№ 2 (66), 2021

Academic journal “Political Science Issues”. Volume 11, Issue 2 (66), 2021

CONTENTS

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

Aymaletdinov A.A. State-Confessional Relations: the Problem of Terminology and Classification of Basic Models

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Medvedev N.P. Local Self-Government in the Context of the Political Sociology Research Paradigm

Goncharov P.K., Medvedev V.N. To the Issue of Legitimacy of Power: the Socio-Political Aspect

Popov S.I., Shoshich M. Formation and Development of Political Consciousness in Serbia at the Modern Stage

Boykuzieva G.Kh. Socio-Political Role of Women in Public Administration

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Мorozov S.I., Маkarenko K.M. Technologies for Regulating Destructive Forms of Protest Activity in Modern Russia

Bragin A.D. Political and Philosophical Aspects of Migration

Denisenko P.V. "Nudging" in the Age of Big Data: New Opportunities for Public Administration

Kruglyakov D.A. Parliamentary Institute in the Public Sphere of Modern Society: Features of Functioning and Positioning

Kuznetsov E.A. Transformation of Space Activities: the Doctrine of the “New Cosmos”

Ovchinnikov P.S., Nechay E.E., Sakhnenko A.S. Product Management in the Political Field

Salimov D.M. Mechanisms of Implementation of the Political Regime of Censorship and Control over the Media in Modern Tajikistan

Tashchilin A.L. Social Origin as a Basis for Forming Political Elites in Modern China

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY

Sabirova N.S. The Genotype of Russia's Political Culture as a Special Factor in its Development

Iurchikov N.V. Civil Identity in Modern Political Culture of Indonesia: National Unity or Ideological Conflict?

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, FOREIGN AND WORLD POLICY

Tushkov A.A., Tushkov A.A. The Evolution of the U.S. Military Presence in the Asia-Pacific Region

Niklaus A.A. On the Question of the Sixth State Reform in Belgium: History and Results

Tushkov A.A., Chernikova E.M. Transforming Japan's Political and Cultural Identity: from Tradition to Modernity

Mekhdieva U.M. The Image of a Political Leader in the Context of History (on the Example of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev)

Sharshebaeva T.A., Sarieva D.S. Evolutionary Development of Personnel Policy in Kyrgyzstan

Shangaraev R.N. Formation of Conceptual Approach of Turkish Foreign Policy in Central Asia

Urper Mehmet. Perspevtives for the Development of Russian-Turkish Relations

Qambarov Sh.K. Modernization of Education Systems in Uzbekistan: Problems and Solutions

Boymatov F.Z. Prospects for the Development of Tourism in Uzbekistan

Askerova E.F. The Kurdish Issue in US-Turkey Relations

Van Czin'hujej. China's Foreign Policy in the Far East: Problems and Prospects

Egorov I.S. Progress in the Normalization of Relations Between Qatar and the Arab "Quartet" Led by Saudi Arabia: Causes and Prospects

Sarsembaev N.V. Internal, Regional and Global Aspects of the Development and Resolution of the Syrian Conflict

Kuzmichev A.A. System of International Relations as a Definition in Modern Political Theory

Fan Tianyang, Bogolyubova N.M. Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: the Positions of the Conflicting Parties

Budnik A.I., Grigorieva T.V., Kan A.A. The Current State of the Kuril Problem

Our authors № 2-2021

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.001

A.A. AYMALETDINOV Institute of Asian and African Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science of the East, Moscow, Russia

STATE-CONFESSIONAL RELATIONS: THE PROBLEM OF TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF BASIC MODELS

The article examines the problem of the theoretical foundations of the typologization of models of state-confessional relations, analyzes the scientific literature devoted to this problem. The general criteria of typology, found in the domestic scientific literature, are highlighted. The author comes to the conclusion that, from a formal legal point of view, the principle of separation of religious organizations from the state is a fundamental criterion, and state-confessional relations in modern Russia are developing in a multi-vector direction.

