№ 5 (69), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 5 (69), 2021.

CONTENTS

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

Nisnevich Yu.A., Orlov I.B. An Attempt at a Democratic Breakthrough: the Ups and Downs of the State Duma of the First Convocation (1993-1995) (To the 30th Anniversary of the Russian Federation). Part I

Koroleva-Konoplyanaya G.I. The Theory of the State in the Works of John Locke

Ulugov A.Kh. The Relationship Between the Political Worldview and the Culture of Tolerance in the Stabilization of Ethno-Political Relations

Ananyev N.A. The Main Ideas of Social and Political Conception of V.A. Gringmut

Zhongbao Li . Utopic and Community Socialism: A Comparative Analysis

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Burda М.А., Grishin О.Е., Popov S.I., Ivanova М.М. Technology "Smart Voting" as a Form of Legitiment Protest in the Context of Political Stability (On the Example of the Elections to the Moscow City Duma)

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Manoilo A.V., Telichko V.I., Popadyuk A.E. Features of the Organization of Countering Fake News

Kulakova N.N., Anichkina V.V. Factors in the Formation of the Political Culture of Young People

Ravochkin N.N. Political and Legal Institutional Dynamics of New and Modern Time (Part 2)

Hayat M.I. To the Issue of Stateness: About Key Functions of the State

Konko S.G. Lobbyism in Regional Parliaments of Russia: The Example of Novosibirsk Region

Ushakov I.N. The Internet as a Space of Political Communications

Trapeznikov V.O. Practices of Environmental Lobbying in Modern Russia

Neshkov S.V. The Image of the Future as a Means of Destabilizing the Internal Political Situation in Russia

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

Martynova M.Y., Zholmanov A.S., Grishin V.O. Public Administration and Political Decisions in the Formation of Anti-Corruption Policy of the State: Experience of the French Republic

Kislyakov Е.А. Political Agenda Management Models: Theory and Practice

Guazaa L.V. Substantiation of the Current Relevance of Scientific Research Works in the Policy of Ensuring National Security of the Russian Federation

HISTORY AND THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

Lebedeva M.L. Model for the Community Organization of the Regions of France: Analogy of Politics

Voronina N.A. Models of Ensuring Labour Migrants’ Rights in the Post-Soviet Area: Central Asian Region

Vasetsova E.S., Luo Lingyan. The Global Leadership Of the People's Republic of China and the Concept of Multilateralism

Parenkov D.F., Belyakova А.О. The Main Lobbying Issues of Religious Organizations in the USA

Yuhan. Soft Power in China's Policy in the Asia-Pacific Region

Turaev K.S. Internet Communication and its Role in Shaping Public Opinion in the Context of Globalization

Bozhkov G.A. Stages of the Transformation of the World Order

Buzanov N.A. Conversion of the Defense Industry Complex in the Russian Federation and in the PRC in the Nineties. Results, Differences, Similarities

Ivanov P.V. Several Prerequisites of Sara's Secessionism in Chad Republic

Mohammadi Mohammad Hossein, Eivazi Hossein. The Role of Chabahar Port in the Development of Iran-Pakistan Trade Relations

Rovchak P.Yu. Foreign Experience of Developing Relations with African Countries

Tcoi S.V. Factors of the Split and Rapprochement of the States of the Korean Peninsula at the Present Stage

Кomarov N.А. The Problem of Relations Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova at the Present Stage (2009-2020)

Rozenberg V.I. The Syrian Crisis: Negotiating Technologies in Armed Conflict

SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS

Zhigulskaya D.V. Online International Scientific and Practical Workshop for Young Scholars: “The Ethnoreligious Factor in Contemporary Political Processes in the Orient”

STUDENT SCIENCE

Wang Ping. New Media in the Practice of Media Diplomacy of Russia and China

Ngundi Nsuru Santiago Mbueli. Return of Russia to Africa

REFLECTIONS ON WHAT YOU READ

Medvedev N.P., Shulenina N.V. The Infinity of Nature and Knowledge Political Leadership

Our authors № 5-2021

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.001

YU.A. NISNEVICH Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Department of Politics and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

I.B. ORLOV Doctor of History, Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Politics and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, HSE, Moscow, Russia

AN ATTEMPT AT A DEMOCRATIC BREAKTHROUGH: THE UPS AND DOWNS OF THE STATE DUMA OF THE FIRST CONVOCATION (1993-1995) (TO THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION) PART I

The first part of the article, devoted to the history of the Fifth State Duma of the Russian Federation, examines the main problems of historiography of the early stage of modern Russian parliamentary and shows the reasons and main directions of discussions on the activities of the State Duma of the first convocation. The authors, giving a brief overview of the existing literature (including memoirs), determine not only the reference points of the discussion (first of all, between the supporters of the institutional and strategic approaches), but also record the level of agreement reached in the study of this phenomenon and the presence of research gaps.

