№ 6 (70), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 6 (70), 2021.

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Belousov G.F. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to the Analysis of the Role of Regional Elites in the Electoral Process in Modern Russia

Rozhkov A.A. Neorealism about Intrastate Factors: A Conceptual Approach and its Criticism

RUSSIAN HISTORY

Slizovskiy D.E., Zhalnin V.A., Medvedev N.P. To the Question of National Education Systems: History and Modernity

Nisnevich Yu.A., Orlov I.B. An Attempt at a Democratic Breakthrough: the Ups and Downs of the State Duma of the First Convocation (1993-1995) (To the 30th Anniversary of the Russian Federation). Part II

Somov A.A. The Idea of a «True State» in Domestic Social and Political thought of the Soviet Period

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Bespamiatnova М.N., Popov S.I. The Study of the Possibility of Harmonization of the Functions of Local Self-Government Institutions as a Factor of Political Stability: the Methodology of Empirical Research

Blinov V.V. Difficulties of Translation of the Classical Left-Right Model of Ideological Continuum for Analysis of Political Preferences of Modern Russia

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Rodionova M.E., Gimaliev V.G., Nazarova N.A. On the Issue of Transformation of the Electoral System in the Russian Federation (from 1993 to the Present Day)

Volkonsky Yu.K. Historical Trends in the Formation of Lobbying in the USA in the XX Century

Sabirova N.S. Formation of a "Civil Nation" as a Priority of Russia's Political Culture

Nikolenko A.A, Shevchenko Ye.A. Analysis of Possible Scenarios of Russia's Geopolitical Future

Huseinova D.М. The Terrorist Threat Impact on the Programs and Tactical Attitudes of Political Parties in Russia (Late 1990s)

Elovik A.A. The Image of Russia in social media of the Belarusian Opposition (2019-2020)

Belyakova T.M. Technologies of the Image-Making of the Modern Russian Orthodox Church

Lazebnik A.G. Values as a Factor of Transformation of Political Regimes

Zolotarev N.A. Migration Processes and Peculiarities of Integration of External Migrants in Modern Society

Makarov A.V. Priority Directions of Reforming the Educational Policy of a Sovereign State

Kuiliev B.Т. Characteristics of Convergent Political Manipulation Technologies Used on the Internet

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Goncharov D.K., Goncharova D.D. Peculiarities of Applying Mathematical Methods in Support of the Decision Making in Politics

Petrov D.Yu. Social Policy and Implementation of National Projects in Russia

Kopasov А.I. Creation of the Definition "State Policy of Territorial Development"

Dmitriev D.I. Current Political Risks in the Russian Oil and Gas Industry

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Vankovska B. The Synergy Between Geopolitics and Biopolitics: COVID-19 Vaccines in Focus

Solodova G.S. Russia in the Eurasian Space – Reasons for Addressing the Issue

Nikitenko E.G., Muravykh O.A. International Terrorism – the Phenomenon of Modern World Politics

Kolosova I.V. Christian Ecumenical Movement in the Context of World Politics

Krasavin D.V., Popov D.G. Think Tanks in the Post-Soviet Countries of Central Asia – Peculiarities of Foreign Policy Vectors Perception (On the Example of the Eaeu and Belt and Road Initiative)

Manovitskaya V.A., Shangaraev R.N. Consequences of the Events of the "Arab Spring" in the Context of the Transformation of International Relations

Makanbaev B.M. Health Issues as an Element of Ensuring National Security in Central Asia: New Challenges and Threats

Brosovich F.D. Political, Economic and Social Development of South America: Results of the Current Stage

Rozenberg V.I. The Constitutional Committee of Syria: Positions of Participants and First Results

Rupakova E.A. Opportunities and Prospects of Belarus-Russian Interaction with the Turkish Republic

Esmaeili S. Position of «Iranian Women in the Press» and Development of «Women's Press in Iran»

Tcoi S.V. North Korea's Nuclear Program as a Factor in the Inter-Korean Gap

Zhao Lu. China's Foreign Policy Strategy in the Context of Transformation of the Contemporary International Order

STUDENT SCIENCE

Stepankov D.S., Shvyrkov V.S., Korolkov K.A. Primary Elements in the Structure of Local Self-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region

Homyakov D.O. Comparative Analysis of the Functionality and Possibilities of Social Networks for the Purpose of their Rational Use in Political SMM

Our authors № 6-2021

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.001

G.F. BELOUSOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF REGIONAL ELITES IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS IN MODERN RUSSIA

