№ 4 (80), 2022

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 12, Issue 4 (80), 2022

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Bakhtin G.O. On Some Methodological Foundations for Studying the Phenomenon of Death in Political Philosophy

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Argun L.L. Psychological Approach of H.D. Lasswell to the Study of Political Behavior

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Vnuk V.K. DPR and LPR as Independent States: Problems and Prospects

Kryukova E.V. Eclecticism of Mass Political Consciousness in the Era of Change

Furs V.A. Forms of Digital Monopolies Influence on Political Processes

Mazhnikov V.I. The Main Stages and Trends in the Modernization of the Electoral System of the Russian Federation

Romanov Yu.A. Background and the Present State of Russia as a Federal State

Maystat M.A., Chan Thi Ziem Cham. Criteria for the Effectiveness of Modern Anti-Corruption Policy in Vietnam

Abbasov O.T. Confederation. The Form of the Territorial Structure or a Variety of the Union of States?

Shvetsova L.N. Party System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Malakhov A.A. Social Insurance and Depauperization as Constitutive Features of the Welfare State

Maslov K.V. The Problem of State Sovereignty in Political Science

Belov L.P. Institutionalization of a Strong State in the Conditions of Modern Public Administration

Belyakova T.M. The Covid-19 Pandemic and its Impact on the Use of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church Internet Media to Promote Information Policy

Goncharov V.S. Application of Combined Technologies of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Psychological Wars

Chibrikov A.O. Creation and Promotion of Content in the Modern Media Environment

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

Ravochkin N.N. Political Management Practices Transformation in Digitalization Realities (Part 2)

Menshikov P.V., Agrba A.A. The Work of Modern Social Ecosystems in Times of Pandemic

Arshin K.V. Digitalization as an Element of Migration Policy Management

Ponyavina M.B. Efficiency of State Education Policy

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Morozov I.L. Historical Remembrance as a Geopolitical Category

Muravykh A.I., Nikitenko E.G. The Agony of the Collective West

Pyzh V.V., Strutina Yu.V. Politicization of the Olympic Games: History and Prospects

Surma I.V., Kharlanov A.S. The Modern Military-Political Doctrine of Japan and the Formation of the Regional Security System in the Asia-Pacific Region

Furman F.P. On the Issue of Russia's Geopolitics

Kuleshova N.S., Chzhan Chen`I. The Revival of the RICK Mechanism? (Analysis of India's Neutral Position in the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict)

Utkina M.F. Habitus, Cultural and Symbolic Capital of the British Political Elite as Resources of Social Reproduction

Kovalevskaia N.V., Orlov I.V. The Formation of the "Hybrid War Theory": Conceptual and Historical Aspects

Bortsov D.V. Economic Diplomacy in the USSR

Malinin A.Yu. The Crisis of the European Parliamentary Republics in 2021: the Party Dimension

Mao Shuo. A New Era in China's Development and Profound Changes Never Seen in the Last Hundred Years

Han Shiying. Comparative Analysis of Russian-Chinese Military-Technical Cooperation in the XXI Century

Huo Dong. Political Aspects of Cooperation Between the Chinese People's Republic and the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Security within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Yu Lan. Discourse Power and Political Ideology in the Process of PRC Modernization

Drozdov I.A., Rakhman Khashimi Matiar, Fedorov A.V., Sharagina A.D. The Factor of China Economic Influence in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Kazakhstan

STUDENT SCIENCE

Kazakova P.O. Democratic Deficit in the European Union: Theoretical Approaches

Kozhiev A.Yu., Inheev A.B., Klimochko B.V. Evolution of the Development of Methodology and Methods of Scientific Knowledge. Theoretical Substantiation of Metascientific Methodology in the Study of Political Processes

Our authors № 4-2022

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.001

G.O. BAKHTIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Theory and Philosophy, Faculty of Political Science, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ON SOME METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR STUDYING THE PHENOMENON OF DEATH IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

The article attempts to outline some of the possible approaches to the study of death within the framework of political philosophy. The purpose of the work is to consider intellectual currents potentially suitable for studying the phenomenon of death, paradigmatic attitudes and methodological schools, not only in their essential dimension, but also – to some extent – in the procedural one. Thus, it becomes possible to trace not only the trajectories along which the methodological foundations made shifts, but also to understand the origins of their formation.

Key words: methodology, death, political philosophy, Cambridge School of Concepts, cultural sociology, intellectual history.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.002

L.L. ARGUN 1st category guide of State Historical Museum Graduate student of the Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH OF H.D. LASSWELL TO THE STUDY OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

The article considers the understanding of political behavior in the theory of the representative of the Chicago school of political science Harold Dwight Lasswell (1902-1978). Difficulties in interpreting the behavior of actors in politics, highlighted by American scientists, are analyzed in this article. To overcome these difficulties H.D. Lasswell proposes to consider the personality in politics, based on the foundations of psychoanalysis and using the three-component approach of Sigmund Freud. The article shows that it is a new perspective on personality as a combination of object orientations, thinking, autistic component and somatics that makes it possible to create more accurate and scientific explanations of the actions of actors in politics. Psychological approach of H.D. Lasswell expanded the theoretical and methodological field of behavioral research in political science.