The authors of the article not only reconstruct the course of the election campaign in the fall of 1993 and the balance of power, but also analyze the existing explanatory models of the relative failure (at least, this is how the election results were evaluated by the presidential team and supporters of the reformist path of development of the new Russia) of the democratic forces. Defining the political context of the 1993 parliamentary elections as a confrontation between reformist-democratic and anti-reformist, traditionalist electoral associations, the authors believe that the balance of power to a certain extent reflected the ideological and political preferences prevalent in the politically unstructured Russian society at that time. At the same time, it is doubtful whether the "Choice of Russia" can be attributed to the prototype of the "party of power". Rather, this prototype corresponded to the PRES created by S. Shakhrai with the support of federal and regional officials in order to support the current government. It is possible to argue about how realistic it was to have a solid reformist majority in the State Duma, but it is obvious that a significant role in the election results and in the further development of the political process was played by the distancing of Boris Yeltsin and the majority of his team from all participants in the electoral process, including the "Choice of Russia", who supported the current government.

Key words: parliamentary, elections, Constitution of 1993, political parties, electoral blocs.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.002

G.I. KOROLEVA-KONOPLYANAYA Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanities and Natural Sciences Moscow Institute of Economics, Moscow, Russia

THE THEORY OF THE STATE IN THE WORKS OF JOHN LOCKE

The article examines the view of the English philosopher John Locke on the state. A number of basic provisions of the theory of social contract are revealed. The revolutionary ideas of the theoretician are indicated, which laid the foundation for the liberalization and democratization of society, gave a powerful impetus to the development of states.

Key words: John Locke, liberalism, theory of the state, freedom, civil society, social contract.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.003

A.KH. ULUGOV Еmployee of the Republican Center for Spirituality and Enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POLITICAL WORLDVIEW AND THE CULTURE OF TOLERANCE IN THE STABILIZATION OF ETHNO-POLITICAL RELATIONS

The article is devoted to the modern factors of the influence of local and global trends on the optimization of interethnic relations in the era of globalization problem and solutions.

Key words: political worldview, culture, threat, spirituality, peoples.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.004

N.A. ANANYEV Graduate students Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN IDEAS OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONCEPTION OF V.A. GRINGMUT

The article discusses the basic principles of the political concept of conservative philosopher V.A. Gringmut. The author describes the key aspects of his political beliefs: the justification of the autocratic monarchial form of government, its inextricable connection with the Orthodox faith, the need to preserve the foundations of the existing socio-political order. The article uses the principles of historicism, classification, induction and deduction. The author concludes that the social and political conception of V.A. Gringmut is a «concentrated» expression of Russian conservatism as applied to the Russian realities of the early 20th century.

Key words: V.A. Gringmut, monarchy, nationalism, Orthodoxy, Russian conservatism, Black hundreds.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.005

ZHONGBAO LI Postgraduate student, Institute of Foreign Languages, Lanzhou University, Gansu, Lanzhou, China

UTOPIC AND COMMUNITY SOCIALISM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

The study provides a comparative analysis of utopian and communal socialism. The author concludes that utopian socialism, in contrast to communal socialism, is a rather heterogeneous concept that allows many options for building a new society, many of which substantially contradict each other. Communal socialism is closest to the later versions of the utopian. However, in contrast to the teachings of A. Saint-Simon, C. Fourier and R. Owen, the Russian populists were generally skeptical about the idea of a “revolution from above” and did not regard industrialists as initiators of the corresponding reforms.

Key words: utopian socialism, communal socialism, populists, comparative analysis, social reformism.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.006

М.А. BURDA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Chair of political science and political management, Institute of Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

О.Е. GRISHIN Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Chair of political analysis and management, RUDN University of Russia; Associate Professor, Faculty of Humanities, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

S.I. POPOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Chair of political analysis and management, RUDN University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

М.М. IVANOVA Master's degree student at the Chair of political science and political management, Institute of Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

TECHNOLOGY "SMART VOTING" AS A FORM OF LEGITIMENT PROTEST IN THE CONTEXT OF POLITICAL STABILITY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTIONS TO THE MOSCOW CITY DUMA)

In the article the technology of the so-called "smart voting" is implemented by the Russian opposition is considered, which is one of the forms of protest electoral behavior, a form of legitimate political protest. The existing definitions of electoral legislation allow the authorities to use administrative resources in some cases in order to limit a political competition, by means of removing "objectionable candidates" from the elections. Sufficiently high anti-rating of the ruling party enables to consolidate the existing protest potential against the candidates nominated by it, which gives the opportunity to the opposition political forces to achieve local electoral success in certain regions. In this regard, the authors focus on the elections to the Moscow City Duma in the fall of 2019, where the use of smart voting technology enabled the opposition significantly increase its political representation.

