a new tool of interpersonal communication, it becomes a tool for the emergence of new professional activities, of the technology that allows an accelerated information exchange between the users all over the world and becomes a mechanism of communication between the state and the public.

The article deals with the essence of PR and its possible potential for the Use of the Internet as a tool for political PR.

Key words: World-wide web, global network, PR campaign, Internet, democracy, e-government, political PR, web-site.

POLITICAL REGIONALISM AND ETHNOPOLITICS

M.A. ASTVATSATUROVA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Director, Chief Researcher of the Scientific Educational Center for Political and Ethno-Political Studies of Pyatigorsk State University, Pyatigorsk, Russia

ETHNOPOLITICAL KEY POINTS FROM THE AGENDA OF NORTH CAUCASUS FEDERAL DISTRICT

The article is devoted to the typical trends of the current ethnopolitical situation in the North Caucasus Federal District (North-Caucasian Federal District). The goal of scientific understanding and identification of determinants, complex positive and negative factors of interethnic relations, as well as specific content, and forms of policy and management, taking into account the ethnicity factor, as well as the existing ethnocratic system, which is preserved in the republics of the Russian Federation of the North Caucasus Federal District, is being implemented. The problem of the rotation of personalities of power and the change of elites is emphasized as a global problem of relations between the government and civil society, as the problem of restrictions of public policy and public administration. As an independent risk, the current state and crisis manifestations of federative relations in the North Caucasus Federal District, both vertically and horizontally, which have a “precedent effect” and “domino effect” are emphasized. The analysis performed allows us to develop the resulting idea of the next (second) ethnopolitical timeout in the North Caucasus Federal District. The necessity of the search and implementation of new political, managerial and organizational efforts to optimize the registry of national issues, taking into account their current multiplication in the context and subordination to the civil issue, is argued. Author's ideas are proposed on the formulation of the main directions of strengthening the modern ethnopolitical timeout of the North Caucasus Federal District to optimize national issues in the context of a general civil issue in the context of the main goal of the state national policy.

Key words: ethnicity, risks of ethnic identification, ethnocratic regimes, ethnic competition, ethno-political timeout, ethnic conflicts, state national policy, ethnocultural model of civil society.

L.Ya. ARAPKHANOVA candidate of political sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Socio-Political Research, Ingush Research Institute for the Humanities named after Chakh Akhriev, Magas, Russia

NORTH CAUCASIAN POLITICAL ELITE IN DOMESTIC HISTORIOGRAPHY

The article aims to review the historiographic achievements in Russian political science, devoted to the study of regional political elites of the North Caucasus. The periods of transformation of regional elites are specified. Sources are grouped according to the studied period into pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern ones. Despite the contradictory views of the qualitative component of this category in its regional segment the regional elite is often represented as the second most important elite after the federal one, many representatives of the regional political and business elite turned out to be both in the institutions of executive and legislative power. It analyzes the latest research by political scientists and elitologists on the generation of North Caucasian elites, both in the Russian Empire and in the USSR and the new Russia. The conditions for the formation of elite groups of the state in the terms of traditional society at various stages of state construction from the Tsar to modern Russia are shown. The types of elite groups in the North Caucasus are also peculiar. The first type is the ambitious highland nobility, representing the highest caste class, the second one is the Soviet nomenclature, and finally, the modern political elite. The analyzed model of recruiting the North Caucasian political elite is distinguished by the peculiarity of its forms and methods, which especially actualizes the problem. It should be noted that the historiography of the problem of political elites across Russia is fully represented in Russian historiography, which cannot be said about its regional segment. Given the lack of knowledge of the ethno-elite of the North Caucasus, it seems necessary to study the process of transformation of elites at all stages of state-building in Russia in more details, which is emphasized in this article.

Key words: North Caucasus, mountain nobility, political elite, regional elite, nomenclature, historiography, transformation.

J.E. KOLBACHAEVA post-graduate student of the Diplomatic Academy under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF FORMATION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY OF KAZAKHSTAN IN MODERN CONDITIONS

The happening processes of democratization of Kazakhstan in modern conditions when formation of conditions of the offered model of development of the sovereign state has difficult and ambiguous character, one of essentially important factors is the determination of national values and interests which are in the center of reforms. One of conditions of maintaining stability and safety in the state is this interethnic concord.