Key words: state-confessional relations, state confessional policy, religious associations, domestic policy.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.002

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of the Presidential Administration for Work with Territories (1993-1994), Moscow, Russia

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY RESEARCH PARADIGM

The article under review attempts to assess the scientific significance of the problem of the development of the institution of local self-government in the conditions of centralization of power in modern Russia. The article describes the basic principles of the organization and functioning of local self-government on the basis of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation. As a part of the discussion, the article raises the question of criteria for evaluating local self-government bodies and their effectiveness by higher-level government structures in the context of the fact that “local self-government bodies are not part of the system of state authorities in Russia.”

Key words: local self-government, public authority institution, criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of local government, Russian Constitution, European Charter of Local Self-Government.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.003

P.K. GONCHAROV Doctor of Sciences (sociology), Professor, Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Moscow, Russia

V.N. MEDVEDEV Candidate of Sciences (law), Associate Professor, the MIGS Ranepa, Moscow, Russia

TO THE ISSUE OF LEGITIMACY OF POWER: THE SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPECT

In the review article, the authors attempt to analyze the content of E. N. Primova’s article “On the Crisis of the Legitimacy of Power” and expand the context of the research problem of the legitimacy of power through the prism of society's assessment of the state of political stability. Emphasizing the scientific significance of the stated problem, the article discusses the profound changes in the state power systems in the conditions of information openness and globalization.

Key words: legitimacy of power, public assessment, political stability, crisis phenomena, information openness, globalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.004

S.I. POPOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Associate Professor, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

M. SHOSHICH Master, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN SERBIA AT THE MODERN STAGE

In this study, through the prism of the concept of political consciousness, the distinctive features of the formation and development of the political consciousness of the population of Serbia at the present stage are identified. In the article, the authors consider the basic values and attitudes of the citizens of Serbia, analyze the factors that influence the formation of the political consciousness of this country. The paper presents the problem areas and aspects of the development of political consciousness in Serbia, and suggests ways to overcome them.

Key words: consciousness, political consciousness, political stability, Serbia, ideology, political processes, democracy, political technologies, political culture, political system, political institutions, democracy, mass media.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.005

G.Kh. BOYKUZIEVA Kokand State Pedagogical Institute, Kokand, Republic of Uzbekistan

SOCIO-POLITICAL ROLE OF WOMEN IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

In every democratic state, there is an institution that is designed to solve problems related to the life of the entire society conducting managerial work and rationalizing relations between all subjects (objects). The creation and functioning of such institution does not depend on the will of an individual or a group (political party), it becomes the main actor in the socio-political process in accordance with the expression of the subjects acting in the society as a whole and expressing their diverse interests. Its activities, laws and decisions are binding for the society, since it is the people (the voters) who give it the authority to adopt regulations that apply to the society as a whole. Without knowing the immanent laws of the supreme body of the state power, the specifics of its activities, it is difficult to understand the socio-political role in its activities of its subjects in general, including women. The article analyzes and highlights the socio-political role of women in public administration.

Key words: public administration, women, socio-political role of women, political party, parliament, elections, government, political activity.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.006

S.I. МOROZOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Chair of international relations, political science and regional studies, Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russia

K.М. МАKARENKO Senior Lecturer at the Chair of international relations, political science and regional studies, Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russia

TECHNOLOGIES FOR REGULATING DESTRUCTIVE FORMS OF PROTEST ACTIVITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

The article presents the author's analysis of destructive forms of protest activity, as well as technologies and methods used by the authorities to regulate and minimize these practices. Purpose of the study: to highlight and systematize technologies for regulating and (or) minimizing destructive forms of protest activity in modern Russia. As a methodological basis for the study, the approach of "competitive politics" by Charles Tilly was chosen, which made it possible to present public protests as mechanisms for changing the status quo in the political space of Russia. The main research method was the analysis of specific cases (case-study), which made it possible, based on the study of particular cases, to form a system of technologies used by the Russian authorities at the federal, regional and local levels to regulate destructive protests. Recent years in Russia have been marked by an increase in mass and audience coverage of protests, in connection with which the authorities have actualized the problem of preserving the established "rules of the game" and developing strategies to combat destructive manifestations of protest that can harm the individual, state and society. Within the framework of this article, on the basis of the practice of using various tools and methods of regulation and minimization of destructive forms of protests used by the authorities in modern Russia, three types of technologies used were identified: repressive (violent); administrative and legal; political and communicative. The use of certain technologies is determined by the nature of the confrontation within the framework of "competitive politics", the level of resources available for mobilization and the level of trust in the representatives of the authorities and the opposition.