Key words: political technologies, smart voting, political protest, political stability, opposition, elections, digitalization.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.007

A.V. MANOILO Doctor of Political Science, Professor of the Department of Russian Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov Moscow, Russia

V.I. TELICHKO Candidate of Technical Sciences, Major General, Deputy Chairman of the Central Board of the Russian Union of Afghan Veterans, member of the contact group in the Trilateral Minsk Negotiation Process on Donbass, Moscow, Russia

A.E. POPADYUK Applicant for the Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF COUNTERING FAKE NEWS

This article is devoted to the methodology of countering fake news (by launching a "counter information wave") and the technology for training specialists in this field, which have successfully passed tests at the site of the federal youth forum "Digoria" in October 2020. The method of countering fakes includes six actions that are performed sequentially: detecting and recognizing a fake, operational commentary (performing the function of primary intercepting an information agenda from a fake), exposing a fake (opening its anatomy), creating and throwing a viral anti-fake (capable of intercepting a fake agenda and closing her on himself), the launch of a "counter information wave" capable of knocking the fake off the trajectory it has chosen, with the simultaneous injection of memes and other viral content supporting the "wave", and operational sociology. Each action must correspond to its own narrow-profile specialist (leader, communicator, analyst, technologist, newsmaker), who has worked it out to automatism; Together, these specialists form a task force capable of shooting down fakes "on takeoff." The approbation of this technique on the site of the Digoria forum showed that the task force, which possesses this technique and has gone through an 8-day training cycle, spends an average of 7-10 minutes on reflection of a fake in the “unexpected introductory” mode.

Key words: politics, fakes, stuffing, information operations, counter wave, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.008

N.N. KULAKOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Department of Political Science Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

V.V. ANICHKINA Student of the Finance Faculty, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FACTORS IN THE FORMATION OF THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF YOUNG PEOPLE

Recently, the issue of youth has begun to occupy a rightfully worthy place in discussions about the prospects for the development of Russian society. The wave of "Twitter" revolutions that swept through neighboring countries, the growing political activity of Russian schoolchildren and students, clearly demonstrates that the problems that exist in this social group are primarily a reflection of the processes taking place in Russian society.

Student youth is an intellectual and strategic resource of society, the application of its forces largely depends on the social specifics of the state. Modern reality sets young people tasks that require active participation in the socio-political life of society, interaction with various state institutions. The digital environment has created fundamentally new conditions for the social identification, self-expression and lifestyle of young people, which have a dual effect. Given the high intensity of information and communication flows in the online environment, it is necessary to take into account their impact on the development and formation of the personality of young people. Every year there is more and more evidence that information and communication technologies not only complement and expand the life of a modern person, but also affect the entire structure of his activities both offline and online, determine his life attitudes. That is why the state should not withdraw itself from the formation of political literacy and ideological positions of young people. The process of recruitment, socialization and adaptation of new actors is based on the continuity of basic political values and is provided by the synthesis of culture and new digital trends in public life.

Key words: political culture, ideology, political socialization of youth, politics, digitalization, state, citizens.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.009

N.N. RAVOCHKIN PhD in Philosophy Associate Professor of the Department of Humanitarian and Legal Disciplines Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy, Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia

POLITICAL AND LEGAL INSTITUTIONAL DYNAMICS OF NEW AND MODERN TIME (PART 2)

Political and legal institutions are the leading drivers on which states assign responsibility for social success and evolutionary trajectories of their development. The current situation in the world can easily be linked to uncertainty, nonlinearity and unpredictability. In this vein, it is natural to turn to the ideological foundations that have been founding contemporary political and legal institutions. The second part of the article completes the comparison of the political and legal institutional dynamics of the New and Modern times through the “liberalism-socialism” pair. The author focuses on the analytics of the second period, where, based on the example of Europe and the United States, the lack of modern ideas that offer predominantly linear development scenarios is noted. The nonlinearity of modernity influencing institutional orders is considered separately. In conclusion, the results of the study are summarized.

Key words: political and legal institutions, institutional dynamics, Modern times, ideas, power, society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.010

M.I. HAYAT Рostgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

TO THE ISSUE OF STATENESS: ABOUT KEY FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE

This article is devoted to the analysis of the different approaches to conceptualize the stateness in political science. The key attention in the article is focused on the identification dimension of stateness, substantiates the thesis about the dependence of this aspect of stateness on how successfully the state implements its cultural function. The author believes that the analysis of the cultural function of the state as one of the basic components of stateness will make it possible to develop and improve the analyzed concept in methodological terms and will serve as a criterion for comparative research.

Key words: state, stateness, subsystem of culture, state functions, identity.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.011

S.G. KONKO Graduate student Siberian Institute of Management a branch of The Russian Presidential Academy of national economy and public administration, Novosibirsk, Russia

LOBBYISM IN REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS OF RUSSIA: THE EXAMPLE OF NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

Regional parliaments in modern Russia serve as the site of representation of various interest groups; yet, the direct integration of the pressure groups into the committees of legislative and representative bodies is what happens in practice. Commercial companies tend to form the deputy corps directly from their representatives, including head managers. Often, such political practices are at odds with the interests of broad social groups. This study aims to analyze the activities of “internal lobbyists” in regional parliaments. To this end, approaches to defining the subjects of lobbyism are being explored and the possibility of integrating lobbyists into the bodies of power is being considered. The structure of the Novosibirsk region parliament is being analyzed in terms of representation of regional elites as well as compliance with interest profiles and committee profiles.