In a democratic society, the problem of elite recruitment cannot be considered outside the context of the electoral process. In this process, the elites themselves play a key role, since it is difficult for election participants to win without the support of the federal and regional elites. However, most scientific studies related to the recruitment of elites and works devoted to political technologies do not consider the very mechanics of interaction between elites in the course of the electoral process. The purpose of this article is to conceptualize theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of the role that elite groups play in the electoral process of modern Russia. It seems that such an analysis should proceed from the following premises. First, when analyzing the role of elites in the electoral process, it is advisable to use a functional approach to defining the elite, since it best of all allows taking into account the dynamics of their interaction and the motivation of individual members of the elite. Secondly, the starting point for mapping regional elites should be the structure of the region's economy and the presence of financial and industrial groups in it. It is necessary to take into account the interaction of business elites with the governor and his team, regional and municipal legislatures, informal structures, as well as the "political machines" existing in the region. Third, it is advisable to view the interaction of elites as coalition actions due to the high cost of conducting election campaigns. Both individual regional political strategists and teams of political strategists sent to the region by the federal center can be responsible for the technical implementation of the campaigns. When assessing the role of the federal center, it is necessary to take into account the financial solvency of the region and the degree of affiliation of key representatives of the regional elite with federal structures.

Key words: political elite, business elite, corporate elite, electoral process, political strategists.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.002

A.A. ROZHKOV Graduate of the postgraduate study of the Department of Philosophy, Politics and Law, Faculty of Philosophy, Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

NEOREALISM ABOUT INTRASTATE FACTORS: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH AND ITS CRITICISM

The author of the article examines the problem of the adequacy of the theory of neorealism to explain international relations. The purpose of the article is to analyze the approach of neorealists Kenneth Waltz and George Mearsheimer to the study of intrastate factors. Thanks to the work done, the author demonstrates the main provisions of neorealism. He shows the difference from classical realism, expressed in the rejection of reductionism and the idea of a person as an egoistic being. Expresses the theoretical understanding of the realists about the anarchic nature of international relations. Demonstrates the difference between Waltz's and Mearsheimer's neo-realism. In addition, the author shows the vulnerabilities contained in the conceptual core of the theory. Neorealism offers an elegant way of explaining world politics only if the researcher does not go beyond Waltz's view of the anarchist system. The excessive abstractness of the theory, the author believes, excludes the possibility of studying an abundant number of facts. The article presents the criticism of neorealism by the proponents of the historical approach. Waltz's conviction that his theory is transhistorical turns out rather to be a fundamental inability to explain historical change. In addition, critics point to the inability of neorealism to analyze the specific phenomena of international relations. Since neorealism speaks primarily about the trends of the international system, this makes it difficult to study subject problems between countries. According to supporters of the historical approach, this negatively affects the adoption of major foreign policy decisions. The author comes to the conclusion that despite its pseudo-scientific form, neorealism cannot fully explain world politics, since it neglects domestic political facts and history.

Key words: neorealism, international relations, reductionism, anarchic system, intrastate factors, historical approach.

RUSSIAN HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.003

D.E. SLIZOVSKIY Doctor of Science, Professor, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

V.A. ZHALNIN Head of the Department of the International Protocol of the RUDN Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Science, Professor, President of the Union of Political Scientists, Moscow, Russia

TO THE QUESTION OF NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

A special case of an unusually large number of scientific articles that reflect the topic of national education from different theoretical, political, historical and even ideological positions and different scientific approaches, the appeals of many authors to the editorial offices of journals replicated by the publishing house «Nauka Segodnya» is a strong and understandable reason to discuss this phenomenon in a polemical form. Discuss and draw attention to the degree and level of analysis of this topical and important topic. And according to the existing tradition, to present in the form of a detailed essay, so what is the sphere of national education systems today as a socio-political, historical and scientific problem, what has been done by science to reveal and understand the meanings of this process, and what remains to be done, in which direction to conduct a scientific search. The result of our analysis was a generalizing conclusion, the essence of which is that the national education system in the public and professional perception is increasingly gaining, firstly, the strength of the moral factor of the superiority and advantages of the country, its political and socio-economic regime. Secondly, the acquisition of such power and influence for education systems is fueled, articulated and formalized by the state educational policy. State educational policy takes precedence over other types and forms of policy. This is a dialectically contradictory form of support and control over education systems. Third, the state educational policy is more qualitative and effective, which is provided by the best practices of historical experience combined with an innovative attitude to the trends of the global order in the development of education.

Key words: education system, national education systems, historical experience of national education systems.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.004

YU.A. NISNEVICH Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Department of Politics and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

I.B. ORLOV Doctor of History, Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Politics and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, HSE, Moscow, Russia

AN ATTEMPT AT A DEMOCRATIC BREAKTHROUGH: THE UPS AND DOWNS OF THE STATE DUMA OF THE FIRST CONVOCATION (1993-1995) (TO THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION) PART II

The second part of the article, devoted to the history of the Fifth State Duma of the Russian Federation, examines the subjects related to the activities of the new Russian parliament and, above all, in addition to organizational issues, "budget battles", which showed a specific opposition of a number of factions and parties. The issues of amnesty and the vote of no confidence in the government are also considered significant political events and substantive aspects of the work of the State Duma, which characterize its political orientation and priorities.