Key words: political protest, destructive protest, technologies of countering protest, public space, political process in modern Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.007

A.D. BRAGIN PhD Student, Junior researcher of the Institute for Demographic Research of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF MIGRATION

This article presents an analysis of the concept of migration in the context of political, philosophical and social synergetic. The essence of modern migration processes, socio-political and philosophical bases of migration are considered. This paper presents the systematization and identification of common points between politics and migration processes in the context of their philosophical comprehension. We are interested how strong and in what way are politics and philosophy interlinked in the migration process. It is determined that in the analysis of modern migration processes an important role is played not only by political, but also by philosophical methodologies, which have a clear theoretical relationship. The main conceptual aspects of the migration process and the influence of political and philosophical factors are highlighted. The essence of political and philosophical approaches in the study of migration is revealed.

Key words: migration, politics, philosophy, society, adaptation, culture.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.008

P.V. DENISENKO Postgraduate student at the Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

"NUDGING" IN THE AGE OF BIG DATA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

In this paper the author examines the application of behavioral technologies in modern public administration. The article analyses the use of nudge technologies as one of the widespread behavioral approaches to the public policy. The technology is based on the “choice architecture” that is designed to change people's behavior without administrative or economic pressure and is based on the irrationality of human behavior, numerous cognitive biases as well as the heuristics that a person uses in the decision-making process. According to the expert interviews, there are five categories of big user data: economic, social, physical, personal and behavioral. An analysis of these data helps to identify significant patterns in his behaviour and decision-making process. Since nudge technologies are based on the irrationality of people’s nature, their effectiveness increases significantly in combination with big data technologies. Thus, the author concludes that Big Data technologies make a great transformative impact on behavioral tools of public administration.

Key words: Big Data, behavioural economy, nudge, public administration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.009

D.A. KRUGLYAKOV Postgraduate student, Political Analysis Department, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Assistant to the Deputy, State Duma, Moscow, Russia

PARLIAMENTARY INSTITUTE IN THE PUBLIC SPHERE OF MODERN SOCIETY: FEATURES OF FUNCTIONING AND POSITIONING

In world practice, the institution of parliamentarism has become the most popular people's representative in the public sphere. For a long time, this institution has been the embodiment of democratic values in society. By providing an opportunity for representation and interaction of different social strata, parliaments contribute to the development of the public sphere. Despite the fact that this is one of the most important branches of power, some scientists in recent years have noted a significant crisis, in the legitimacy of this institution as the most important representative authority in order to understand better the ongoing crisis processes, we will consider some dysfunctional features and factors that contribute to the strengthening of negative trends in the perception of representative power by citizens at all levels of public administration. The article concludes that in the countries with the most visible manifestation of these dysfunctions, parliaments gradually lose contact with the public in adoption of laws and other political decisions making.

Key words: institution of parliamentarism, dysfunctions, public sphere, representative democracy, crisis of legitimacy, civil structures.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.010

Е.А. KUZNETSOV Postgraduate student at the Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF SPACE ACTIVITIES: THE DOCTRINE OF THE “NEW COSMOS”

The article is devoted to an overview of foreign and Russian approaches to the definition and content of the "new space" phenomenon. The author offers his own terminology and analyzes the main characteristics of the "new space" as a contemporary model of commercial space activities based on innovative technologies and private ownership.

