№ 7 (71), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 7 (71), 2021

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Podshibyakina T.A. Narrative Politics: Theory and Discursive Practices

Piene A.P. Social and Political Concept of "Future Russia" By I.A. Ilyin

RUSSIAN HISTORY

Slizovskiy D.E., Medvedev N.P., Zhalnin V.A. History of the Russian Education System: Current Problems of a Millennium Development

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Esmaeili S. Control of Information Exchange, Control Over Communication as a Mechanism of Hybrid War

Patcelia Y.S. Modern Technologies for Modernizing the Electoral Process in the Context of the Activities of Election Commissions

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Zaslavsky S.E. Party System of Russia: Points of Political Competition

Nikolenko A.A. Russian Local Civilization Core Elements and Fundamental Principles

Кuzmin А.G. Changes and Features of the Formation of Internal Directions in the Movement of Russian Nationalists in the Beginning of the XXI Century

Primova E.N. On Some Issues of Improving the Federal Structure of Russia

Ermakov V.G. Digitalization Policy as a Factor of Institutionalization of "Third Sector" Organizations in Modern Russia

Evstigneev R.A. Noocracy in the XXI Century – Utopia or a Response to the Crisis of Democracy: Prerequisites and Prospects

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Pryakhin V.F. Afghanistan. Lessons of the Past and Prospects for the Future

Alekhina O.A., Ukolova L.E. Special International Events as a Tool for Creating a Positive Image of Domestic Civil Aviation (Case Study of “Aeroflot – Russian Airlines” Aviation Company)

Shamishev E.D., Toktamysov S.Zh. Integration Processes within the CIS Community in the Pandemic Crisis: EAEU

Lebedeva E.I. Historical Dynamics of the Development of Political Science in the Republic of Austria

Mikhalevich E.A. Analysis of Interstate Conflicts and Political Processes Affecting the State of Information-Psychological Security in North-East Asia

Na Zhao. The Role of Soft Power in the Formation of the PRC as a Global Leader

Hakobyan M.T. The USA Role in the Historical Development Process of Campaign Televised Debates

Nakshabandi Gailan Omar. Modern Ways of Resolving the Conflict in Iraqi Kurdistan and the Effectiveness of their Application

Falaleev M.A., Sitdikova N.A., Nechay E.E. Digitalization as a Factor in the Transformation of State Institutions in China

Sipovich V.G., Carp N.M., Chervyakov N.V., Krivova A.L. National Elites in the Modern Global World

Bylev A.E. Information Exchange Management, Communication Control as a Hybrid War Mechanism

STUDENT SCIENCE

Oshchepkova V.M. Right-Wing Populist Parties in Nordic Region and their Attitude to European Integration

Bratkovskaya D.V., Leonova A.A., Pham Thi Minh Huen. Ways and Mechanisms of Influence of Transnational Corporations as an Actor of International Relations on the Policy of National States

Lapshin S.V. Recruitment as a Method of Replenishment Terrorist Organizations

Our authors № 7-2021

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.001

T.A. PODSHIBYAKINA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Political Science of the Institute of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences of the Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

NARRATIVE POLITICS: THEORY AND DISCURSIVE PRACTICES

The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of knowledge of narrative politics in the framework of narratology and cognitive science; to conceptualize the author's concept of narrative strategies using the methodology of diffusionism; to apply the chosen methodology to the analysis of discursive practices in the ideological sphere to identify political attitudes and features of the reception of narrative and discursive strategies in the group youth consciousness.

The methodological basis of the research is the theory of "Narrative Policy Framework", which is in the process of formation and development of new areas of public policy. As an empirical justification of the conclusions, we used data obtained from the results of a sociological survey of students in the South of Russia in 2018-2020 with a sample of 2,500 people. The program of empirical research was based on the operationalization of the concept of "narrative strategy" and its application to the analysis of political beliefs, individual intentions and frames.