Key words: behavioralism, psychopathology, H.D. Lasswell, political behavior, political psychology, personality.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.003

V.K. VNUK Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social-Humanitarian Disciplines of Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

DPR AND LPR AS INDEPENDENT STATES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The article examines the reasons for the secession of the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). A special place is given to internal factors that accompanied the process of secession of the LPR and DPR from Ukraine. These factors include: the course of the political leadership of Ukraine to build a unitary state, the rejection of federalization, a short-sighted national and language policy, depriving the Russian people of the status of an indigenous people. The coup d'état of 2014 year as well as the course of the Ukrainian political leadership towards the integration of the country into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization were among other factors that contributed to the development of decentralized tendencies in Ukraine and the declaration of independence of the DPR and LPR. The article analyzes the political consequences of the recognition by the Russian Federation of the sovereignty of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic. In addition, the article made a forecast of possible scenarios for the development of events around the LPR and the DPR.

Key words: Republic of Ukraine, The Russian Federation, Donetsk People's Republic, Lugansk People's Republic, unrecognized states, international recognition, the right of a nation to self-determination, territorial integrity, secession, indigenous peoples, small peoples, unitary state, federation, confederation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.004

E.V. KRYUKOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Sociology, Psychology of Management and History State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

ECLECTICISM OF MASS POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE ERA OF CHANGE

The archetypal foundations of mass political consciousness are formed in a dynamic relationship with administrative influences, including state, public, political, state-administrative. Consequently, the identification of such influences, the study of their nature, features will allow us to form a paradigm of public administration that, in principle, would be optimized taking into account the public demand for administrative influence, in particular in matters of forming public opinion, position and political sentiment.

Key words: transition period, eclecticism, mass consciousness, political system, mass political consciousness.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.005

V.A. FURS PhD of Political Sciences Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy Academies of the State Fire Service EMERCOM of Russia, Moscow, Russia

FORMS OF DIGITAL MONOPOLIES INFLUENCE ON POLITICAL PROCESSES

The article analyzes the experience of digital monopolies participation in political processes, identifies the forms of digital monopolies influence on electoral processes, political decision-making processes and on the structure of political relations in the modern world. The paper examines the main political risks that can be caused by the intensive and uncontrolled development of digital platforms and their monopolization. The author examining the specifics of the interaction of large IT corporations with various types of political regimes by the example of political processes in the USA and China comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to revise the existing stereotype about the value and ideological neutrality of modern communication technologies.

The problems of the presented research are becoming particularly relevant to the background of the currently observed aggravation of international conflicts and the escalation of confrontation between different centers of forces: leading digital platforms are involved in these processes as an instrument of information warfare.

Key words: digitalization, digital monopolies, digital platforms, social networks, political processes, political technologies, political risks.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.006

V.I. MAZHNIKOV Candidate of philosophy, associate Professor, associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Socio-Humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow University for Industry and Finance «Synergy», Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN STAGES AND TRENDS IN THE MODERNIZATION OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The article highlights and characterizes the most important modernization stages in the development of the electoral system of modern Russian society. Based on the fact that the general trend in the modernization of the electoral system of the Russian Federation is a high level of dynamism and instability, largely due to the realization of the interests of the ruling political elite, the article analyzes the features of the models of electoral systems emerging in the process of modernization and the main trends in their change.

Key words: electoral system, elections, modernization, electoral process, majoritarian electoral system, proportional electoral system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.007

YU.A. ROMANOV Сand. Sc. Sociology, Associate professor East Siberian State University of Technology and Management, Ulan-Ude, Russia

BACKGROUND AND THE PRESENT STATE OF RUSSIA AS A FEDERAL STATE

This article is devoted to the description and consideration of the problems of the federal structure of modern Russia, taking into account the historical context of the development of this topic. Modern Russia is a federal, multinational and multi-confessional country in which representatives of various peoples and nations peacefully live. And, therefore, the situation is ripe for considering the situation with its territorial-administrative and national-territorial structure in the modern world, a world where any scenario of the world order is possible. Federalism performs the aggregating role entrusted to it in generalizing the interests of the peoples, nations and ethnic groups inhabiting Russia in the processes of building and modeling a democratic system. The described processes are facilitated by the involvement of the peoples, nations and ethnic groups themselves in them. The article also describes the changes in the processes of the life of the country, which has an important impact on the course of the political life of modern Russia.

Key words: federalism, federal state, federation, confederation, unitary state, federal treaty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.008

M.A. MAYSTAT Ph.D. (Candidate of Political Sciences), Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science of Institute of History and Policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

CHAN THI ZIEM CHAM 2nd year master's degree at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University Vietnam, Hanoi

CRITERIA FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODERN ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY IN VIETNAM

The article is devoted to the analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the anti-corruption policy carried out in Vietnam over the past 10 years, from the point of view of the political, economic, socio-cultural goals and objectives facing the country. The authors review and evaluate the achievements in this area and the difficulties faced by the country's leadership, as well as offer some recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the implementation of anti-corruption policy in the near future.