With the help of the systematic approach, the main aspects of the representation of elites in regional parliaments were analyzed, using the Novosibirsk region as an example. As a result, there was revealed a significant influence of elites of agro-industrial and building complexes on the structure of the Legislative assembly of the Novosibirsk region.

The application of political-legal analysis has allowed defining possibilities of violating anti-corruption laws when heads of organizations take up positions in the subject committees of regional parliaments. The research revealed a contradiction in a subjective-objective nature of lobbying activity while the heads of the company’s exercise deputy powers in specialized committees and commissions, leading to a conflict of interests. To change the situation, the article suggests that the possibility of taking op the posts of committees’ chairmen and vice-chairmen on an exempt basis along with legislating on the use of the rotation principle when forming the structure of the regional parliaments.

Key words: lobbyism, pressure groups, interest groups, conflict of interest, corruption, regional elites, subjects of lobbyism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.012

I.N. USHAKOV Postgraduate student Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

THE INTERNET AS A SPACE OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATIONS

The article analyzes the Internet as a source of political communication space. Within the framework of the presented article, the question of existing approaches to the communicative space is investigated. The directions of the implementation of the communicative space through the use of the Internet are considered. Research methods: analytical method, survey method, induction.

Key words: Internet, space, political communications, politics, communication policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.013

V.O. TRAPEZNIKOV Postgraduate, Department of History and Theory of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PRACTICES OF ENVIRONMENTAL LOBBYING IN MODERN RUSSIA

Aim. The purpose of this work is to identify mechanisms and identify the main groups involved in the process of environmental lobbying in the Russian Federation.

Methodology. The article examines examples of environmental lobbying in Russia. During the research, the methods of historical retrospective analysis, classification, differentiation and comparison were applied.

Results. In the course of the work, the main groups of environmental lobbying in modern Russia and the mechanisms by which they realize their interests were identified.

Research implications. The research results contribute to the theory of interest groups.

Key words: lobbyism, ecology, political system of Russia, interest groups, government institutions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.014

S.V. NESHKOV Рost-graduate student of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE IMAGE OF THE FUTURE AS A MEANS OF DESTABILIZING THE INTERNAL POLITICAL SITUATION IN RUSSIA

Within the framework of this study, the issue of the use of the image of the future by the unconventional opposition as a means of destabilizing the internal political situation in Russia is revealed. The author comes to the conclusion that the opponents of the current government use this resource quite effectively. However, their successes are more likely due to the dysfunctional state policy in terms of shaping the image of the future, as well as the implementation of long-term planning tasks. The image of the future promoted by the state is devoid of a symbolic basis and endowed with a specific meaning (with the exception of the level of microsocial values). At the same time, the level of trust in him is leveled by periodic failures in the implementation of the socio-economic programs declared by the authorities. Against this background, the images promoted by the opposition, emotionally adapted to the specifics of the political perception of Russians, acquire high competitiveness.

Key words: image of the future, destabilization, internal political situation, Russia, opposition.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.015

M.Y. MARTYNOVA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Faculty of Humanities Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

A.S. ZHOLMANOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Management Institute of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

V.O. GRISHIN Student of the Faculty of History, Political Science and Law, Moscow State Regional University, Moscow, Russia

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND POLITICAL DECISIONS IN THE FORMATION OF ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY OF THE STATE: EXPERIENCE OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC

In the study, the authors examine approaches in the field of public administration and political decision-making in the context of the development of public policy, including in the field of combating corruption. The implementation of such a political goal as the fight against corruption is associated with the construction of an effective anti-corruption system, which has its own distinctive features for each state. At the same time, the authors systematize the basic components of the anti-corruption system associated with the activities of specialized authorities, their interaction with institutions of public control and, on the basis of a built model, consider the experience of the French Republic, whose anti-corruption system has rather high indicators in international ratings.

Key words: anti-corruption policy, public administration, political decisions, anti-corruption authorities, French Republic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.016

Е.А. KISLYAKOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Law, Moscow State Regional University; Advisor to the Chairman of the Commission on state building and local government of the Moscow City Duma Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL AGENDA MANAGEMENT MODELS: THEORY AND PRACTICE

In this article, the author analyzes the existing approaches to managing the political agenda. It concluded that there are four types of models: classical, political-actor, three-pole model of agenda competition, cascade network model. The most promising and modern model, the author singles out the model of the cascade network of R. Entman, which more fully explains modern technological approaches to managing the political agenda using framing. In one form or another, all the models are united by the presence of three key elements of agenda management: government / power structures, media, society. Classical models assign the main function to the media, political-actor models to political actors, first of all implementing official discourse, the three-pole model to a public agenda that arises at the junction of other agendas, the cascade activation model to framing, with the help of which the government control’s public opinion.