The result was the approbation of the theory of "Narrative Policy Framework" in the direction of expanding the possibilities of its application to the analysis of discursive practices and improving the methods of its empirical evaluation. A certain contribution has been made to the clarification of the concept of "narrative strategies" by applying a diffusion approach to its interpretation. The focus was on the problem of the effectiveness of the influence of narrative strategies on public consciousness, but the focus of the study was shifted to the cognitive aspect of the problem of the reception of narrative strategies in the group youth consciousness. Poll allowed to record the reduction of awareness of the respondents about the concept of "Russian world", which is explained by the decrease in the influence of propaganda promoting this narrative strategy in the communicative space. The analysis showed that the supporters of the narrative strategy of the "Russian World" in communication practices mainly adhere to the discursive strategies "Russia empire" and "Russia – a multinational empire".

The author's proposed diffusion concept of narrative strategies allowed us to study in more detail the dynamic component of the spread of narrative strategies promoted by the political elite through diffusion communication channels and some of the patterns of their reception.

Key words: narrative policy, narrative strategy, discourse, frame, discursive practice.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.002

A.P. PIENE Master's degree student of the faculty of Public Administration and Law of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA) – a branch of the Moscow Regional, Krasnogorsk, Moscow Region, Russia

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONCEPT OF "FUTURE RUSSIA" BY I.A. ILYIN

The article discusses the basic principles of the socio-political concept of "future Russia" by one of the leading conservative thinkers of Russian emigration, the famous philosopher and jurist – I.A. Ilyin. The author analyzes his project of the political and social structure of post-communist Russia – the neoconservative "third way”, combining the principles of the autocracy limited by law and the people's power traditional for Russia, characterizes the philosophical foundations of his ideological and political views, considers the relevance of I.A.'s political theory. Ilyina in today's political conjuncture. The author comes to the conclusion that the political concept of "future Russia" is an "ideological concentrate" of the Russian national idea of statehood, based on a number of principled positions: the need for a legally controlled, "populist" strong "vertical of power", the creation of "social elevators" for the mobilization of citizens representing various professions and estates to power, as well as the prevention of party or tyrannical dictatorship or uncontrolled liberal democracy of the Western type.

Key words: I.A. Ilyin, political science, nationalism, Russia, the state, Putin.

RUSSIAN HISTORY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.003

D.E. SLIZOVSKIY Doctor of Science, Professor, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Science, Professor, President of the Union of Political Scientists Moscow, Russia

V.A. ZHALNIN Head of the Department of the International Protocol of the RUDN Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: CURRENT PROBLEMS OF A MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT

Not a single nation is presented with its education system ready-made as a gift. The education system is born, grows, slowly and gradually acquires its distinct features and properties. In other words, it has its own history. And its history of formation as a historical problem and object-subject area of historical science. In this article, we were interested not so much in the origins of the birth and development of the education system, as in the opportunity to identify and analyze the basic foundations of this system as enduring principles and values that have formed over a thousand years, and on which national education is based. According to the results of the study, the actual meaning of the phenomenon, which is associated in assessments and research interpretations with the topic of education, subject to stable negative reflections, was supplemented and expanded. So, in historical science, as, indeed, in other humanities, there is, in our opinion, an erroneous correlation between Russian civilization, Russian political regimes and literacy degrees, accessibility and quality of education. The less developed a civilization, or interpreted as a more centralized and rigid system, the less likely it is that the population will have access to education. Both history and historiography on the topic of education in Russia have found themselves in the grip of such a negative correlation. It is possible to overcome this harmful and erroneous approach if we take a new approach to the history of the formation of the national education system and determine its qualitative features and properties as a historically transient phenomenon.