The authors conclude that the controlled change in the political structure of the Duma of the first convocation was carried out in order to prepare for the upcoming elections to the State Duma of the second convocation in December 1995.

The work of the State Duma ensured social and political stability in the country in a situation of deep crisis. But the attempt at a democratic breakthrough failed, both because of the actions of President Yeltsin and his team, and the state of Russian society.

Key words: State Duma, session, budget battles, amnesty, vote of no confidence, lawmaking.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.005

A.A. SOMOV Postgraduate student of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE IDEA OF A «TRUE STATE» IN DOMESTIC SOCIAL AND POLITICAL THOUGHT OF THE SOVIET PERIOD

The subject of the research is the works of Soviet historians of socio-political thought, which touch upon the problems of tsarism and absolute monarchy in Russia of the XVI century. The purpose of the study is to determine the main approaches to understanding the personality of the "sovereign" and its role in the formation of the statehood of Russia, which have developed in the works of Soviet researchers of the political system of Russia of the XVI century. The article uses the methodological principles of historicism and objectivism. Conclusion-in the works of Soviet scientists, in addition to criticizing the essence of the autocratic system, it was recognized as necessary and of great importance for the formation of a centralized state in Russia in the XVI century.

Key words: D.N. Alshits, R.Yu. Wipper, A.F. Zamaleev, A.A. Zimin, M.N. Pokrovsky, I.V. Stalin, the sovereign, monarchy, autocracy, Orthodoxy.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.006

М.N. BESPAMIATNOVA PhD student, Department of Political Analysis and Management, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

THE STUDY OF THE POSSIBILITY OF HARMONIZATION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS AS A FACTOR OF POLITICAL STABILITY: THE METHODOLOGY OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

This article presents a step-by-step scheme for conducting an empirical analysis, the purpose of which is to study the possibility of harmonizing the functions of local self-government institutions. This technique has been tested in practice in the course of research and has yielded corresponding results, so it can be reliably asserted that it is effective and can be further applied in practice and serve as a tool to improve the efficiency of public sector institutions.

Key words: public administration, the concept of harmonization, the method of empirical research, local self-government, public organization, political stability, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.007

V.V. BLINOV Сandidate of political sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science Financial University at Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

DIFFICULTIES OF TRANSLATION OF THE CLASSICAL LEFT-RIGHT MODEL OF IDEOLOGICAL CONTINUUM FOR ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL PREFERENCES OF MODERN RUSSIA

The article examines the methodological complexity of transferring the traditional left-right ideological continuum, which took shape in Western political science, to the alignment of political preferences in modern Russia. Sometimes in many political sciences works that consider the alignment of political values in public policy in Russia, by default, the idea is used that the forces close to socialist views are left, and those oriented towards market values are right. The present model took shape in Western countries, but when transferred to the soil of other societies, it encounters objective difficulties due to a special historical and cultural path. In the case of Russia, based on the results of empirical studies, it is shown that the model of the spread of ideological preferences in Russia does not fit into the traditional Western model and reducing the political spectrum to the Western model distorts the real situation.

Key words: ideology, political values, ideological continuum, conservatism, liberalism.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.008

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation PR & GR Director Celebrium Labs, Moscow, Russia

V.G. GIMALIEV Doctor or Philosophy, Associate Professor of Department of foreign languages N2, I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia

N.A. NAZAROVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Political Science; Director, Center of financial, of the Financial University of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (FROM 1993 TO THE PRESENT DAY)

The article considers the main stages of the formation of the electoral system of the Russian Federation and analyzes the main directions of its improvement. IT also touches upon the reasons for changes in the electoral legislation, including those that took place during the pandemic period. The authors analyze the importance of legal issues in electoral processes. The authors have compiled and prepared a summary table of the stages of development of the electoral system of the Russian Federation.

Key words: the electoral system of the Russian Federation, electoral processes, political parties, political competition, free elections, democracy, a democratic state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.009

YU.K. VOLKONSKY Сandidate of law, associate professor, department of Russian and foreign literature and mass communications, faculty of philology, Bryansk State University named after academician I.G. Petrovsky, Bryansk, Russia

HISTORICAL TRENDS IN THE FORMATION OF LOBBYING IN THE USA IN THE XX CENTURY

As a special element of the political system, lobbyism began to establish itself abroad in the first half of the 19th century. The practice of lobbying is most actively developed in the United States in the 20th century, and at present it accompanies politics in any state, acquiring the status of a global political phenomenon. However, not every country has created conditions for civilized lobbying activities. We are talking about the legal regulation of lobbying. This work, firstly, examines the historical prerequisites for the increasing significance of this phenomenon in the United States of America, and secondly, traces the chronology of the development of legislative regulation of lobbying in the United States in the XX century. The studied historical experience of legitimizing American lobbyism shows that the influence of interest groups on the objects of lobbying (government bodies) can occur without the use of corruption mechanisms.