Key words: political agenda, types of agendas, framing, political-actor, mass media.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.017

L.V. GUAZAA Рost-graduate student of the Department of State and municipal service of Russian Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CURRENT RELEVANCE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WORKS IN THE POLICY OF ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Тhe national security of the Russian Federation as the most important function of the Russian state; analyzes the factors of dangers, threats and challenges that have arisen for Russia in the XXI century; examines the scientific problems caused by the existing dangers, threats, challenges for Russia; justifies the relevance of complex scientific research of aspects of the national security policy as one of the priority areas in ensuring the national security of Russia; actualizes specific areas of research.

Key words: danger, threat, challenge, vital interests of the individual, society, state, national values, interests, goals, national security, conceptualization, theory, ideology, state policy, Russian Federation.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.018

M.L. LEBEDEVA PhD in politics, associate professor, Associate Professor of the Department of History, Russian State Agrarian University – MSHA K.A. Timiryazev, Moscow, Russia

A MODEL FOR THE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIONS OF FRANCE: ANALOGY OF POLITICS

The article examines the correlation of possible models of building regional relations with the power of the center (on the example of the French Republic) within the framework of the analogy of politics carried out by the author. The purpose of this article is, on the basis of the defining characteristics of the model of organization of the French regional political space, to correlate it (the model) with the concept of «analogy of politics». The article reveals the interpretation of the named term, based on the theoretical understanding of its content by the author. The topic of the research is the French policy of relations between the central authorities and the authorities of the regions. The object of the research is the peculiarities of the relations «center» – «regions».

In the process of work, the author used the following methods of modern science: content analysis of modern information sources of theoretical and practical nature; a systemic method that allows to reveal the research topic in the aggregate of its constituent elements; a historical method, which is necessary for the author from the point of view of studying the issue of development and transformation of power methods of relations between the central government and the regions of France, highlighting the peculiarities of interaction of the level «center» – «regions», and the author also uses a comparative (comparative) method that allows to correlate the specifics and levels application of methods and forms of political decision-making on the example of a single model, to draw a kind of parallel in the subject field of the analogy of politics.

Attention to the issue of organizing a community of subnational units of the territory of the French Republic is undoubtedly of topical importance in face of the challenges of transforming the political reality of the process of relations between territorial units of any state, the changes that modern politics is experiencing within the framework of a certain time interest in relations between regions and the central government.

The construction of a certain model for the development of the regional political process will allow drawing a parallel with other political systems, and, accordingly, adopting the most effective technologies for organizing power.

Key words: region, model, analogy of politics, unitarianism, federalism, power, transformation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.019

N.A. VORONINA Candidate of Sciences (law), Senior researcher at the Sector of Human Rights, Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

MODELS OF ENSURING LABOUR MIGRANTS’ RIGHTS IN THE POST-SOVIET AREA: CENTRAL ASIAN REGION

The article is devoted to the analysis of models of ensuring rights of labour migrants’ and compatriots abroad (ethnic diasporas) by the Central Asian states. The modern definition of the term “diaspora” is given. The article addresses issues of protection of their rights in the fundamental international human rights documents, acts of bilateral cooperation, acts of regional integration unions (CIS, EEC) and national legislation. It describes features of the main approaches to the policy of protection of compatriots’ rights in the region. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop a mechanism of interstate interaction under conditions of epidemiological cataclysms.

Key words: labour migrants, Central Asian states, intergovernmental agreements, compatriots abroad, diasporas, national and cultural centers, policy of adaptation, pension provision of foreign workers.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.020

E.S. VASETSOVA PhD in Political sciences, an assistant professor of IAAS MSU, Moscow, Russia

LUO LINGYAN Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of IAAS MSU, Moscow, Russia

THE GLOBAL LEADERSHIP OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND THE CONCEPT OF MULTILATERALISM

The system of international relations is undergoing a process of profound transformation, which also affects the change in the phenomenon of political leadership, which is acquiring a global dimension. China is playing an increasingly prominent role in the world, and there are more and more reasons for recognizing its status as a leader. China is making significant efforts to address global challenges, as reflected in the pandemic and economic recession that have become a new reality in 2020-2021. The article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of global leadership of the People's Republic of China and the concept of multilateralism. It is revealed that China is a consistent practitioner of multilateralism and multipolarity, actively maintaining partnership relations with many countries.

Key words: global leadership, multilateralism, multipolarity, China, Russia, USA, COVID-19 pandemic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.021

D.F. PARENKOV Senior Lecturer at the Department of Political Theory, MGIMO-University Moscow, Russia

А.О. BELYAKOVA 4th year student, School of Governance and Politics, MGIMO-University Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN LOBBYING ISSUES OF RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS IN THE USA

The article examines key issues on the political agenda of religious interest groups in the United States. Using the example of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of the United States and the Committee of Friends on National Legislation, the authors analyze the priority issues of religious lobbying in American domestic and foreign policy. Unlike commercial organizations and non-commercial interest groups of a narrow profile, religious organizations represent the interests of believers on a wide range of issues from specific social programs to nuclear nonproliferation.