Key words: education, education system, history of the Russian education system.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.004

S. ESMAEILI Рostgraduate student in the Department of Comparative Politics, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

CONTROL OF INFORMATION EXCHANGE, CONTROL OVER COMMUNICATION AS A MECHANISM OF HYBRID WAR

This article examines the problems of women's political participation in modern Iran: obstacles and ways to overcome them. The traditional cultural and socio-economic conditions of Iranian society have become the main obstacles to the broad participation of Iranian women in the political sphere of the country. This article evaluates the factors that motivate Iranian women and men to participate in the political life of the country, as well as examines the obstacles that Iranian women face on the way to political power. The peculiarities of the activities of political parties and the impact of the financial situation of candidates on the election campaign, distrust of women in Iranian society (in terms of their public role), the lack of electoral quotas for women are the main factors of their non-participation in the elections as important political figures in Iran. At the same time, the motivation of women to participate in elections as an internal factor, as well as the structure of the Iranian political system as an external factor, play a significant role. From 1978-1979. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, changes began to take place in terms of women's rights. The Government constitutionally defined the equal right of men and women in political life, but other spheres of life were subject to strong religious influence. It was only in the 1990s that the rights of Iranian women to participate in political life began to be seriously studied (in particular, in 1997, when a woman ran for president).

Key words: women, Iran, political life, problems, parliament, party.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.005

Y.S. PATCELIA Assistant of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR MODERNIZING THE ELECTORAL PROCESS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF ELECTION COMMISSIONS

The article examines the process of modernization within the framework of the activities of election commissions. The conceptual context of the concept of "modernization" and the theory of modernization itself are revealed, within the framework of which there are provisions on the criteria, types, methods of modernization (political, social, moral, economic and other types of modernization) are revealed. In the core of the concept, there is a semantic load associated with bringing the current state of affairs in a certain sphere to modern best models. The activities of election commissions can be attributed to the political sphere of society and to political modernization. An operational concept of modernization is being formed as a process of improving existing practices, their automation and informatization in the context of the activities of election commissions. There are several types of technologies used by election commissions in the framework of the electoral process, depending on the functional features: technologies for informing the participants in the electoral process, monitoring the voting process, counting votes, increasing the availability of participation in elections and the safety of voters, as well as optimizing the work of election commissions. A brief description of each type of technology is given. So informing is a one-way communication both with the help of Internet sites and with the help of traditional channels: door-to-door rounds, outdoor advertising, and so on. Technologies for ensuring the safety of voters in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic have the following duality: the use of personal protective equipment, multi-day voting, restrictions on visiting polling stations on the one hand; on the other hand, it is a complex solution aimed at introducing electronic voting as a modernization method. The problems underlying the functions of election commissions are being solved by various types of technologies that are undergoing modernization today, including in line with global trends in informatization and digitalization.

Key words: electoral process, election commissions, modernization, technologies, voting, vote counting, transparency of the electoral process.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.006

S.E. ZASLAVSKY Doctor of Law, Professor at the Department of Political Science, Financial University at the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PARTY SYSTEM OF RUSSIA: POINTS OF POLITICAL COMPETITION

The article analyzes the issues of the place and the role of political competition in the Russian party system, the lines of inter-party political competition in the run-up to the election of the members of the State Duma of the 8th convocation; the article concludes by stating the multi-level nature of political competition.

Key words: elections, electoral system, political competition, party system, political parties.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.007

A.A. NIKOLENKO Graduate Institute of law and administration of the Vladivostok State University of Economics and service Vladivostok State University of Economics and service, Vladivostok, Russia

RUSSIAN LOCAL CIVILIZATION CORE ELEMENTS AND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

In this article, the author makes an attempt to understand the main characteristics of the Russian local civilization and the principles that determine its differences from other similar phenomena. Since the basic characteristics of the core of civilization play the most decisive role in the processes of formation and vital activity of the latter, it is most logical to consider the basic components of the civilizational differences of Russia through the study of the cultural core of state-civilizational education.