Key words: history of lobbying, lobbying, interest groups, the state, politics, law, political system, society, economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.010

N.S. SABIROVA Candidate of political sciences Moscow State Regional University Mytishchi, Moscow Region, Russia

FORMATION OF A "CIVIL NATION" AS A PRIORITY OF RUSSIA'S POLITICAL CULTURE

This article examines such a form as the "civil nation" and its formation in modern Russia. Even today, it causes a lot of controversy and a difference of views on its content design and prospects. Also, the author ideally sees that the "civil nation" can become a priority in the formation of a political culture of a democratic type. Thus, the author came to the following conclusion: "a civil nation" is defined not only by common political institutions, but also to a greater extent by the consciousness of the participation of subjects in the life of the state from the position of their citizenship, whose interests cannot but be involved in other citizens, which collectively unites each citizen. In conclusion, we can say that the main source of the "civil nation" is the society itself, and it also builds the political culture of the state.

Key words: "civil nation", political culture, identity, state, society, citizen, democracy, ethnos, tradition.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.011

A.A. NIKOLENKO Graduate Institute of law and administration of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and service, Vladivostok, Russia

YE.A. SHEVCHENKO International Relations Student, Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and service, Vladivostok, Russia

ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE SCENARIOS OF RUSSIA'S GEOPOLITICAL FUTURE

The article states an important topic for research, the relevance of forecasting the geopolitical future of the country, as well as the geopolitical scenarios implemented at a given time, affects a large complex of phenomena from economic to cultural. The need to analyze the implementation of potentially possible development schemes in reality, in the current international situation. The processes of globalization and deglobalization, which lead to the development of conflict potential, also become an important topic on the political agenda, which makes it necessary to study geopolitical strategies more closely.

Key words: Russian local civilization, civilizational approach, social process, power, features of the political process, specifics of political power.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.012

D.М. HUSEINOVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE TERRORIST THREAT IMPACT ON THE PROGRAMS AND TACTICAL ATTITUDES OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN RUSSIA (LATE 1990s)

The article analyses changes in the attitudes of political parties in Russia as a result of the increase in the terrorist threat in the late 1990s. It is based on the State Duma verbatim reports, brochures and programs of political parties, as well as media materials. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to develop effective methods of combating a new type of threat in modern times, the beginning of which in Russia dates back to the late 1990s. In the article, the author comes to the conclusion that at the end of the 1990s, the parties had not yet come to a common opinion regarding the solution of the Chechen issue and effective methods of combating terrorism.

Key words: chechen crisis, political parties, counter-terrorist operation, Grigory Yavlinsky, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, separatism, internal political process.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.013

A.A. ELOVIK Postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMAGE OF RUSSIA IN SOCIAL MEDIA OF THE BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION (2019-2020)

The article analyzes the image of Russia that was formed by the largest social media of the Belarusian opposition in the Telegram messenger from December 2019 to August 2020. Particular attention is paid to the Telegram channel NEXTA, which took on the role of coordinator of protests in the Republic of Belarus after the announcement of the results of the presidential elections on August 9, 2020. The results of the study indicate that the perception of Russia by opposition Belarusian social media has changed over the period under review. At the end of 2019, opposing the deepening of integration, they presented Russia as a backward and aggressive state. However, during the election campaign and with the start of anti-government rallies in August 2020, perceptions of Russia partially improved in the hope of opposition assistance or neutrality.

Key words: Belarus, Byelorussia, Lukashenko, protests in Belarus, Telegram, Russia, Eastern Europe.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.014

T.M. BELYAKOVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of State Office of the Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

TECHNOLOGIES OF THE IMAGE-MAKING OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH

The author of the article analyzes the technologies of forming the image of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article deals with the use of the Russian Orthodox Church as standard image formation technologies (creation of websites, positioning of the institute in the media), and the use of specific image technologies characteristic of religious institutions (social advertising and the initiation of various social projects). Conclusions are drawn about the specifics of the Russian Orthodox Church as a political actor.

Key words: image, image of a religious organization, PR-technologies, social advertising, the Russian Orthodox Church.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.015

A.G. LAZEBNIK Post-graduate student of the Department of History and Theory of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

VALUES AS A FACTOR OF TRANSFORMATION OF POLITICAL REGIMES

The author analyzes the value factor of the transformation of the political regime. Values are understood as beliefs that influence a person's choices. The author considers that such institutional changes as the transformation of the political regime should correspond to the values rooted in society. The concept of political regime has been operationalized. Six aspects of the political regime are highlighted: citizens 'participation in the development of government institutions; individual rights and freedoms; the place and role of non-state structures; consideration of minority interests; political pluralism; mechanisms for holding officials accountable. It is described how values affect each aspect. The values that influence the political regime are described. The values of democratic and non-democratic regimes are defined. Participation in the creation and development of political institutions is related to the value of participation in politics. Rights and freedoms will be respected if the value of fair play is widespread in society. Non-State structures can exist in the political system, provided that there is trust. Such an aspect of a political regime as taking into account the interests of a minority is possible if there is a value of tolerance. The pluralism of the political system is determined by the presence of openness to the new in society. Officials are more likely to be held accountable if a wide identification radius is common in the community. Thus, the following set of values corresponds to democratic regimes: participation in politics, playing by the rules, trust, tolerance, openness to new things, a wide range of identification. Such values as indifference to politics, playing without rules, distrust, intolerance, closed society, a narrow radius of identification, correspond to undemocratic regimes.