The base of modernization of the Kazakhstan society in modern conditions is the multinational state civil identity of the people of the republic which is formed at citizens of Kazakhstan irrespective of their ethnic origin. The identity of Kazakhstan is based on civil consolidation and political stability of society which allow to create the state system of strategic reference points, spiritual consent and to achieve dynamic development of economy and recognition in the international community, to build national policy, to take a step towards the balanced democratic political system. In the "Strategy of Development for the Kazakhstan – 2030 Program" program, the political policy of Kazakhstan where the main ways of strengthening and development of the Kazakhstan identity and unity were defined was reflected in the fourth direction of the Plan of the nation of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev N.A. In the specified program "100 concrete steps: the modern state for all" ways of formation of the nation "Identity and unity" as uniform future were defined.

The existing national values based on cultural, ethnic, language and religious diversity are a strong basis of the Kazakhstan identity and unity.

Key words: national identity, consolidation, modernization, Assembly, strategy, political stability.

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

V.D. ERMАCHENKОVА post-graduate student of the Depаrtment оf Cоmpаrаtive Pоliticаl Science, Fаculty оf Pоliticаl Science, Lоmоnоsоv Mоscоw Stаte University, Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF THE POLITICAL STATUS OF CRIMEA ON THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS

The Ukrainian state is a fragile state, the areas of which differ significantly between each other on such grounds as ethnicity, culture, religion. This becomes clear not only during the presidential elections in Ukraine, as well as the elections to the Verkhovna Rada, but also during any high-profile political events that arise in this state and outside it in situations where it comes to internal processes. The current crisis in Ukraine shows this with unprecedented clarity. To date, the issue of changing the political status of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014 remains relevant on the international agenda, which significantly affects Russian-Ukrainian relations.

Key wоrds: fоreign pоlicy, Crimeа, Russiа, Ukrаine, аutоnоmy, USSR, UN, referendum.

HAWAMDEH HOUSSEN MAZEN FALAH post-graduate student at the Chair of comparative political science, Peoples ' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE SYRIAN CRISIS IN RUSSIAN-TURKISH RELATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ASTANA TALKS

This article analyzes Russian-Turkish relations in the light of Astana negotiation processes regarding the Syrian crisis, identifies common motives of the negotiators to solve the existing Syrian problem, reviews issues that impede agreement of Astana negotiations and possible ways of solution. The article focuses on the nature of Russian-Turkish disagreements and points of convergence that have taken place before and during the negotiations, that also have influenced the process of making joint decisions. The author of the article concludes the Russian-Turkish relations have significantly changed during the Syrian crisis. Despite the existing contradictions Russia and Turkey realized the importance of addressing the Syrian issue, joined their efforts and sat down at the negotiating table. 12 rounds of Astana Process peace talks have produced results, but participants have a lot of work ahead.

Key words: Syrian crisis, Syrian problem, Russian-Turkish relations, Astana negotiation process, peaceful settlement of the Syrian crisis.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS

V.F. PRYAKHIN D.Sc. (political science), Professor (International Relations Dept., RSHU), Professor (Diplomacy Dept., MGIMO-University), Moscow, Russia

DO SCIENTISTS NEED POLITICAL PUPPETEERS? (Homage to the Fortieth anniversary of the CSCE/OSCE Scientific Forum)

The February of 2020 marks the CSCE Scientific Forum was held in the city of Hamburg. At a crucial point of the “cold war”, scientists from 35 participating states of the pan-European process had been able to work out recommendations for government. Мany of those recommendations and warnings have not lost their significance nowadays. On the contrary, they sound particularly timely in the ХХI century. Ignoring these warnings becomes intolerable and even perpetual.

The author presented who participated in Hamburg gathering himself considers that the time came to convene a new forum of renound scholars in order to work out scientifically based forecast of world development in the twenty-first century. Some ideas on main points of such a forecast sum up his forty years’ experience in dealing with the issue.

Key words: European process, “cold war”, CSCE Scientific Forum, global problems, science, scientists, sustainable development.