Key words: «Russian power», social and political thought of Russia, procedural property political power, the conservative camp, the idea of radicalism, the ideas of liberalism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.008

А.G. КUZMIN Candidate of Sciences (political sciences), Associate Professor at the Chair of social work and psychology of Syktyvkar State University named after Pitirim Sorokin, Syktyvkar, Russia

CHANGES AND FEATURES OF THE FORMATION OF INTERNAL DIRECTIONS IN THE MOVEMENT OF RUSSIAN NATIONALISTS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

The paper examines the current state of the Russian national patriotic movement. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main trends of modern Russian nationalism – supporters of the imperial trend and National Democrats. The objectives of the study include the consideration of the features of the development of these two directions in the changing historical dynamics of recent times. Among the tasks, special attention is paid to the analysis of the causes of external and internal factors of the evolution of modern Russian nationalism and the role of the state's repressive policy in this over the past twenty years. Russian nationalism also explores the essential features and political nuances of the ideology and practice of modern Russian nationalism, as well as the circumstances that influenced a certain increase in the weight of the imperial trend over the ethno-nationalist. Although over the past few years, the Russian imperial direction has somewhat improved its position in the Russian information sphere, but, in the future, this led only to individual cases of allowing representatives of the «imperials» to participate in official Russian politics. Russian ethno – nationalism, mainly due to the specifics of their «pro-Ukrainian» rhetoric, could not meet the dynamics of socio-political changes and the expectations of the majority of the country's population, which is primarily due to the lack of relevant slogans that would interest the Russian majority.

To achieve the objectives set in the study, institutional, historical and comparative methods were used.

The results of the analysis can be considered as conclusions that modern Russian nationalism has not yet used the situation that has developed at a certain historical stage, and the internal stratification and deepening of general crisis processes have continued in the movement itself. In the current situation, Russian nationalism will continue to evolve, and its chance to become one of the players in the Russian official political field does not look very convincing yet. However, it can be assumed that the possible prospects for individual figures or currents of nationalism in this direction still remain, much will depend on the nuances of development and the current conjuncture of Russian domestic and foreign policy.

Key words: Russian nationalism, national democracy, imperial nationalism, ethno-nationalism, radicalism, political ideology.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.009

E.N. PRIMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Lead Researcher, the Research Institute at the Academy of the General Prosecutor's Office of the RF, Moscow, Russia

ON SOME ISSUES OF IMPROVING THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE OF RUSSIA

The article attempts to explore possible ways to overcome the asymmetries and improving state- administration structure of the Russian Federation. The main attention is concentrated on the proposition that one of the main factors impeding the movement of Russia to a full and real federalism is a mixed principle of its construction, which includes the administrative-territorial and national-territorial principles. The author believes that the solution of a number of problems faced by Russia, can be resolved gradually transforming into administrative-territorial federation.

Key words: Russian Federation, an asymmetric federation, mixed principle, national-territorial principle.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.010

V.G. ERMAKOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Public Policy, With the Central Russian Institute of Management-a branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Oryl, Russia

DIGITALIZATION POLICY AS A FACTOR OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF "THIRD SECTOR" ORGANIZATIONS IN MODERN RUSSIA

This article examines the impact of the state policy of digitalization on the development of the "third sector" and the institutionalization of its subjects in modern Russia. The socio-political content of digitalization is revealed, the utilitarian and pragmatic nature of the use of its achievements in the practice of interaction between the state and civil society in the Russian Federation is stated. The author substantiates the probability of the occurrence of destructive consequences of informatization and the development of digital communications for the approval of the domestic model of state-civil dialogue in the political process of the post-Soviet period.

The author conducted an analytical analysis of the development of the institutions of the "third sector" through the prism of informatization and digitalization of Russian politics. The priorities of the introduction of digital technologies in the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations and their associations of the capital region are summarized. Conclusions are formulated that allow determining the priorities of state policy to support the "third sector" in the Russian Federation in the context of improving digital technologies in the public administration system. It is summarized that digital modernization creates new opportunities for establishing feedback between the state authorities and socially oriented non-profit organizations.