Key words: cultural turn, values, values, political culture, political regime political transformation, democratization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.016

N.A. ZOLOTAREV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Management Institute of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MIGRATION PROCESSES AND PECULIARITIES OF INTEGRATION OF EXTERNAL MIGRANTS IN MODERN SOCIETY

The study examines the peculiarities of the process of integration of external migrants in the receiving states, as well as the peculiarities of the formation of state policy in this area. The author analyzes the migration processes in the context of the economic needs and demographic challenges currently faced by the receiving states of external migrants. Special attention is paid to the problem of the lack of attention on the part of state authorities to the processes of integration of external migrants, which leads to an increase in conflict potential, radicalization and marginalization of migrants, and the growth of ideas of right-wing populism in the host society.

Key words: migration, migration processes, integration of migrants, political system, state, identity.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.017

A.V. MAKAROV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Administration and National Security, Faculty of National Security, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF REFORMING THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY OF A SOVEREIGN STATE

The article is devoted to the consideration and formalization of the priority directions of reforming the educational policy of a sovereign state. Special attention in the research process is paid to the increasing role of the educational system in ensuring economic growth and progress of the country every year, as well as the need to concentrate all achievements and developments, scientific potential and human capital according to the indivisible triumvirate of «teaching / learning, research and services to society» exclusively within the national, sovereign state. Also, a separate emphasis is made on the contradictions that must be resolved in the process of developing directions for reforming the educational policy of the state, the principles of its implementation and key tasks are separately highlighted.

Key words: educational policy, reform, sovereign state, integration, quality, economics, principles, GDP, growth, standards.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.018

B.Т. KUILIEV Postgraduate student working for the Doctoral Degree at the Chair of civil society and legal education of the Mirzo Ulugbek National University of Uzbekistan; teaching fellow at the Chair of philosophy of the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent, the Republic of Uzbekistan

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVERGENT POLITICAL MANIPULATION TECHNOLOGIES USED ON THE INTERNET

This article classifies the technologies of political manipulation used on the Internet and suggests their vector, rhizomorphic, convergent groups. However, based on the size of the article, it provides a comparative analysis of political manipulation technologies that fall into a convergent group. In this case, the fact that convergent technologies are formed by hybridization of the properties of technologies belonging to the vector and rhizomorph group is revealed in the example of each analyzed technology.

Key words: Vector technology, rhizomorph technology, convergent technology, bright generalization technology, social responsibility game technology, simple folk game technology, authority quote technology, multiple repetition technology, label pasting technology, rating method technology, trolling, hatering, flashing technology.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.019

D.K. GONCHAROV Associate Professor at the Chair of informatics, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia

D.D. GONCHAROVA Undergraduate student of MGIMO(U) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PECULIARITIES OF APPLYING MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN SUPPORT OF THE DECISION MAKING IN POLITICS

In the field of politics, as in other areas of social responsibility, the decision-maker is guided by expert assessments, which can be normalized using mathematical methods combined into a decision support system. This paper considers the methods of multi-criteria evaluation and Saati’s analytical hierarchy method. The authors note that the methods are advisory in nature due to the lack of modern legal and other responsibility for the decisions made by artificial intelligence (AI).

Key words: decision support system, analytical hierarchy method, political responsibility.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.020

D.YU. PETROV Senior lecturer at the Department of information management of the Department of journalism of the Russian Presidential Academy of national economy and public administration, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL PROJECTS IN RUSSIA

The analysis of the implementation of national projects based on expert assessments and the competent opinion of political figures is carried out. The article considers the legal framework for regulating key areas of the social sphere. The necessity of development of own production for solving important strategic tasks of social development of society is proved.

Key word: social policy, national projects, social development of society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.021

А.I. KOPASOV Senior legal consultant LLC «WHAT TO DO CONSULT», Graduate student National Research Mordovian state University named after N.P. Ogareva, Saransk, Russia

CREATION OF THE DEFINITION "STATE POLICY OF TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT"

The author analyzes current approaches to determining territorial development and state policy of territorial development in legislation and scientific works. The task is to define the state policy of territorial development through methods of formal logic and categorical-system methodology. The article revealed the necessary and sufficient signs of the phenomenon under consideration. As a result of the triadic decryption method, a definition of the State policy of territorial development has been obtained - a form of State policy implemented by State authorities at the federal regional and local levels through the disclosure of natural resource, socio-economic and investment potential to meet the needs in the areas of infrastructure, production and provision of services.