М.V. DOBRYNINA Candidate of Sciences (political sciences), Associate Professor at the Chair of economics, management and finance, Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology, Moscow, Russia

Т.V. RASTIMESHINA Doctor of Sciences (political sciences), Professor at the Chair of philosophy and sociology, Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology, Moscow, Russia

POLICY OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN GERMANY: RATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR RUSSIA

The Author examines the imperatives, priorities and ideological foundations of the policy of the German state in relation to engineering education from the end of XVIII to the present time. It is noted that at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries it was outlined by the classical for continental Europe imperatives: the need to solve economic, military and social problems. Since the beginning of the XIX century was influenced by the ideas of Education, German humanists and nation-building ideology Staatsbildung. In recent decades, the main imperatives of the policy in relation to engineering education in Germany are: democracy, openness, accessibility, economic pragmatism, integration into a single educational space in Europe and around the world.

Key words: educational policy, engineering education, state, civil society, social partnership, globalization, democratization, European integration.

A.A. TUSHKOV doctor of historical sciences, Professor of the Department of international relations of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and service, Vladivostok, Russia

D.V. ZARETSKY graduate student Vladivostok State University of Economics and service, Vladivostok, Russia

PROBLEMS, SEARCH AND SOLUTIONS TO THE JAPAN’S FORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF THE MILITARY-POLITICAL STRATEGY AT THE END OF XX CENTURY

In this article, the authors explore the topic associated with the search for Japan in the late 20th century solutions to the problems of military-political strategy. Formed in the mid-20th century Japanese-American military and political partnership did not meet current safety requirements. In Japan also, forces who openly appeared on their basis accounted for not only those who have traditionally opposed the American Union, but many influential scientists and politicians, who, with the most serious intent to put the question of denial of Japan-us Security Treaty, the withdrawal of American troops from the country and the Elimination of the bases. This was taken in late November 1978 g. "guidelines for Japan-us defence cooperation", which defined the nature of bilateral relations in the military field, including the development of joint operational documents. The basis of "principles" separation plan "defence", as proposed by the Office for national defense.

Key words: United States, Japan, the military-political partnership, the self-defense forces of Japan, maneuvers "Rimpak", a Japanese-American Security Advisory Committee.

А.D. NAZAROV Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of advertising and PR, Institute of foreign languages of Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) (MAI), Moscow, Russia

TO BE LEADERS: REGARDING SOME PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF RUSSIA AND BELARUS COOPERATION IN THE SPACE SECTOR

In the article, the author analyzes the experience of cooperation and partnership, as well as problems of the current state and prospects of development of the space industry in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus within the framework of the Union State.

Key words: global competition in space exploration, space industry, scientific and technological spheres, programs of space activity of the Union State of Russia and Belarus, Belarusian satellite.

N.N. DOLBUNOV candidate of philosophy, Professor "State University of Maritime and river fleet. Admiral S.O. Makarov", Saint-Petersburg, Russia

V.V. PYZH doctor of political Sciences, head of the Department of social and humanitarian disciplines "Lesgaft national state University of physical culture, sports and health, expert of the Commission on defense and security of the inter-parliamentary Assembly of the CIS member States, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

LAW AS A FACTOR OF ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY IN CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL REALITY

The article analyzes the issues of the place and role of law in the system of national security in the context of current geopolitical situation at all levels of its manifestation and the relationship between international law and national sovereignty.

Key words: law, international law, state, Russia, national sovereignty, politics, geopolitics, national security, international security.

N.А. VORONINA Candidate of Sciences (law), senior researcher at the Sector of human rights, Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REGULATION

The article examines the most important international legal acts on forced migrants. Main principles and institutions of the international migration law are considered. Special attention is given to refugee law and to principle of non-refoulement, according to which an asylum seeker should not be forcibly returned to the country where he might be persecuted. It is noted that migration crises in Europe has revealed weaknesses of the EU system of asylum and forced the world community to realize the need of mutual actions on the basis of the UN World Migration Pact.

Key words: refugee status, principle of non-refoulement, asylum institution, forced migrants, asylum seekers.

O.YU. DUBROVINA PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor Associate Professor of the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

BELGIAN FOREIGN POLICY: AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS

The goal of this scientific article is to make an institutional analysis of the foreign policy of Belgium. In this context, the article presents an analysis of the influence on the foreign policy of Belgium on the policy and law of the European Union, on the one hand, and the international relations of the regions and communities, on the other hand. The work shows the characteristics and features of the foreign policy of Belgium. The main methods of this research are analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, a systematic approach, an institutional method and a structural-functional analysis.