Key words: religious interest groups, religious lobbying, church-state relations in the United States, the Roman Catholic Church in the USA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.022

YUHAN Рost-graduate of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Peoples' Friendship University of Russia Lecturer of the Faculty of Russian Language Inner Mongolia Normal University of China, China

SOFT POWER IN CHINA'S POLICY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

The article reveals the main tools of China's soft power used in the Asia-Pacific region. First of all, such as preventive diplomacy, economic projects, participation in international organizations, the spread of the Chinese language and culture (through the education system, etc.), and the use of the institution of mass media stand out among them. A conclusion is made about the effectiveness of the tools used in the APR.

Key words: soft power, People's Republic of China, Asia-Pacific region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.023

K.S. TURAEV Employee, Republican Center spirituality and enlightenment, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

INTERNET COMMUNICATION AND ITS ROLE IN SHAPING PUBLIC OPINION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

The article provides a scientific analysis of ideas about the advancement of the Internet in the context of globalization and its global potential in the formation of public opinion. The article also notes that the escalation of globalization is opening the way for information to become a powerful weapon around the world. It is argued that the possibilities of the Internet have a stronger influence than newspapers, radio and even television, on the implementation of radical changes in socio-political processes.

Key words: globalization, politics, Internet, information, spirituality, idea, ideology, newspaper, radio.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.024

G.A. BOZHKOV Post-graduate student of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

STAGES OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WORLD ORDER

Events taking place on the world stage today indicate a change in the balance of power, a struggle for spheres of influence and international transport and logistics corridors. The 2020 pandemic has exacerbated and accelerated the crisis phenomena in the world economy, world politics, and the social sphere. The contradictory and inadequate policy of the new American administration, as well as of the European countries, demonstrates their inability to confront contemporary challenges and propose a positive agenda for the world community. Against this background, Russia and China are taking responsible steps to preserve world stability, facing opposition from Western countries. In the current crisis conditions in almost all significant spheres, the task arises in describing the process of transformation of the world order. This paper presents the result of an analysis of the world orders that developed after World War II and as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. On the basis of Kondratyev's cycles, three stages of the transformation of the world order with six substages have been identified. The proposed conceptual model of the transformation of the world order will make it possible to take the necessary strategic actions in a timely manner to protect and promote national interests.

Key words: world order, cycles, system of international relations, new world order.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.025

N.A. BUZANOV PhD student, Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CONVERSION OF THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND IN THE PRC IN THE NINETIES. RESULTS, DIFFERENCES, SIMILARITIES

The purpose of this article is to briefly describe and provide an evaluative judgment of the first wave of conversion of defense industry complex in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, which in both countries ended in the late nineties. Firstly, the author briefly explains key terms, related to the defense industry complex and conversion. The article provides a comparative analysis of the defense industry complex of the two countries. Their similarities and differences are deduced. The factors that influenced the conversion process and the formation of a new idea of functioning of the defense-industrial system as a whole are also conducted. For this purpose, an analysis of the legal framework and statistics of those years is provided. The author confirms the general opinion that the first wave of conversion in the People's Republic of China was more successful than in the Russian Federation and examines the reasons for this phenomenon.

Key words: defense-industrial complex, conversion, organizational reform, Russia during the nineties.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.026

P.V. IVANOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, School of Political Studies, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA); member of the SMP RAPN, Moscow, Russia

SEVERAL PREREQUISITES OF SARA'S SECESSIONISM IN CHAD REPUBLIC

In this article, the author analyses the origins of secession in the southern provinces of Chad as a possible attempt by the people of Sara to establish their own statehood. Since the Itno clan came to power in the 1990s, the Republic of Chad has taken on the shape of a «typical» Central African « dictablanda», which means that the role of the head of State has become extremely important for sensitive political exchanges in the context of maintaining the stability of the system. Representing a heterogeneous society with conflictogenic tendencies, (including numerous civil armed confrontations), varying the degree of coercive - manually, directly under the leadership of the head of state - is seen as vital to maintain parity between different ethnic groups. The death of Idris Déby on 20 April 2021 could mean the beginning of confrontational fluctuations within Chadian elites, the activation of counter-elites, and the escalation of multiple domestic problems. This can be seen as the reason why some major ethnic groups, such as Sara, have the prospect of separation from Chadian statehood. Consider the most probable root causes, from the point of view of Sara’s identity as an ethnic group and the tendency of the consolidated civilian masses to withdraw from statehood. This article is a rapid analysis of the influence of historical and cultural patterns, the influence of primordial behavioral elements, and the relationship between the representation of political actors and demographic and territorial elements. Moreover, the relationship between the transitory state of Chadian statehood and the prolonged confrontation between the «Sahel heritage» and the southern regions of Sara. It describes the demographic proportions of this ethnic group and the discrepancy between the number of potential political actors in the heterogeneous society of the Republic of Chad.