Key words: corruption, anti-corruption policy, Vietnam, efficiency.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.009

O.T. ABBASOV Senior lecturer of the department fundamental legal and social and humanitarian disciplines MFPU "Synergy", Moscow, Russia

CONFEDERATION. THE FORM OF THE TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OR A VARIETY OF THE UNION OF STATES?

This article is devoted to such a phenomenon as a confederation. In view of the development of interstate relations, the issues of the union of independent states are becoming more and more relevant. In this article, we will try to understand what a confederation is. Can this phenomenon be considered a form of territorial structure? Or, after all, is a confederation just another form of interaction between sovereign states? We believe that this topic has been poorly studied today, but the prospects for further development of this form of relations between states are visible to the naked eye. That is why we believe that this issue needs to be analyzed.

Key words: confederation, form of government, form of state, state, political regimes, forms of government, treasury, territory.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.010

L.N. SHVETSOVA Senior Lecturer of the Department of Fundamental Legal and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

PARTY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

The relevance of the study is due to the close historically determined socio-economic and political ties between Russia and Kazakhstan. The purpose of the article is to analyze the nature of the party system in Kazakhstan and the factors that caused it. The research methods are dialectical and comparative methods. The objectives of the article are to compare the processes of transformation of legislation on political parties in Russia and Kazakhstan, to analyze the impact of changes in Russian legislation on the nature of the party system of our country and to extrapolate these trends to Kazakhstan to predict changes in its party system. The author comes to the conclusion about the existence of a multiparty system in Kazakhstan with one dominant party, which was due to the high requirements established by law for the minimum number of members of a political party, the requirements for the presence of structural units in all regions, cities of republican significance and in the capital, the order of state financing of political parties.

Key words: party system of Kazakhstan, political parties, dominant party.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.011

A.A. MALAKHOV Head of the Legal Department Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Potato Research Center named after A.G. Lorkh", Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL INSURANCE AND DEPAUPERIZATION AS CONSTITUTIVE FEATURES OF THE WELFARE STATE

It is noted that in the XIX century, in the wake of the growth of social democratic movements in those countries in which capitalist relations and nation-states were generally formed, the boundaries of the "minimal" welfare state took shape. The qualitative differences, which are called constitutive features of welfare states, are analyzed. The first and one of the main features is the introduction and availability of a social insurance system in the state. It is shown that in different countries they were introduced at different time periods, were different in scope and scale of state participation, as well as in the size of state aid. It is emphasized that the legitimization of social insurance has come to be considered in developed countries as part of the mutual rights and obligations that bind the state and civil society.

Key words: social policy, welfare state, social contract, natural (pre-political) state, social protection.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.012

K.V. MASLOV Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The paper analyzes various approaches to the concept of "sovereignty", shows its relationship with political actors, the peculiarities of its manifestation in the domestic and foreign policy of the state, justifies the further need to use this concept in political science.

The purpose of the paper is to reveal the meaning of the concept of "sovereignty" through the analysis of political actors capable of changing political reality by means of the state.

The objectives of the paper are as follows: firstly, to identify subjects potentially capable of sovereignty; secondly, based on the attributes of sovereignty, to assess the ability of political actors to become subjects capable of exercising sovereignty; thirdly, to show a certain limitation of political actors capable of exercising sovereignty within the state.

As a result of the research, the author's version of the concept of "sovereignty" was proposed. Subjects capable of exercising sovereignty have been identified. The necessity of state sovereignty in contemporary society is substantiated.

Key words: sovereignty, political actors, ruling elite, nation, people, supreme ruler.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.013

L.P. BELOV Graduate student, North-West Institute of Management, branch of RANEPA; OOO «Gelios», CEO, Saint Petersburg, Russia

INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF A STRONG STATE IN THE CONDITIONS OF MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

The subject of the research of the author of the article is the relationship between the conceptual approach to the characterization of a strong state and the development of the institutional foundations of modern public policy.

The author proceeds from the fundamental changes in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 2020, which consolidate the existence of a unified system of public authority in the country. Using the methods of theoretical and discourse analysis, his own idea of the relationship between the idea and concept of a strong state and the establishment of a democratic political order in the paradigm of public administration is substantiated. According to the author, the problem of a strong state and its role in the system of public power is aggravated by an insufficient degree of theoretical and institutional study of both the very concept of a system of public power and its configuration in the specific conditions of the development of the modern domestic political process.

Key words: strong state, system of public authority, political and administrative management, factors of inhibition of a strong state, internal threats to a strong state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.014

T.M. BELYAKOVA Postgraduate student of the Faculty of State Management of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND ITS IMPACT ON THE USE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH INTERNET MEDIA TO PROMOTE INFORMATION POLICY

The coronavirus pandemic that swept the world in 2019 undoubtedly had a significant impact on all spheres of human society: economic, political, social and even religious. The pandemic has become a catalyst for the transition to electronic forms of activity in educational and labor practices. There were also such trends in the religious sphere, but their introduction definitely had its own specifics – after all, the religious environment assumes a greater degree of personal involvement of actors than economic or political, a greater confidence in the atmosphere of people's communication, which is not always technically feasible with a "remote" communication format. This article examines the degree of adaptation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church to the new realities of the pandemic period.