Key words: international relations, European Union, Belgian foreign policy, international relations of regions and communities.

D.S. FEDOTOV candidate of political sciences, head of department of the organization and planning of scientific work of the Krasnodar highest military aviation institute of pilots, Krasnodar, Russia

SECURITY STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF TURBULENCE OF THE MODERN GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

In today's time universal impact on Russia of a number of blocks and alliances of the states which main task is weakening of Russia, by means of external isolation and imposition of sanctions of the most various level takes place. Unprecedented geopolitical rivalry of the Russian Federation and the United States of America is created by new hybrid threats and calls of safety around the world. An object of research is the modern geopolitical situation of the Russian Federation which is the defining factor of development of the modern state. The purpose of work is definition of the factors creating various including hybrid character, threat to security for our state. During the research general scientific methods of the comparative and statistical analysis, structure and dynamics which allowed to give high extent of generalization of the studied material were used. The scientific novelty consists in the carried-out analysis of the latest threats to security of Russia having hybrid character. The carried-out analysis of modern threats to security allows to draw a conclusion that today there is a large number of threats to security of the Russian Federation in all geopolitical directions and all of them have long-term character, and their structural component creates difficulties and complicates search of options to their permission.

Key words: geopolitical situation, military-political instability, geopolitical threats, regional security, international terrorism, global safety, international situation, NATO, international terrorist organizations, hybrid threats.

P.V. SHAMAROV Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor, Department Specialist, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PRACTICAL PEACEFULNESS OF RUSSIA: POLITICAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION

The article examines the conceptual and doctrinal approaches of the Russian Federation to participation in international peacekeeping activities and the parameters of its current actual involvement in such UN operations; proposed and calculated a direct indicator of the national participation of the contributing countries of the peacekeeping contingents in the international forces of the United Nations for the leading and main peacekeeping state actors, including our country. The conclusion is substantiated that participation in UN peacekeeping practice today is not positioned as a priority foreign policy project of Russia and is not considered at the federal level as a promising state mechanism to promote and protect its national interests abroad, and Russian peacekeeping itself is not considered an element of the national security system. countries aimed primarily at promoting and protecting their own national interests abroad and does not consider I as an operational mechanism of foreign policy of the country to improve its international importance, status and prestige. In the interest of enhancing the national security of the country, an objective state need to be developed and adopted at the federal level for the Concept of the international peacekeeping activities of the Russian Federation and the Regulations on the organization of military-civilian cooperation by the peacekeeping contingents of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Key words: national security concept, international peacekeeping, national interests, peacekeeping contingent, peacekeeping operations, civil-military cooperation.

I.I. ESIPOV graduate student of the North-West Institute of Management – branch of RANEPA, St. Petersburg, Russia

PECULIARITY OF J. NYE’S CONCEPT OF “SOFT POWER” IN THE WORLD POLITICS

The article shows the peculiarity of J. Nye’s concept of “soft power” in the world politics. The author examines the main elements that contribute to the strengthening of the country's soft power and soft power resources in international relations. It identifies reasons for referring to J. Naya’s concept and its evolution in public diplomacy.

Key words: soft power, hard power, public diplomacy, hegemony, strategy.

Z.N. GASSIEV Ph.D. Student, Diplomatic Academy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

GERMAN BUSINESS AND POLITICAL ELITES INTERACTION: «NORD STREAM-2» CASE

Germany, for a number of reasons, is trying to politically distance itself from the implementation of the Nord Stream 2 project, despite the fact that it is interested in it. The German government does not want to give the supporters of a tough anti-Russian line cause for criticism, because even moderate support for the project causes a number of negative comments from other EU countries. Official Berlin is forced to take this into account, implementing the project solely by commercial companies.

Key words: Russia, Germany, USA, European Union, Nord Stream-2, business, political elites.