Key words: Sara people, Chad, political system, political crisis, secessionism, ethnic conflicts, ethnic nepotism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.027

MOHAMMADI MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN Post-graduate student at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Tehran, Iran

EIVAZI HOSSEIN Master's degree student at the Chair of theory and history of international relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Tehran, Iran

THE ROLE OF CHABAHAR PORT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRAN-PAKISTAN TRADE RELATIONS

The port of Chabahar, located in the south-east of Iran, is the only ocean port in the country and the most important settlement of the strategic region called the Makran coast. The unique geographical location, such as the shortest and safest route of communication between Central Asia and open waters, being outside the tense Persian Gulf region, 30% of Iran's maritime border in the Sea of Oman, and finally the suitable depth of the coast for mooring large ships made this port vital for Iran's economic future. In addition to the role of this port in the development of foreign trade of the Islamic Republic of Iran, its role in the country's trade with its neighbors should also be taken into account. Meanwhile, Pakistan can be given special attention because of its proximity to the port of Chabahar. The 200-kilometer distance from the 20-million-strong port of Karachi to Iran and its 6-hour sea distance from the port of Chabahar on the one hand, and its diverse and much-needed Iranian commodity market on the other, make the port doubly important for increasing Iran's trade. On the other hand, despite the serious limitations of Pakistan, such as the lack of transport infrastructure, underdeveloped industry and lack of sufficient energy reserves, the Islamic Republic of Iran has not been able to use the capacity of the port of Chabahar to enter the thirsty market. Various studies have been conducted on the economic potential of the Chabahar Free Zone and the Makran Coast. However, despite the existing opportunities for access to Pakistani markets and the ability to meet Iran's basic needs through this corridor, the potential of this region is insufficient. This study attempts to analyze the role of the port of Chabahar in the development of trade relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan using an analytical and descriptive method, to examine the existing obstacles and opportunities, and finally to propose solutions to emphasize its role.

Key words: Chabahar port, Makran coast, trade relations of the Islamic Republic of Iran with Pakistan, North-South corridor, Open waters.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.028

P.YU. ROVCHAK Postgraduate student of the International Security and Foreign Policy of Russia Department of the National Security Faculty of the Law and National Security Institute of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration Moscow, Russia

FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPING RELATIONS WITH AFRICAN COUNTRIES

Africa is experiencing a period of rapid growth, and the eyes of the world are turned towards the «continent of opportunity». At the same time, large countries of the world are revising and refining their strategies in Africa. Russia also needs to build a solid foundation for Russian-African relations, to develop new ways and forms of mutually beneficial cooperation with the continent's countries. Russia does not have opportunities for integration with Africa comparable to those of large external actors, primarily in economic terms, so it is important to learn from the existing foreign experience of interaction with the countries of the continent.

The most active players on the continent are the countries of the European Union, the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. While the United States and the EU are focusing on development assistance programs for the continent and linking them to the fulfillment of certain conditions, China is stepping up its economic cooperation with African countries regardless of human rights and democratic development issues.

It is expedient for Russia in such conditions to build mutually beneficial cooperation with African states based on the concept of sustainable development and respect for the international law principles. This approach will maximize the use of existing opportunities for interaction and provide the countries of the continent an opportunity to break out of the isolation created and supported by the West, as well as create an alternative to socio-economic monopoly and influence of external players.

Key words: Russia-Africa, EU-Africa, China-Africa, USA-Africa, sustainable development, Russia-Africa relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.029

S.V. TCOI Рostgraduate student, Astrakhan State University Astrakhan, Russia

FACTORS OF THE SPLIT AND RAPPROCHEMENT OF THE STATES OF THE KOREAN PENINSULA AT THE PRESENT STAGE

The article examines the main factors that determine the split of the states of the Korean Peninsula at the present stage of international relations, as well as contribute to their rapprochement. The factors of the split include the growing internal differences between the societies of the DPRK and ROK in the spheres of politics, economics, and culture. At the same time, aspects of interaction in the field of joint projects and social interaction are considered as the basis for the development of inter-Korean dialogue.

Key words: Korean Peninsula, DPRK, ROK, split, dialogue.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.030

N.А. КOMAROV Рost-graduate student at the Chair of history of social movements and political parties, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AT THE PRESENT STAGE (2009-2020)

The paper is devoted to the study of the bilateral political relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The study covers the period from 2009 to 2020. In 2009, a “color revolution” took place in Moldova, as a result of which pro-European forces came to power in the country. Since then, Russian-Moldovan cooperation has been in crisis.

The purpose of the work is a comprehensive analysis of interstate relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova in this period.

Based on the results of the analysis of materials on the given topic, it can be concluded that the problem of relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova depends on many parameters, starting from the internal political situation in Moldova and ending with external factors.