Key words: space activity, New Space, USA, NASA.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.011

P.S. OVCHINNIKOV A bachelor of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

Е.Е. NECHAY Academic Advisor, Candidate of Political Science, Associate Professor, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.S. SAKHNENKO Graduate student of the department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

PRODUCT MANAGEMENT IN THE POLITICAL FIELD

The paper attempts to study the implementation of Product management technology in the political sphere. The concept of the political market allows you to describe the candidate, the party, their software products in terms of marketing, and therefore makes it possible to use marketing technologies in the activities of political consultants and political technologists. In the context of studying the Product management discipline, the authors analyze the value of the product manager's competencies in the activities of political leaders and political technologists. The authors conclude that Product management is a subject at the intersection of several disciplines that will give political strategists and politicians important knowledge from business management, the electoral process, and also forms a number of key soft-skills that are necessary for working in the profession in the modern world.

Key words: Product management, product management, political technologies, marketing technologies, political technologist.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.012

D.M. SALIMOV Applicant for the Department of Political Management, Faculty of Political Science Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

MECHANISMS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POLITICAL REGIME OF CENSORSHIP AND CONTROL OVER THE MEDIA IN MODERN TAJIKISTAN

The article analyzes the mechanisms of formation of the political regime of censorship and control over the media in the information field of modern Tajikistan. It is noted that the political regime of censorship and control over the media in Tajikistan prevented the flow of information attacks and thereby created an information space in which all the rules are dictated by the authorities. The mechanisms of implementation of the political regime of censorship and control over various types of media are determined, depending on their position in relation to the authorities. The article reveals the peculiarity of the political regime of censorship and control over the media, which consists in the fact that it is based on both legal and extra-legal mechanisms of pressure on information spaces. The study of the situation in the information field of Tajikistan allows the author to conclude that the political regime of censorship and control over the media is focused on total control over information resources in order to ensure information security and stability of the personalist authoritarian regime, which seeks to be supported through the system of political censorship and control over the media.

Key words: power, political regime, mass media, political censorship, authoritarian regime, Tajikistan, information security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.013

A.L. TASHCHILIN Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Postgraduate Student, Department of Political Science, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL ORIGIN AS A BASIS FOR FORMING POLITICAL ELITES IN MODERN CHINA

In this paper, the author examines the social origin of the composition of the highest political elite of the PRC. As part of the study, in order to supplement the database of the political elite of modern China, the author analyzed the biographies of representatives of the highest political elite of the PRC of the last three generations (1989-2020) for geographic and social origin. In particular, the author identified the proportion of representatives of the elites who come from families of peasants, workers, military, intellectuals, and found out from which provinces the largest number of high-ranking Chinese politicians come from. The results obtained make it possible to identify the main trends in the dynamics of the social and geographical origin of representatives of the highest authorities in China.

Key words: China, political elites, political elite transformation, social backgrounds of political elites.

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.014

N.S. SABIROVA Cand. Sci. (Pol. Sci.), Moscow Region State University, Mytishchi, Russia

THE GENOTYPE OF RUSSIA'S POLITICAL CULTURE AS A SPECIAL FACTOR IN ITS DEVELOPMENT

This article examines the peculiarities of the origin and development of the political culture of Russia from Ancient Russia to its present day. The main goal is a detailed justification of the nature, structure and functions of political culture, implemented in a certain historical period on the territory of the Russian state, its systematic formation and influence on the perception of the consciousness of the subjects. The author notes that under the influence of historical events and the progressiveness of society itself, the structural mechanisms of political culture are updated and take a more perfect form, which corresponds to a new stage of the formation of the state, which, in fact, the political culture of Russia has experienced. Coordinating within society, providing it with socio-political conditions and opportunities within the framework of the current political regime and in the form of the existing social and economic system of the state, it forms a stable system of public views. The evolutionary path of Russia's political culture can be described as a transition from the traditional archaic to the patriarchal autocratic system, from ideological communism to the liberal legal system. Thus, the form of political culture depends on the state system, and the transformation of its mechanisms is also influenced by institutional and cultural changes. At present, Russia is more likely to see a mixed political culture, focused on citizenship and patriarchal-citizenship orientation. For its transition to a full type of democracy, more time is needed, and its duration depends on the economic stabilization in the country and on new programs that strengthen contacts between the government and society.