HADDAD MOHANNAD post-graduate student, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

THE STRATEGY OF THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS OF WORLD POLITICS REGARDING TO THE MIDDLE EAST AND MODERN SYRIA (BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN UNION)

The article is devoted to the study of foreign policy strategies of the world politics main actors which are represented by the Unites States and the countries of the European Union towards the Middle East and the Syrian Arab Republic.

The interest to the subject is due to the fact of the particular region’s attractiveness of the Middle East for the actors mentioned above, since it has significant economic and transport potential with a favorable geographical position which opens up opportunities for establishing strong trade and economic cooperation between the US and the EU on the one hand and the Middle Eastern countries on the other. At the same time the Middle East representing a region of heightened political-military and social tension directly affects the peace and security of the entire world community. As the result of this the most developed countries of the world strive to establish control over the internal policy of the Middle East region and spread their influence on this territory.

The author pays great attention to studying the factors that contributed to the formation of the US and EU foreign policy with regard to the Middle East and Syria, and there is the conclusion that they might be divided into several large groups that equally affect the process of strategy development. The comparison of them allows to establish that both the United States and the countries of the European Union have similar long-term goals and objectives, but they use different methods and forms to implement their strategies. This explains the difference in results achieved: while the United States successfully implements its geopolitical aspirations and gradually strengthens its presence in the Middle East, the EU countries are faced with several problems that impede their participation in current regional events. Nevertheless, despite the successes and failures, the importance of the Middle East region both for the US and for the EU is unquestionable.

Key words: Middle East, foreign policy strategy, geopolitics, Syria, EU strategy, U.S. strategy.

JIA YUANPEI Graduate student, department of political science, east institute-school of regional and international research far east federal university, Vladivostok, Russia

EXPERIENCE, PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN CHINA AND TURKMENISTAN IN THE FIELD OF NATURAL GAS

Since 2007, the use of natural gas in China has become dependent on imports, and with increased consumption of natural gas, gas imports are also constantly increasing. In 2018, China's natural gas imports approached 100 billion cubic meters, 70 times more than in 2006. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of natural gas in China. Turkmenistan is the main source of import of pipeline gas of China, besides China is the largest exporter of natural gas of Turkmenistan. Within the framework of the traditional oil and gas cooperation model, China and Turkmenistan face such problems as a single content of cooperation, lack of close links between multilateral cooperation and slow progress in the development of all Industrial chain. The cooperation between China and Central Asia in the field of oil and gas is increasingly affecting the nerves of other countries, except for the five countries of Central Asia, including Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iran and other countries of the Middle East, Japan, south Korea, etc., and even the European Union and the United States were among the participants. Despite the favorable trading environment for both parties, there are also problems in the domestic market of Turkmenistan and risks of international competition.

Key words: China and Turkmenistan, gas pipeline, advantages and prospects, challenges.

М.М. SHUMILOV Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of international relations, North-West Institute of management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

О.I. SHMIDT post-graduate student at the Chair of international relations, North-West Institute of management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

PARTICIPATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY INSTITUTIONS

The relevance of the present work is due to the intensity of internal political contradictions in Austria about the prospects of neutrality. The article deals with important aspects of the foreign policy of the Republic of Austria, which have an impact on the state of national security, security of the EU and the security architecture of the Euro-Atlantic region as a whole. The assessment of the country's activity in the international security institutions in the context of weakening the influence of the concept of collective security is given.

Key words: Austria, Austrian Republic, European Union, EU, UN, NATO, OSCE, security, security strategy, foreign policy, neutrality.

O.V. KALININ MA international relations, MGIMO-University, Moscow, Russia

U.S. SOFT POWER AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY TOWARDS GERMANY

This article is dedicated to the analysis of US soft power and public diplomacy towards Germany. Usually, such foreign policy tools as soft power and public diplomacy are used against opponents, developing countries or neutral states. However, the use of soft power and public diplomacy towards the allies is not given enough attention. Although the United States like many other states, implement public diplomacy programs not only towards hostile states but also towards the allies. For this reason, the study of US actions towards Germany in this area is a subject of keen interest. The author pays attention to the directions and specifics of the programs implemented by Americans in the Federal Republic of Germany. He also examines the approaches of Barack Obama and Donald Trump to soft power and public diplomacy and analyzes the perception of the United States and their modern foreign policy in German society.

Key words: USA, Germany, soft power, public diplomacy.

   
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