Key words: civil society, "third sector", informatization, digitalization, digital technologies, socially oriented non-profit organizations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.011

R.A. EVSTIGNEEV Post-Graduate at School of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

NOOCRACY IN THE XXI CENTURY – UTOPIA OR A RESPONSE TO THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRACY: PREREQUISITES AND PROSPECTS

In the article, the author considers noocracy as a possible alternative model for a democratic form of government. The author analyzes the authoritative mutual criticism of the supporters of democracy and noocracy. A well-reasoned substantiation of the advantages of noocracy is presented.

The research results complement the existing approaches to the definition of noocracy as a potential effective model for the implementation of political power in the 21st century.

Key words: noocracy, epistocracy, crisis of democracy, world politics.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.012

V.F. PRYAKHIN D.Sc. (political science), Professor (International Relations Dept., RSHU), Professor (Diplomacy Dept., MGIMO-University), Moscow, Russia

AFGHANISTAN. LESSONS OF THE PAST AND PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE

The withdrawal of the US and NATO military contingents from Afghanistan and the prospect of a new theocratic state establishment in the region aroused concerns and alert in the area and around. What are the lessons from the failure of the 20-year American presence? What is to be done to strengthen stability in post-Soviet Central Asia? The article present offers author’s view on these urgent issues of regional and global politics.

Key words: Afghanistan, Central Asia, USA, Russia, China, religion, extremism, ideology, regional cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.013

O.A. ALEKHINA Senior lecturer, Department of Advertising and Communication with Public in High-Tech Branches of the Institute of Foreign Languages, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow, Russia

L.E. UKOLOVA Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of the Department Advertising and Public Relations in High-Tech Industries of the Institute Foreign Languages Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow, Russia

SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL EVENTS AS A TOOL FOR CREATING A POSITIVE IMAGE OF DOMESTIC CIVIL AVIATION (CASE STUDY OF “AEROFLOT – RUSSIAN AIRLINES” AVIATION COMPANY)

The study is dedicated to the analysis of the impact of special international events organized or participated by the airline company "Aeroflot – Russian Airlines" (hereinafter – Aeroflot Airlines) on the positive image of the domestic civil aviation.

Aviation industry organizations have a noticeable impact on the image and brand of a country in the global space, any of their actions in the market attract attention of the media and that of the general public. The authors analyze the activities conducted by the airline company in question within the framework of international events in which it participated.

Special international events perform a number of essential functions which are customarily related to economic, social, marketing, educational, didactic, unifying, communicative and informational ones. Aeroflot Airlines organizes and conducts a large number of events, which facilitate the performance of all these functions.

The main events launched by Aeroflot Airlines include political, cultural and sports activities, and other events related to the company’s business activity. The scale of events ranges from sectoral to global. In fact, they are aimed at the development of professional communications and at uniting international community, creating a common information space and building up the company’s reputation.

The number of news opportunities is constantly growing. The company uses the format of combined events, including online ones. That is, it seeks to expand the range of audiences involved in the events, increase the news potential of the events and solve the multi-faceted tasks of integrated marketing communications.

Thus, the company’s popularity is growing; its positive image is being modelled in international information space. As a result, the airline company attracts new passengers and covers an ever increasing market segment.

Due to the global presence of the company in the international market, an image of an innovative, sustainable state is being formed, which is reflected in the ratings and assessments of the country's economy by the leading world agencies.

Key words: aerospace industry, airline company, airline company image, the country’s image, global information space, special international events, international communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.014

E.D. SHAMISHEV Postgraduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Director of the Department of Foreign Policy analysis and forecasting Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan

S.Zh. TOKTAMYSOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History of Russia at Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

INTEGRATION PROCESSES WITHIN THE CIS COMMUNITY IN THE PANDEMIC CRISIS: EAEU

The article discusses theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of integration processes in the post-Soviet space. The authors analyze the integration dynamics, investigate the main challenges and threats in the context of the functioning of the Eurasian Economic Union. The study points out that the integration policy is being channeled into the category of strategic objectives of national development and acts as an indicator of growth in the national economies of the EAEU member states.