Key words: information policy, pandemic, COVID-19, Russian Orthodox church, Roman Catholic Church, Internet-communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.015

V.S. GONCHAROV Graduate student of the Department of International Security and Foreign Policy of Russian foreign policy, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

APPLICATION OF COMBINED TECHNOLOGIES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN INFORMATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WARS

Thanks to a significant increase in computing power and the growth of innovation, artificial intelligence is reaching a new operational level, opening up new horizons for its application in various spheres of life. Meanwhile, artificial intelligence poses many risks. Among others, special attention should be paid to the danger of malicious use of AI by irresponsible nonstate actors and unfriendly states in order to destabilize the situation in other countries.

This article reveals the problems of application of artificial intelligence technologies in the conditions of information-psychological warfare, identifies current and future threats to information-psychological security, caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence and reveals features of the approach to security against these risks with an emphasis on information-psychological security, which is the basis for all spheres of social life and determines the ability to live a decent life in the world.

Key words: information-psychological wars, malicious use of artificial intelligence, information-psychological weapons, information security, deepfakes, GPT-3.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.016

A.O. CHIBRIKOV PhD student, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Global Processes, Direction of Geopolitics and Diplomacy, Moscow, Russia

CREATION AND PROMOTION OF CONTENT IN THE MODERN MEDIA ENVIRONMENT

The article is devoted to the development of information security in the Russian Federation. The article conducted a study during which the strengths and weaknesses of the current information security system were identified. The ways of protecting information in the Russian Federation are also analyzed.

Key words: Legal framework, information security, Russian Federation, development trends, information technologies.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.017

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy; Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TRANSFORMATION IN DIGITALIZATION REALITIES (PART 2)

Digitalization has a complex impact on social life, in fact, affecting all its levels and sections without exception. Political management also did not remain without the impact of information, communication and digital determinants, which significantly transformed the modern struggle for power. In the modern world, the remodeling of political practices and the activities of government institutions often offer unique scenarios when, in empirical contexts close in structural and functional conditions, the effects of the implementation of digitalization projects can turn out to be diametrically opposed. It is emphasized that the Internet is the most important tool for political management. In this part of the article, the author considers the transformation of political management practices under the influence of digitalization in European states. Practical examples are considered. The factors that determine the success of digitalization are shown, as well as the determinants that slow down these projects in the political sphere are identified.

Key words: political management, power, digitalization, society, interactions, political participation, civil society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.018

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

A.A. AGRBA Ph.D. in culture studies, Senior lecturer аt the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

THE WORK OF MODERN SOCIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN TIMES OF PANDEMIC

The problem raised in the study deals with the implementation of social activities based on digital ecosystems during the pandemic. The critical situation caused by the COVID-19 outbreak revealed the problems of internal social contradictions, showed the importance of coordinated actions and a systematic approach in the fight against global challenges facing society. The purpose of the study is to identify the principles of the social ecosystem (SES) as a key factor for sustainable development. SES has performed as a decent response to the demand of the population for stability and security. Our tasks is to define the principles of its functioning; to understand the mechanisms and features of it; to outline the circle of actors and the algorithm of work in search of new forms of cooperation. The relevance of the study is guided by the changing living conditions in the pandemic time, which brought to the fore the desire of people to feel their significance and belonging to the Union. The trend towards the transition to ecosystems is becoming dominant in the modern world due to the increasing introduction of artificial intelligence tools into everyday life. The results of the study show that digital ecosystems and the organization of high-tech programs can significantly improve the providing targeted social assistance to those in need, improving the environmental situation, combating epidemics, emergency response to disasters, etc. Further study of ecosystems tools and opportunities seems to be relevant for the modernization of socially significant activities.

Key words: social ecosystem, pandemic, social activity, innovation, sustainable development, integrated solutions, coordinated actions, high-tech systems, social services, digital services.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.019

K.V. ARSHIN PhD in Philosophy, Scientific Secretary of Russian Potato Research Centre, Lyubertsy, Moscow region, Russia

DIGITALIZATION AS AN ELEMENT OF MIGRATION POLICY MANAGEMENT

In recent years, digitalization has tightly entered the life of modern society. Migration is one of the areas of public administration that has undergone digitalization. In the article, the author considers the issue of using digital services to regulate migration processes, and also points out the possibilities of their modernization in order to implement policies in the field of adaptation and integration of migrants. The author believes that the Russian Federation has made significant progress in this area, however, it is necessary to make additional efforts to digitalize the migration sphere.