Key words: state, politics, state territory, territorial development, spatial development, state policy, creation of definition.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.022

D.I. DMITRIEV Expert-researcher of the Center «Eurasian Development» and Editor of «Alliance-Industry», Moscow, Russia

CURRENT POLITICAL RISKS IN THE RUSSIAN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

Political risk is a complex multidimensional phenomenon that manifests itself in the form of changes in the conditions of economic activity and the behavior of market players. It is the fuel and energy sector that is often most affected by political risks, due to its importance for the country's economic development, the achievement of strategic state goals, and due to high energy prices. At the same time, both the direction of this influence and the sources of political risks can be completely different and difficult to predict, divided into categories and types. The article considers such key political risks for the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation such as: international sanctions, unequal tax conditions, geopolitical risks of transit, opposition of regional elites, nationalization/expropriation of property. The author studies the impact of these risks and the ways of their leveling on the examples of specific cases and companies, identifying the existing specifics. At the end, we draw conclusions about the reasons for such a significant exposure of the fuel and energy industry to political risks.

Key words: political risks in the fuel and energy sector, sanctions against the Russian oil and gas industry, taxation in the fuel and energy sector, nationalization.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.023

B. VANKOVSKA Professor of political science and international Relations, Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia

THE SYNERGY BETWEEN GEOPOLITICS AND BIOPOLITICS: COVID-19 VACCINES IN FOCUS

The article sheds light on the causes and consequences of the geopolitics of vaccines against COVID-19. The key premise is that in the hybrid international system, the geopolitics gets more importance than before. In that context, the COVID-19 pandemic and the vaccines have turned into power politics tools rather than a medical issues and an asset to save lives. The research sources are mostly media-based, but from a variety of geographical areas, and then are correlated with available academic analyses concerning the so-called pandemopolitics in many parts of the world. The article displays the ongoing tendencies that shape the world: geopolitics externally and biopolitics internally. Private corporations have strengthened their grip on the states and their populations. The outcome of these two combining tendencies (geopolitics and biopolitics) reveals the real power balance: the corporate interest is prevailing, while the State succumbs to authoritarianism.

Key words: geopolitics, COVID-19, vaccines, multipolarism, pandemopolitics, global solidarity.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.024

G.S. SOLODOVA Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

RUSSIA IN THE EURASIAN SPACE – REASONS FOR ADDRESSING THE ISSUE

The discourse about Russia's special position, its greater similarity to the West or the East, is rooted in our history and conditioned by its physical and cultural geography. Extensive scholarly and journalistic literature is devoted to this topic; nevertheless, at each new turn in social and political history, as if extinguished, the discussion is renewed. This interest is not something new or unexpected. It is traditional for Russian history, confirmed by time.

Reference to the works of contemporary and pre-revolutionary authors has allowed us to identify a number of factors that determine both the historical roots and the timeliness and durability of the Eurasian geopolitical vector. Among the grounds for the relevance of Eurasian issues are Russia's frontier and its role in international politics, ethno-cultural and religious factors, changes in the international economic and political balance and the imposition of sanctions.

Key words: Greater Eurasia, Eurasianism, territorial and geographic position, changing international balance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.025

E.G. NIKITENKO Major General, Cand. Sc. (History), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

O.A. MURAVYKH Senior Lecturer of the Center for Linguistics and Professional Communication, Institute of Law and National Security, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM – THE PHENOMENON OF MODERN WORLD POLITICS

The article analyzes the threats of international terrorism, as well as the main approaches to their neutralization. International terrorism as an instrument of foreign policy is particularly dangerous. The prospects of counter-terrorism activities of states and the role of Russia are considered. In the short and medium term, the fight against the terrorist threat remains one of the priorities of the international community.

Key words: international terrorism, world politics, extremism, Russia, the United States, countering international terrorism, anti-terrorist cooperation, the United Nations Organization (the UN).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.026

I.V. KOLOSOVA PhD (History) Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Moscow, Russia

CHRISTIAN ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD POLITICS

The article explores the history of relations among Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism in the context of world politics. It encompasses the genesis of the Christian ecumenical movement, the activities of the World Council of Churches (WCC) and its participation in the world political process, especially in the cold was period. It considers the role of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Christian interfaith co-operation and collaboration of the Christian Churches in defending the rights of Christians.