Key words: CIS, post-Soviet space, EAEP, Central Asia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, integration model, pandemic crisis, common market, Eurasian space.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.015

E.I. LEBEDEVA Postgraduate student of the Department of Sociology and Psychology Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

HISTORICAL DYNAMICS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA

The article examines the dynamics of the development of Austrian political science, which has passed a short and difficult path before becoming an independent scientific socio-humanitarian knowledge. The events of the second half of the twentieth century had the greatest impact on the development of Austrian research, when the institutional foundation was laid, the theoretical and methodological basis for scientific research was created, promising developments were carried out in various fields of humanitarian knowledge. In Austria, there is a tendency to differentiate the political knowledge itself, which contributes to the expansion of research opportunities. The conclusion is made about the opening of wide opportunities for political science in the Republic of Austria at the present time.

Key words: political science, Austria, political studies, scientific search, political knowledge, political climate, Political Science Association.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.016

E.A. MIKHALEVICH PhD student of Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

ANALYSIS OF INTERSTATE CONFLICTS AND POLITICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE STATE OF INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL SECURITY IN NORTH-EAST ASIA

Dynamic development of information and communication technologies carries risks and threats to information-psychological security of a single state, as well as an entire region and even the world community. The countries of Northeast Asia are currently involved in a number of interstate economic and territorial conflicts; at the same time, countries occupy a leading position in the development of ICT and new technologies based on Artificial Intelligence, therefore, countries can potentially use it to destabilize the information-psychological security of a rival state. This article analyzes the main political processes and interstate conflicts from the point of view of its impact on the information-psychological security of the countries of the region. The study is based on a combination of predictive analysis with the case study method, which allows to demonstrate the political processes in the region that affect the information-psychological security, using specific examples. The study showed that unresolved territorial disputes, the nuclear potential of North Korea, the Sino-American confrontation have a negative impact on the information-psychological security of the region: states perceive each other as a real threat, which pushes them to build up information and technological potential that can transfer development of conflicts in the information space.

Key words: Northeast Asia, China, Japan, Korea, information-psychological security, information technology, interstate relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.017

NA ZHAO Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science of the East, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF SOFT POWER IN THE FORMATION OF THE PRC AS A GLOBAL LEADER

2020 has become one of the most significant periods for China in strengthening its position in the international arena. Resolute and effective suppression of the coronavirus pandemic within the country, humanitarian and economic assistance to foreign countries in the fight against COVID-19, scientific and mobilization contributions to the global health system, plans to build the «Silk Road of Health» – all these elements of the “soft power” policy played their part. role in improving the image of the PRC. In this article, we will analyze the new instruments of «soft power» of Chinese diplomacy in the context of China's foreign policy ambitions.

Key words: China, «soft power», diplomacy, coronavirus, pandemic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.018

M.T. HAKOBYAN Candidate of the Department of Print and Broadcast Media of the Faculty of Journalism of Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

THE USA ROLE IN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF CAMPAIGN TELEVISED DEBATES

This article examines the process of formation of pre-election TV debates as a form of political communication. Since the United States is considered the birthplace of pre-election TV debates, the formation and development of this tradition of political communication in this state is of particular interest.

Today, televised debates are an inevitable stage of the election race in many democratic states. In a sense, TV debates reflect the degree of political, civil, democratic, and informational maturity of modern society and are the subject of research for a number of scientific disciplines.

Subject/topic. This article discusses the evolution of televised electoral debates as a form of political communication. Since the US is considered to be the birthplace of televised debates, it is especially interesting to analyze the formation and development of this political communication tradition in the above mentioned country.