Key words: migration, digitalization, digital service, development, economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.020

M.B. PONYAVINA Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation PhD, associate to Professor, Moscow, Russia

EFFICIENCY OF STATE EDUCATION POLICY

The article considers the features of assessing the effectiveness of state policy in the field of education on the example of a number of European countries. The paper outlines the fundamental differences between the academic and economic efficiency of the assessment of state educational policy from a methodological, organizational and political point of view.

Key words: educational system, state educational policy, humanitarian education, efficiency of educational policy, assessment of the effectiveness of state policy in the field of education.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.021

I.L. MOROZOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of State Management and Political Science, Volgograd Institute of Management – branch of RANEPA, Volgograd, Russia

HISTORICAL REMEMBRANCE AS A GEOPOLITICAL CATEGORY

Considering the current trends of the international geopolitical process, including the aggravation of the interstate confrontation for military-political and economic domination, complicated by the increasing competition of non-state actors, the growth of terrorist threat, uncontrolled migration flows from the "global South" macroregion to the "global North" macroregion, the author studies the features of the historical remembrance of the Russian society and the influence of the political elite on the formation of the historical memory of the people. Political elites of different States in different historical periods have always sought to control and transform the historical remembrance of their people as the most important component of mass political consciousness in order to prevent the formation of potentially dangerous ideologies for themselves, able to start the processes of protest self-organization of society according to the network principle. To achieve this goal, information methods could be used, such as the destruction of the people's idea of their history as a whole process, the opposition of some fragments of historical remembrance to others, the distortion of the historical events interpretation and the distraction from the "inconvenient" facts of history. The task of developing a national idea is of increased relevance for Russia in the context of the current geopolitical confrontation with the competing actors of the international system and the designated internal social conflict caused by the decline in living standards and uneven distribution of national income among segments of society. The author proposes to build a national idea of modern Russia around three interrelated ideologies: Eurasianism, patriotism, and traditionalism.

Key words: historical remembrance, geopolitics, Ancient Rus, information war, propaganda, patriotism, national idea.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.022

A.I. MURAVYKH D.Sc. (economics), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

E.G. NIKITENKO Major General, Cand. Sc. (History), professor, Department of Public administration and National safety of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

THE AGONY OF THE COLLECTIVE WEST

The article analyzes the crisis of the Western world order system. The contradiction between the vital interests of developing countries, primarily Russia and China, and the critically important interests of the collective West has become extremely acute. The West's reaction to the military operation in Ukraine generated the formation of a complex sanctions trigger, including value-informational, financial, energy, food, logistics and migration aspects. This trigger leads to the launch of crisis phenomena that destroy the pro-Western world order. The foundation of the financial power of the West is collapsing – trust in the dollar and the euro. Having chosen Ukraine as an instrument of struggle against Russia, the ruling elite of the West did not calculate that in the process of this struggle the main "pain points" of the Western world order are revealed and its disintegration begins. The agonizing collective West is using its full potential against Russia, constantly increasing the likelihood of the outbreak of World War III.

Key words: the collective West, interests, sanctions, trigger, crisis, the world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.023

V.V. PYZH Doctor of Political Science, Head of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines named after V.U. Ageevets, "P.F. Lesgaft National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health"; expert of the Commission on Defense and Security Issues Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States, St. Petersburg, Russia

YU.V. STRUTINA Master's student "National State University physical culture, sports and health named after P.F. Lesgaft", St. Petersburg, Russia

POLITICIZATION OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES: HISTORY AND PROSPECTS

The article reveals the content of the concept of international sports movement, which is both an important social factor of social development and a political factor affecting international relations. As the requirements for the practical solution of the social problems of modern society increase, there is an urgent need to study and explain the social phenomena occurring in certain areas of people's life, in certain social communities and social institutions. Political and ideological mobilization and politicization of such social institutions as sports, art, media, religion and others is becoming an integral feature of big politics, and this determines the relevance of this topic. In this series, sport has a special position due to the cumulative ability to influence the minds of billions of people.

Key words: physical culture and sport, international sports movement, Olympism, instrument of political influence, state management of the sphere of physical culture and sports, political conflict in sports.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.024

I.V. SURMA Candidate of Economics Sciences, Head of the Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ph.D. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Moscow, Russia

A.S. KHARLANOV Doctor of Economics, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of World Economy of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Member of the Council of Rectors of Russia, Member of the Council of Rectors of the Northwestern Federal District, doctoral student of the Military Academy of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE MODERN MILITARY-POLITICAL DOCTRINE OF JAPAN AND THE FORMATION OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

The military-political doctrine of Japan underwent serious changes after the end of the Cold War, when the American factor was dominant in its defense policy. Tokyo gradually began to focus more and more on its own interests when making decisions, which did not always correspond to Washington's policy. The authors note that by continuing to rely on the alliance with the United States in ensuring military security, Japan has become more active as an ally, supporting American policy in the region and the world. At the same time, Tokyo sought greater independence within the union, increasing its ability to cope with security threats and protect its interests on its own. Japanese-American allied cooperation developed in parallel with the successful development of Japan's defense capabilities, which together influenced the development of the geopolitical situation in the region. The article shows that the Japanese-American Alliance is one of the key factors in the evolution of the modern security architecture of the Asia-Pacific region. The authors also identify three possible options for implementing the security system of the Asia-Pacific region: from the impossibility of creating an analogue of the European Union or the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in the Asia-Pacific region, to the development of integration and the establishment of a stable situation within individual subregions: in Southeast, Northeast and South Asia, in the South Pacific and the development of dialogue throughout the Asia-Pacific region, moving on to the formation of a multipolar regional security architecture. Considering possible collective security structures, taking into account the peculiarities of the Asia–Pacific region, the authors conclude that the most likely structure from a practical point of view is one in which the security of the region as a whole will rely on a partner network of multilateral organizations and dialogue forums.