Key words: Russia, Moldova, foreign policy, CIS.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.031

V.I. ROZENBERG Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian Policy Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE SYRIAN CRISIS: NEGOTIATING TECHNOLOGIES IN ARMED CONFLICT

For the past few years, the Syrian military-political conflict has taken a leading role in modern world politics. Due to such factors as its geographical location, ethnic and religious composition and historical heritage, this country occupies one of the key positions in the Middle East region. One of the distinctive features of the conflict has been the impressive scale of the involvement of foreign and non-state actors. Since the Syrian conflict has escalated into an active armed confrontation, the possibilities for its peaceful resolution have become significantly more complicated and specific.

Assessing these specific factors in the context of a real politico-military conflict will help to develop a system for resolving similar conflicts in the future. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the factors that reduce the probability of peaceful settlement in politico-military conflicts. As the research tasks: to identify the features of the Syrian military-political conflict and determine the main factors that had a negative impact on the conduct of the negotiation processes on the settlement of the conflict.

Within the framework of this research article, the author has identified the main problematic factors of the Syrian politico-military conflict, which can serve in the further formation of the model of response in similar clashes.

Key words: political conflictology, international negotiations, political-military conflict, conflict resolution, Syrian Arab Republic.

SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.032

D.V. ZHIGULSKAYA Cand. Sc. (History), Deputy Director of the Institute of Asian and African Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University Senior Researcher, Oriental History Department, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chair of the workshop organizing committee, Moscow, Russia

ONLINE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL WORKSHOP FOR YOUNG SCHOLARS: “THE ETHNORELIGIOUS FACTOR IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE ORIENT”

The article is a brief report on the work of the online international scientific and practical workshop for your scholars: “The Ethnoreligious Factor in Contemporary Political Processes in the Orient”, which was held online on 23 April 2021 in the Institute of Asian and African Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University with the support of the RF Presidential grant scheme for young scholars – candidates of science (grant MK-636.2020.6).

More than 60 young researchers from a variety of humanitarian disciplines took part in the workshop. Eminent Russian oriental scholars spoke at the opening of the workshop and participated as experts and section moderators.

The workshop took an integrated approach to exploring ethnoreligious issues and aroused much interest among Russian and international scholars.

Key words: international scientific and practical workshop, ethnoreligious factor, modern Orient.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.033

WANG PING Student at the Chair of international journalism of the Institute "Higher School of Journalism and Mass Communications" of St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

NEW MEDIA IN THE PRACTICE OF MEDIA DIPLOMACY OF RUSSIA AND CHINA

Diplomacy is a discipline based on practice, and each form of diplomacy has its own unique operational mechanism. Depending on the different media carriers, media diplomacy can be divided into traditional media diplomacy and new media diplomacy. In this paper, we focused on the media diplomacy of the new media, as we believe that it is the defining (characteristic) segment of the new public diplomacy.

Key words: media, diplomacy, China, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.034

NGUNDI NSURU SANTIAGO MBUELI Undergraduate student, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

RETURN OF RUSSIA TO AFRICA

Africa is the second largest continent in the world, its population, as of early 2020, is more than 1.3 billion people. For the layman, this continent belongs to the category of "peripheral parts of the world" that have little economic or political indicators of development. As a result, today a stereotype of Africa's unpromising has been formed, and therefore its role in the geopolitical and economic dimension is underestimated. In Russia, since 2016, Africa has been included in the key vectors for the development of cooperation in the near future. Today, Russia's cooperation with the countries of the African continent is carried out through the comprehensive implementation of the geopolitical, geo-economic and military-political goals of the Russian Federation, the achievement of which intersects with the needs to ensure the implementation of Russian national interests both abroad and in the internal geospace of Russia. In the course of the study, special emphasis is placed on the economic component of interaction between the government of Russia and African countries. In particular, attention is focused on supporting key industries of the industrial complex from Russia, making investments in promising sectors and segments, establishing trade relations and mutually beneficial exchanges, and developing mining operations. logistics centers and investment platforms, expanding the market for goods and services, supporting trans-energy routes. In addition, the main directions and instruments for the implementation by Russia of the tasks of maintaining security and maintaining peace in Africa were considered. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the Russian Federation will continue to concentrate its efforts on strengthening its geopolitical, geo-economic, military-political influence on African countries.

Key words: Africa, Russia, cooperation, economy, security, trade, minerals, industry, mining, infrastructure, investment, confrontation, protection, interest.

REFLECTIONS ON WHAT YOU READ

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.69.5.035

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Science, Professor, Moscow, Russia

N.V. SHULENINA Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Humanities of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE INFINITY OF NATURE AND KNOWLEDGE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

The review article assesses the relevance of the research topic, the results of which are presented to Menshikova E. O. for publication in the scientific journal "Issues of National and Federal Relations". The level of development of the problem is specified. The article content and research methods are critically analyzed. The author is invited to further expand the scope of the study by monographic works and publications of scientists-elitologists of other Russian universities.

Key words: political leadership, domestic school of political science, development of the problem, research methods.

   
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