Key words: Christian interfaith dialogue, Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Protestantism, ecumenical movement, World Council of Churches (WCC).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.027

D.V. KRASAVIN Master`s Degree Student of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Space Program Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

D.G. POPOV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations North-West Institute of Management RANEPA St. Petersburg, Russia

THINK TANKS IN THE POST-SOVIET COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA – PECULIARITIES OF FOREIGN POLICY VECTORS PERCEPTION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE EAEU AND BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE)

The aim of the article is to identify the attitude of the close to government expert community in Central Asian countries to the Russian project of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative. Main method is content analysis of think tanks open materials, identification of connotations and general assessment to both of integration projects, generalization and classification of the information. We have found that the Chinese project is supported by majority of regional think tanks. The attitude towards the EAEU is mostly positive, but some experts see it as an obstacle to the development of relations with China. The most positive perception of the EAEU is in Kyrgyzstan. An unexpectedly large amount of criticism comes from experts in Kazakhstan. The perception of possible integration with Russia in Uzbekistan is better than in Tajikistan. For the first time, a review of the texts of the most influential regional think tanks was made. A convenient analytical algorithm of actions has been formed, the use of which will help other researchers to update the data. The results reflect the main problems of the EAEU, and can be used to determine the tasks of Russian second track and official diplomacy. The results can be used for monitoring and identification of the foreign policy vectors of the Central Asian countries.

Key words: think tanks, Central Asia, integration, Belt and Road Initiative, Eurasian Economic Union, expert community, foreign policy vectors.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.028

V.A. MANOVITSKAYA Student, Member of the Young Scientists Council, Diplomatic Academy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

R.N. SHANGARAEV Ph.D. of Economic Sciences Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

CONSEQUENCES OF THE EVENTS OF THE "ARAB SPRING" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The relevance of this study is due to the emergence of new challenges and threats associated with the forced transformation of political regimes resulting from the use of technologies of "color revolutions", and is determined by the following factors. The phenomenon of the "Arab Spring" brought about socio-political changes in a number of Arab states. The events that took place at that time largely influenced the global situation in the world, and therefore this phenomenon does not lose its relevance to this day.

Key words: Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya, "Arab Spring", social networks, non-governmental organizations, revolution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.029

B.M. MAKANBAEV Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Advisor to the Consolidated planning and coordination Department, Department of Protocol and organizational support Eurasian Economic Commission, Moscow, Russia

HEALTH ISSUES AS AN ELEMENT OF ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA: NEW CHALLENGES AND THREATS

In the article, the author raises the issue of the development of the health care system in Central Asian countries. A brief analysis was made of the current state, as well as the challenges and threats facing each country individually due to the spread of the new coronavirus infection. Considering that the countries of Central Asia in many ways have similar ethnic and cultural characteristics, one of the interesting approaches for carrying out reforms, highlighted by the author, is the creation of a unified healthcare system for the region.

Key words: healthcare, Central Asia, ensuring national security, coronavirus, pandemic, countering threats, social issue, medicine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.030

F.D. BROSOVICH Graduate student, Russian University Friendship between nations, Department of Comparative Political Science Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH AMERICA: RESULTS OF THE CURRENT STAGE

In the article, the author examines the development of South American countries at the present stage. In particular, the analysis of the economic development of the region and the main problems hindering the transition from a raw material economy to an economy focused on the production of high-tech products is carried out. The political problems of the development of the South American region are also considered. The relevance of the research topic is due to the rapid development and active transformations in the social, political and economic spheres of the region under consideration. At the same time, the South American region is the most contrasting region on the world map. It is here that the most significant gap between the poorest and the richest countries is observed, both in economic and socio-political terms. The main purpose of the study is to try to identify the differences in the development of different states of South America in the social, political and economic spheres, as well as the causes of the current situation in the countries. When conducting the study, the author resorted to both analytical and statistical methods. At the same time, the methods of general scientific knowledge, comparison, analysis and synthesis were also used. The main result of this study is to determine the reasons that hinder the development of the region under consideration, which include: the lack of internal political stability, the raw material orientation of economic exports and the economy as a whole, the low level of introduction of technological innovations, the weak organization of social support for the population. Based on the results of the study, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are proposed for the further development of the countries of South America.

Key words: South America, region, economic development, political development, innovation, investment.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.031

V.I. ROZENBERG Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Policy Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE OF SYRIA: POSITIONS OF PARTICIPANTS AND FIRST RESULTS

The establishment of the Syrian Constitutional Committee is one of the main steps to resolve the Syrian politico-military conflict and in fact one of the first agreements reached between the Syrian government and the opposition. The Committee has been internationally recognised, but has faced a number of contradictions since its inception. The divergence of views on the aims and objectives of the Committee between the government and the opposition, as well as the lack of international attention to its work, has markedly reduced the pace of progress on the roadmap of the project to resolve the Syrian conflict.

Key words: political conflictology, Syrian Arab Republic, syrian conflict, Syrian Constitutional Committee, syrian opposition.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.032

E.A. RUPAKOVA Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

OPPORTUNITIES AND PROSPECTS OF BELARUS-RUSSIAN INTERACTION WITH THE TURKISH REPUBLIC

In the article, the author highlights potential prospective areas of cooperation between Russia and Belarus in Turkey, specifically: public and image diplomacy, cultural, humanitarian and scientific, technical cooperation, socio-economic cooperation, information interaction. Immersed cooperation in these areas will allow developing some practical and agreed decisions in the region.