Key words: Asia-Pacific region, Japan Self-Defense Forces, Japanese-American allied cooperation, collective security, military-political doctrine of Japan, AUKUS, sectoral and corporate sanctions, USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.025

F.P. FURMAN Doctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the State University of Maritime and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarova, Saint Petersburg, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF RUSSIA'S GEOPOLITICS

In the article, the author analyzes the nature of geopolitical changes in Europe as a result of two significant historical events – the First World War and the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The role of geopolitical miscalculations in the occurrence of these international and state-national crises has been studied. It is noted that the revolutions in a number of countries and the collapse of four empires – the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman – in the first case, and the “quiet revolution” – in the case of the collapse of the Soviet Union, had the greatest impact on the territorial and political transformations. Geopolitical changes in Europe became the basis of a new interwar system of international relations in the first case, and the formation of a new geopolitical impasse in the modern system of international relations in the second case. The article also identifies and identifies the key reasons for the collapse of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact, and identifies the geopolitical processes and consequences of these historical events.

Key words: World War I, geopolitical changes, empire, THE USSR, revolution, Warsaw Pact Organization, new European states.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.026

N.S. KULESHOVA Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor of the Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHZHAN CHEN`I Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE REVIVAL OF THE RICK MECHANISM? (ANALYSIS OF INDIA'S NEUTRAL POSITION IN THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT)

The article analyzes India's position in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, which is especially important in connection with the formation of India as a new center of regional and global influence. The identified problems and trends of India's foreign policy course, the mechanism of the revival of the RIK in the current political moment actualize this issue especially for the Russian side. The obtained result of the study suggests that India maintains the trends of a neutral position. The forecast of the dynamics of the implementation of the RIC mechanism also depends on the diplomatic means of India's strategy and the involvement of other major countries associated with it, primarily on China's position.

Key words: political interaction, international relations, international security, conflict, Quad, Russia, China, India, strategic triangle, polycentricity, geopolitical influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.027

M.F. UTKINA Teacher of the Department of English No. 6, Applicant for the degree of candidate of political sciences Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Deputy Dean for Master's and International Cooperation Faculty of Management and Politics, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

HABITUS, CULTURAL AND SYMBOLIC CAPITAL OF THE BRITISH POLITICAL ELITE AS RESOURCES OF SOCIAL REPRODUCTION

The political elite, regardless of the form of government and political regime, plays a central role in the management processes of the state and determining the political program for the further development of society. The process of political elite reproduction, namely the identification of factors, channels and mechanisms of recruitment, attracts the attention of researchers, as it sheds light on which political forces are responsible for the implementation of domestic and foreign policy of the state. In connection with the above, the study of British political elites is relevant and is of particular interest in terms of the possible potential for future mutually beneficial cooperation. The article is devoted to the study of the specific habitus, cultural and symbolic capital of the British political elite, which serve as resources of its self-reproduction. Using P. Bourdieu's sociological theory of habitus and capital, the author identifies the main components of the cultural and symbolic capital of the British establishment, which explain the dominance of the British political elites as an agent in the field of politics. The author concludes that the cultural and symbolic capital of the British political elite is expressed in the presence of qualifications, educational diplomas, titles, elite sports, normative pronunciation. The obtained results help to understand the specificity of the British political elite. The presented analysis proves the thesis that it is impossible to exist a fully egalitarian society with "potentially equal opportunities" and the inevitability of the emergence of dominant agents – political elites.

Key words: Britain, political elites, cultural capital, symbolic capital, habitus, reproduction of elites.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.028

N.V. KOVALEVSKAIA Associate Professor, Ph.D. in political Sciences Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

I.V. ORLOV Student, St. Petersburg State University School of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE FORMATION OF THE "HYBRID WAR THEORY": CONCEPTUAL AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS

This article deals with the theoretical understanding of the strategy of "hybrid warfare" and its application to international conflicts. "Hybrid warfare" as a relatively young theoretical concept gained conceptualization at the beginning of the 21st century after many years of discussions in American scientific publications on the specific non-military features of the "4th generation war", among which the struggle in the information space was considered to be the leading one. On the practical side, this discussion corresponded to events throughout the 1950s and 2010s, when Western states expanded the use of non-military methods in numerous conflicts and wars on the planet, forming by 2015 the understanding of "hybrid warfare" enshrined in NATO strategic documents.