Key words: political culture, genotype, state, evolution, traditional-archaic culture, patriarchy, transformation, autocracy, communist ideology, democracy, system, power, structure, reformer, monarch, Kievan Rus, Soviet Union, Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.015

N.V. IURCHIKOV Institute of Asian and African Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science of the East, Moscow, Russia

CIVIL IDENTITY IN MODERN POLITICAL CULTURE OF INDONESIA: NATIONAL UNITY OR IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT?

The development of civil identity is an important factor in the democratization of Indonesia and the consolidation of Indonesian society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the political involvement of Indonesian citizens in political movements, as well as to assess the ideological component of socio-political relations in modern Indonesia. The study demonstrates the current level of political divisions in Indonesian society, which has led to significant state changes.

Key words: civil society, democratization, political culture, reforms, Indonesia.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, FOREIGN AND WORLD POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.016

A.A. TUSHKOV PhD student in the Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. TUSHKOV Professor of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

THE EVOLUTION OF THE U.S. MILITARY PRESENCE IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

In order to "assert democracy," the United States moved away from the practice of the previous two decades, when the emphasis was on the ability of the U.S. military to perform police functions in weak states. Analysis of the U.S. military and political presence in the Asia-Pacific post-World War II allows us to fully follow the evolution of this process, from the creation of the Japanese-American military-political partnership in the 1960s to the construction of the Japanese-American concept of the "Free and Open Indo-Pacific Region" (SOITR).

Key words: Indo-Pacific, Asia-Pacific, China, USA, USPACOM.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.017

A.A. NIKLAUS Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Intellectual Property Management, Russian State Academy of Intellectual Property, Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF THE SIXTH STATE REFORM IN BELGIUM: HISTORY AND RESULTS

The article deals with the problems of Belgian federalism. Considering the fact that Belgium is a rather diverse, and sometimes even contradictory country in terms of ethnolinguistic groups inhabiting it. Which, in turn, creates the basis for all sorts of conflicts. Therefore, the analysis of state reforms in the field of federalism showed us that the constitutional and institutional framework in which political forces can interact is a very effective measure in the prevention and settlement of ethnolinguistic conflicts.

At the same time, the sixth state reform in Belgium is quite specific. A comprehensive study of specific government measures implemented during the sixth state reform has shown us that the territorial issue and territorial claims are still important in modern conditions. And that only taking into account the intraregional optimization and reform of the territorial space is it possible to achieve ethnolinguistic equilibrium. In Belgium, this happened as a result of the division of the Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde district.

A special place in the article is given to the analysis of the local level of organization of political power in Belgium – the communes, since in the conditions of a dispersed linguistic settlement of the population, it is the municipal government that is able to prevent conflicts, but only with sufficiently transparent and targeted funding.

Along with the author's analysis of the sixth state reform in Belgium, the author presents his own position of assessing the effectiveness of this reform.

Key words: region, Flanders, Wallonia, Brussels, Belgium, federalism, state space, territorial structure, regional policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.018

A.A. TUSHKOV Ph.D., Professor of International Relations and Law at Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

E.M. CHERNIKOVA Bachelor, Department of International Relations and Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok, Russia

TRANSFORMING JAPAN'S POLITICAL AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: FROM TRADITION TO MODERNITY

In this article, the authors explore the problems of the political and cultural identity of Japanese society. According to the authors of the article, in the face of constant threats from the growing processes of globalization, identity in Japan is a factor of national self-determination. The issue of preserving Japan's national and cultural identity, which is one of the key problems of modern Japanese society, has its own specificity, different from the societies of other countries. The authors show which aspects contribute to the successful adaptation of traditional Japanese society to modernizing innovations from the "outside world" and, as a result, to the successful development of the country and to strengthen its status in the international arena in the post-Westphalian era.