Today, televised debates are an inevitable stage of the electoral race in many democratic countries. In a sense, the televised debates reflect the degree of political, civil, democratic and information maturity of modern society and are subject to research by a number of scientific disciplines.

Goals/tasks. To justify the importance of televised debates as a kind of political discussion in the process of conducting election campaigns.

Methodology. The study used methods of comparative analysis, synthesis, specification, formal logical and other methods of scientific research.

Conclusion. The study of characteristics of televised debates as an integral part of an election campaign made it possible to conclude that the analyzed type of public competition of political leaders is difficult to consider exclusively as a political event, at the same time it is also impossible to interpret it only as a media phenomenon. However, the multi-dimensional and versatile character of televised debates is not limited to the above-mentioned factors. Pre-election debates contain other important elements of democratic, civil and social significance, which are imbued with political meaning and which are worthy of separate attention.

Key words: televised presidential election debates, signs of pre-election debates, broadcasting, political communication.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.018

NAKSHABANDI GAILAN OMAR Postgraduate student of the Department of Social and Political Sciences, Department of Political Science, Institute of Social and Philosophical Sciences and Mass Communications, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

MODERN WAYS OF RESOLVING THE CONFLICT IN IRAQI KURDISTAN AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR APPLICATION

Currently, Iraqi Kurdistan occupies a key geopolitical and geostrategic position in the Middle East region, and the struggle of the Kurds for an independent state makes the Kurdish issue an urgent global problem. After many years of struggle and suffering, the Kurds in Iraq have achieved for their region the status of a federal subject with the broadest rights in the new Iraqi state. Considering the ways to resolve the conflict in Iraqi Kurdistan, the author comes to the conclusion that the region is facing an uncertain future and for its further development it is necessary to create a strong and stable economic system based on internal resources.

Key words: Iraqi Kurdistan, Kurds, conflict, potential, parties, economy, oil, gas.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.019

M.A. FALALEEV Student of a bachelor's degree of the department of Political Science, Vladivostok, Russia

N.A. SITDIKOVA Student of a bachelor's degree of the department of Political Science, Vladivostok, Russia

E.E. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Assistant Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

DIGITALIZATION AS A FACTOR IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF STATE INSTITUTIONS IN CHINA

The last three decades have been marked by the penetration of digital technologies into literally all spheres of public life. During this period, China has undergone significant transformations of state institutions. Today, the PRC is a leading country in the development and implementation of new digital environments in the country's governance processes, therefore, studying how they influenced China is especially relevant. The aim of the study is to describe how the digitalization factor affects state institutions in the PRC. We systematize theoretical data on traditional institutions in China and characterize trends in their transformation under the influence of the digital technology factor. The main methods of work are the aggregation of theoretical material, thematic generalization, and historiographic analysis. The results of the study indicate that the transformation of China's state institutions in the context of the impact of the digitalization factor is accompanied by an increase in their basic characteristics and, accordingly, the resulting threats to destabilize the political system of the Celestial Empire. This article has a high applied and theoretical significance, since it can be used in the preparation of analytical materials, as well as scientific research on the realities and prospects of modernizing the political system of the PRC.

Key words: China, digitalization, institutional transformations, state institutions, e-government, social control, digital sovereignty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.020

V.G. SIPOVICH Humanities student Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

N.M. CARP Humanities student Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

N.V. CHERVYAKOV Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Humanities Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

A.L. KRIVOVA Faculty of Humanities Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

NATIONAL ELITES IN THE MODERN GLOBAL WORLD

The article analyzes global trends aimed at reducing the sovereignty of states. A comparative analysis of existing projects aimed at the formation and education of future political leaders capable of fulfilling these tasks is carried out. The problems that elites face when trying to create effective mechanisms for educating elites are analyzed. The difficulties encountered by the Russian Federation in trying to eliminate projects aimed at strengthening state sovereignty are noted. The purpose of the article is to study the transformation of the place and role of national elites in the context of globalization. The article shows the confrontation between two vectors of policy development - global and national-oriented. Based on the analysis, it is proved that the acute phase of the confrontation of both trends is inevitable. The development of strategies to mitigate this confrontation is possible provided that a holistic analysis of the sources of the conflict and the identification of ways to level it out.