The relevance of this research work is conditioned by the fact that when characterizing a number of conflicts both in the historical section and in the analysis of modern times, there is a widespread use of the term "hybrid war", which has not been conceptualized scientifically so far and, as a result, causes fierce discussions in the international and political science.

Key words: hybrid warfare, information warfare, aspects of hybrid wars, hybrid threats.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.029

D.V. BORTSOV 2nd Secretary of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russia, Researcher of Candidate Degree in Political Science, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia

ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN THE USSR

The author analyzes the emergence and main stages of the Soviet economic diplomacy evolution applying methods of aggregation, dating and evaluation of available sources in the field of history, political science and economics. The stages of transformation of organizational forms of the economic branch in the Soviet diplomatic service as well as the formation of the national school of personnel training are studied. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of Soviet foreign trade during the mentioned historic period with breakdown to separate time intervals are accumulated and analyzed with reference to key state and international events as well as strategy of country leaders. Also author describes positive and negative factors influencing on direction and growth rate of foreign economic activities and economic diplomacy at that time as well as highlights key specific features of foreign trade area of the USSR throughout its development. The author also identifies the historical features of the USSR political and socio-economic systems which prevented the active promotion of national products to foreign markets. The state economic policy, the approaches of the country's leadership to foreign economic issues and the implementation of economic diplomacy activities are consistently considered with a focus on the perception of its importance. The international situation that took place is studied with focus on its influence on Soviet state economic policy and priorities in relations with key foreign partners. The circumstances of introduction of new or localization of existing tools of economic diplomacy are described with highlighting of their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the process of changing the attitude of diplomats to this issue.

Key words: russian economic diplomacy, Soviet economic diplomacy, economic diplomacy in the USSR, foreign trade in USSR, evolution of economic diplomacy, history of economic diplomacy, Russian diplomatic service, export promotion, diplomatic support of the economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.030

A.Yu. MALININ Postgraduate student of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Federal Research Sociological Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE CRISIS OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLICS IN 2021: THE PARTY DIMENSION

The question of the role of political parties in the system of power is acute both in the scientific and applied environment, because in most countries of the world the activities of political parties affect the lives of the majority of the population. The powers and responsibilities of political parties are highest in parliamentary republics, and not just a small part of researchers agree that this form of government is the most democratic and, accordingly, many countries should strive to transition to the same government. However, the article puts forward the idea that parliamentary republics, with their inherent dominance of the role of political parties, have a number of shortcomings. As a proof of this idea, several examples of political crises in such countries are given, based on the analysis of which it is concluded that the powers of political parties may need to be limited in order to prevent such crises, in which, due to the lack of desire of several parties to agree about forming a government, common people are hurt. However, at the same time, the article clearly states that parties should be one of the key actors in the formation of various institutions of power, since it is parties that represent and protect the interests of society.

Key words: political parties, parliament, parliamentary republic, foreign parties.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.031

MAO SHUO Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A NEW ERA IN CHINA'S DEVELOPMENT AND PROFOUND CHANGES NEVER SEEN IN THE LAST HUNDRED YEARS

"Profound changes not seen in the last hundred years" is an important statement put forward by the Communist Party of China as a reaction to the current state of world development, which determines the course of development of the state, the key tasks associated with this course, and acts as a guiding motive in determining domestic political strategy. It is also an assessment of the path of development of the world and an important strategic judgment in the framework of building a community with a common destiny for mankind. Since its inception, the "profound changes unseen in the past hundred years" has been the subject of concern and discussion within China and abroad, ranging from active support to cautious waiting. Today, with the emergence of new international challenges such as the coronavirus pandemic, the emergence of new international issues such as global governance, and the continued development of digital technologies, discussions about “unprecedented changes” have not only not stopped, but have become more acute, causing an active response from all over the world and becoming an important reference point for observing the situation in the world for an increasing number of people. Practice shows that this assessment of the situation, put forward by the Communist Party of China, is correct and scientifically substantiated, and is of great importance for the development of different countries of the world and all mankind. This important statement about the world situation in the new era, put forward by the CCP following the concept of "peace and development" and necessary for understanding the current world situation, is China's contribution to the process of achieving world peace and global development.

Key words: China, new world order, profound changes unprecedented in a hundred years, new era, socialism with Chinese characteristics, foreign policy, China's foreign policy strategy, geopolitics, special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.032

HAN SHIYING PhD Candidate, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN-CHINESE MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION IN THE XXI CENTURY

This paper aims to do a comparative analysis on the results of a study regarding issues in military-technical cooperation between Russian and Chinese scientists. The two nations have seen active interactions, deepening mutual trust, and a new level of bilateral national defence and safety cooperation.

Nonetheless, disagreements exist on some issues. For example, scientists have different opinions about the decline of military-technical cooperation. But in general, most scientists are optimistic of the deepening future Sino-Russian cooperation, and believe that the issues above have limited impact on the grand scheme of bilateral cooperation. Considering how international situations are shaping, one can assert that cooperation will continue between the two large powers on national defence and safety.