Key words: public diplomacy, Turkey, the Union State, Turkish influence, popularization, the EEU.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.033

S. ESMAEILI Postgraduate student in the Department Comparative Politics, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN university), Moscow, Russia

POSITION OF «IRANIAN WOMEN IN THE PRESS» AND DEVELOPMENT OF «WOMEN'S PRESS IN IRAN»

The article is devoted to the study of the women's press of Iran, and the status of women in the press of Iran for the period from the publication of the first newspapers in the country to the present. The article presents statistical data reflecting the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the women's press: the number of women working in the press, the number of women's newspapers and magazines, the number of publications on women's issues.

It is assumed that there is a relationship between the current course of public policy and the number of women employed in the press, the number of publications devoted to women. The study confirmed the hypothesis of this relationship.

Key words: Iranian women, newspaper, politics, women's press, woman and family, woman and politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.034

S.V. TCOI Postgraduate student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

NORTH KOREA'S NUCLEAR PROGRAM AS A FACTOR IN THE INTER-KOREAN GAP

The article identifies the factors that support and exacerbate the split between North and South Korea. It is indicated that the nuclear program implemented by the North Korea leadership is currently one of its basic factors. This is due to the category of security that forces the Republic of Korea to turn to the United States as a guarantor of its international protection and security. Also important is the situation of international sanctions caused by the nuclear program and hindering the implementation of joint economic projects of the states of the Korean Peninsula.

Key words: North Korea, Republic of Korea, Korean Peninsula, nuclear program.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.035

ZHAO LU PhD student at the department of comparative political science Faculty of Political Science of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHINA'S FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGY IN THE CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL ORDER

The international order after the war is essentially dominated by the United States and the West, which is conducive to Western developed countries. In the design process, the order is not through democratic procedures, but a few large countries play a leading role. Due to the inherent shortcomings of the post-war international order, it was unable to fully reflect the needs of developing countries. With the declining influence of the West in the global power structure and the rise of groups of emerging countries represented by China, the international balance of power has begun to undergo profound changes, Therefore, the transformation of the international order has become a historical inevitability. China has participated in the creation of the current international order, recognizes the value and role of the current international order, and believes that further reforms and innovations are needed. In order to better maintain and advance the reform of the international order, China firmly upholds multilateralism, upholds the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, respects the universally recognized norms of international law, and builds a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation. Promote the construction of "the Belt and Road" and build a new pattern of economic globalization. The study of the transformation of the international order and China's strategy is one of the core topics of great concern to the political science community. Although a number of scientific works are devoted to this topic, there are still research questions that require further study.

Key words: international order, transformation of the international order, China's plan, community with shared future for mankind, a new type of international relations, One belt, one road.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.036

D.S. STEPANKOV Student in the field of training Political Science of the Oriental Institute - Schools regional and international studies of the Far East Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

V.S. SHVYRKOV Student in the field of training Political Science of the Oriental Institute - Schools regional and international studies of the Far East Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

K.A. KOROLKOV Student in the field of training Political Science of the Oriental Institute - Schools regional and international studies of the Far East Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PRIMARY ELEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

This paper is a review article devoted to the topic of the grassroots level of local self-government in the countries of North-East Asia – China, Japan, and Korea. The study of the experience of self-government of the Asia-Pacific countries seems very relevant for several reasons: noticeable successes of these countries in urban management and changes in the models of self-organization and self-government of Asian societies. The grassroots level of public organization has a serious impact on the development of the civil and political culture of citizens, which is extremely important in the context of the political transformation of Russian society. This paper aims to analyze the grassroots forms of social self-organization in China, Japan, and Korea. The objectives are a step-by-step review of the experience of local self-government in each of the studied countries. Methods widely used in the work – description, analysis, induction method. The result of the work is generalized conclusions about the practice of grass-roots self-government in Northeast Asia. The key conclusion of the research is the following statement – in the studied countries there is no single model of the grassroots levels of local self-organization of citizens, the experience of each of the Asia-Pacific countries in this matter is truly unique.

Key words: local self-government, grassroots level, self-organization of citizens, China, Japan, Korea, local government system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.70.6.037

D.O. HOMYAKOV Student of Institute for the Humanities and social sciences Tula State University, Tula, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONALITY AND POSSIBILITIES OF SOCIAL NETWORKS FOR THE PURPOSE OF THEIR RATIONAL USE IN POLITICAL SMM

The article examines social networks on the territory of Russia according to three criteria: traffic and popularity among users, demographic representation of users and evaluation of the functionality and capabilities provided by Internet sites. The study was conducted using three methods: Big Data using the criteria of value assessments, the Saati’s analytical hierarchy method and content analysis. Instagram Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube are the best "universal social network" for any politician, and the social networks Facebook, Telegram, TikTok, and Twitter are often difficult to use in political communication and are unnecessarily resource-intensive.

Key words: universal social network, specialized social networks, political communication, political SMM.

   
© 2012 ВОПРОСЫ ПОЛИТОЛОГИИ