Key words: global politics, political trends, national elites, globalization, national sovereignty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.022

A.E. BYLEV Master’s degree student of the South Russian Institute of Management – Branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Construction (RANE&SC), Rostov-on-Don, Russia

INFORMATION EXCHANGE MANAGEMENT, COMMUNICATION CONTROL AS A HYBRID WAR MECHANISM

Evolutionary and civilizational changes have naturally led to changes in the understanding of human nature and the development of communication and military technologies. This has logically resulted in the changes in the main techniques and methods of the conduct of hostilities. The struggle for access to resources is mainly fought through control over communication channels and through the destruction of the cultural component of the enemy.

Key words: system, worldview, information war, information, culture, tradition, state.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.023

V.M. OSHCHEPKOVA Master's Student of the Department of European Studies, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

RIGHT-WING POPULIST PARTIES IN NORDIC REGION AND THEIR ATTITUDE TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the formation and development of the “Danish People's Party”, “Swedish Democrats”, “True Finns”, and “Progress Party”. The main factors that have a positive impact on the level of electoral support of parties at the present stage of their development are highlighted. Through the prism of the crisis occurring at the moment in the European region, the author defines similar programmatic provisions of the populist parties of the countries in question on European integration. The study reveals a interdependence of the electoral successes of the populist parties in question with regional and pan-European crisis phenomena, in particular, currently occurring in the territory of the European Union member states. According to the results of the study, it is concluded that the influence of populist parties on the political life of European society is temporary, despite the fact that today they remain important political forces in the four northern European countries examined.

Key words: populism, EU, Northern Europe.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.024

D.V. BRATKOVSKAYA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. LEONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PHAM THI MINH HUEN Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

WAYS AND MECHANISMS OF INFLUENCE OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AS AN ACTOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ON THE POLICY OF NATIONAL STATES

In the sphere of world politics, TNCs act as direct competitors to traditional diplomacy: "showing great adaptability, they become more effective and often even have better means for resolving critical situations in comparison with states whose international activities are associated with many status restrictions" [10]. The article discusses the main ways of influence of TNCs on decision-making in states: economic influence; informational influence; political; "Through communications"; through PMCs and military-industrial complex.

Key words: transnational corporations, methods of influence, nation states, information methods.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.71.7.025

S.V. LAPSHIN Master's student of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia

RECRUITMENT AS A METHOD OF REPLENISHMENT TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS

Recruitment to terrorists, how, whom and why? These questions are facing every sane person. Today, this problem is widely broadcast with the help of all mass media and will never become uninteresting. Due to the global changes in the world taking place both in political and socio-economic directions, terrorism is evolving and adapting to new conditions. The development of new technical capabilities is used by terrorists to carry out recruitment. The author of the article considers the involvement in international terrorist activities of a certain circle of civilians who are a threat to collective security in modern conditions. We know that, in general, the spread of terrorism is an urgent problem both on a global and regional scale. In the modern conditions of globalization, the Russian Federation is subject to the same challenges and threats of terrorist activity as around the world. An important component for the organization and commission of terrorist attacks is the involvement of as many accomplices as possible, especially young people. Using various economic, ideological, socio-psychological and confessional components, recruiters carry out their activities through open propaganda, leaflets, SMS and the Internet. This article is recommended not only for people interested in stories, but also for a wide range of readers who are not indifferent to this topic. This article is not only of research value, but also a civic position.

Key words: recruitment, national security, involvement in terrorist activities, extremism, global threats.

   
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