Key words: Russia, China, military-technical cooperation, arms trade, prospects of cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.033

HUO DONG Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University, M.V. Lomonosov, China

POLITICAL ASPECTS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SPHERE OF SECURITY WITHIN THE SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION

This article reveals the peculiarities of political cooperation between Russia and China in the context of SCO development. The author also conducts a comparative analysis of similarities and differences of political guidelines of China and Russia on the issue of security within the SCO. For example, for the Russian side it is the protection of its southern borders, and for the Chinese side it is the maintenance of stability in the internal territories of the country, in connection with which the topic of research is relevant. It was concluded that this partnership can become the basis of a new regional security structure.

Key words: Russia, China, security, region, cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.034

YU LAN PhD student at the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

DISCOURSE POWER AND POLITICAL IDEOLOGY IN THE PROCESS OF PRC MODERNIZATION

Recently, China has been focusing on the study of discursive power in academia. Today, China seeks to actively participate in global governance as a power. According to the leadership of the PRC, to provide not only to explain their experience of modernization, but also to disseminate their own ideas about themselves and their future.

But it is so difficult for many countries to understand each other because of the difference in mentality, they do not allow one and the same way of development of the country to be interpreted in the same way. The ideological conflict of the 20th century is the best example of this.

The PRC is one of the few countries that has managed to carry out colossal modernization transformations on the basis of active information and ideological work to maintain its own national uniqueness and specificity. Therefore, the author analyzes the role of political ideology in the process of China's modernization, as well as the emphasis of Xi Jinping's ideological work in the new era – the construction of discursive power.

Key words: chinese model of modernization, political ideology, discursive power, global governance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.035

I.A. DROZDOV Postgraduate student, St. Petersburg State University, Center of Patriotic Education and Preventive Work of the State Budgetary Educational Institution “Baltic Coast”, teacher-organizer, St. Petersburg, Russia

RAKHMAN KHASHIMI MATIAR Master student, St. Petersburg State University, RNIC for the Leningrad oblast, project manager, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.V. FEDOROV Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Legislative Assembly of the Leningrad oblast, assistant of the deputy of the Legislative Assembly, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.D. SHARAGINA Master student, St. Petersburg State University, Brokeree Solutions, content manager, St. Petersburg, Russia

THE FACTOR OF CHINA ECONOMIC INFLUENCE IN DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY OF KAZAKHSTAN

In this article, the authors attempt to analyze the thesis of Kazakhstan's growing dependence on China and the prospects of the Sino-Kazakh partnership.

China's confrontation with the United States and the growing geopolitical tensions in the world raise the issue of whether China can convert its economic power into a political leadership. Central Asia is a potential area for increasing Chinese political influence. Kazakhstan, as the largest economy in the region, is an object of particular interest to China's foreign economic expansion.

Despite the obvious benefits of this partnership for the Republic of Kazakhstan, its foreign policy is built on the principles of multi-vectorism and balancing between other key actors both in the region and on the world stage as a whole.

This article examines Kazakhstan's foreign policy strategy through Kenneth Waltz's structural realism. Thus, an important theoretical basis for this article is I. Wallerstein's concept of world-system analysis, as well as the works of R. Cogain and R. Gilpin. Kazakhstan's attitudes towards China, Russia, the United States and the European Union were analyzed using cognitive mapping based on public speeches of the influential politicians of Kazakhstan for 2013-2022. The results of the qualitative analysis were supplemented by quantitative measurements of the mentionability of the identified semantic categories. This approach allowed the authors to analyze in detail the consistently constructed image of China in the public speeches of Kazakhstan's leading politicians.

Key words: Kazakhstan, PRC, GDP, economic expansion, oil and gas sector, Central Asia, SCO.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.036

P.O. KAZAKOVA Graduate student Institute of Foreign Languages RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

DEMOCRATIC DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: THEORETICAL APPROACHES

The article presents various theoretical approaches to democratic deficit and the ways the term is used in discussions about European integration. It turns out that the idea is most often studied within institutional and socio-psychological paradigm. The wide variety of interpretations are intended to draw attention to the problem and the need for further research on ways how to overcome it.

Key words: deficit of democracy, democratic deficit, democratic legitimacy, European Union, European integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.80.4.037

A.YU. KOZHIEV Master of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

A.B. INHEEV Master of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

B.V. KLIMOCHKO Master's Degree from National Taiwan Chengchi University, Taipei, China

EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE. THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF METASCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL PROCESSES

The article presents the theoretical foundation of metascientific methodology, which is a logical continuation of political thought in the 21st century.

Using methods from various fields of science it becomes possible to increase the predictability of political phenomena, international political events, as well as to speed up the process of finding common political patterns. Currently, new areas of science are emerging, but the process of their formation and development is slow due to insufficient attention to these scientific areas on the part of the scientific community as a whole. Within the framework of metascientific methodology, it becomes possible to organically and systematically apply the achievements of new sciences to obtain holistic political knowledge.

Key words: methodology, science, international relations, international relations theory, metascientific methodology, convergent sciences.

   
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