Key words: Japan, political and cultural identity, globalization, post-secular era, modern.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.019

U.M. MEKHDIEVA Phd in History, Senior Lecturer, Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

THE IMAGE OF A POLITICAL LEADER IN THE CONTEXT OF HISTORY

(ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN ILHAM ALIYEV)

The goal of the article is to consider the image of a modern political leader in the context of a particular historical event that led to his popularity among the general public. To achieve this goal, the image of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev was analyzed, in the context of the Second Karabakh war, which ended with the victory of Azerbaijan. The author studied in detail the main components of the image, which increased the trust in the President among the absolute majority of the country's population. Particular attention was paid to the speeches of Ilham Aliyev during the war, both in local and foreign media. Among the general scientific methods used by the author are study, situational analysis, and induction. In conclusion, the author identified the factors that most affect the positive perception of the image of the politician by the masses.

Key words: image, mass media, Ilham Aliyev, The Republic of Azerbaijan, Second Karabakh war.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.020

T.A. SHARSHEBAEVA Scientific Secretary, Center for Political Science research and expertise NAS KR, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

D.S. SARIEVA Department of "State, municipal service and management ", Bishkek States University them. K.K. Karasaev, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN KYRGYZSTAN

The article presents an analysis of the evolution of personnel policy in Kyrgyzstan in the context of political science, which presents the theoretical positions and views of the authors who studied the specified scientific issues through the prism of Soviet scientific doctrine, and in a later period, since the collapse of the USSR and the sovereignty of new states. During the analysis, it is noted that the construction of new social relations required the institutionalization of new, in essence and content, approaches to public service, the implementation of personnel policy. The aspect of updating the conceptual approaches to the process of reforming the civil service system in Kyrgyzstan at the present stage is also being updated.

Key words: personnel policy, doctrine, concept, state, evolution, civil service, methodology, public administration, sovereignization, principles of organization, periodization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.021

R.N. SHANGARAEV Ph.D, associate professor, Department of Public Administration in Foreign Policy, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia Federation, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION OF CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

The end of the Cold War and the disappearance of the Soviet threat, which for a long time determined the policy of the countries of the Western bloc and their allies, became a new period for Turkey as a player in the international arena. On the one hand, the possibility of capitalizing on the use of a new field for maneuver in the changing international system, and the need to prevent the creation of an even greater threat of conflict in the current uncertainty, on the other, forced Turkey to abandon the old model of foreign policy behavior.

Key words: Turkey, foreign policy, Central Asia, T. Ozal, R. Erdogan, Justice and Development Party, Concept of "zero problems with neighbors", A. Davutoglu.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.022

URPER MEHMET Candidate of Political Sciences, Lecturer, Assistant at the Chair of International relations in the post-soviet space, Faculty of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

PERSPEVTIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN-TURKISH RELATIONS

At the center of this scientific work is the concept of interdependence, extremely important for the modern system of international relations, through the prism of which the author tries to determine the main components of the foreign policy of modern Turkey and Russia, based on the doctrine of “strategic depth.” The author also tries to demonstrate the reflection and manifestation of such vision in the relations between the two countries. The main purpose of this article is to explore modern Russian-Turkish relations through the prism of Immanuel Wallerstein's theory of world-system analysis, especially emphasizing the general conceptual reorientation of relations between Russia and Turkey at the present stage. For the first time, the article presents a historical overview of the key aspects of Russian-Turkish relations after the end of the Cold War using descriptive, analytical, inductive, deductive and comparative methods, it also defines the current vision of foreign policy by these countries proceeding from the basic principles of the “geostrategic depth” doctrine. The article also analyzes the main parameters of the political, economic, cultural, educational and religious components of Turkish-Russian relations and, in particular, the influence of Islam on the dimension of relations between Russia and Turkey, both in the post-Soviet space and in the Middle East region. As a result, this article presents the foreign policy of the two states at the beginning of the XXI century as reflecting the economic trends in the relations between Turkey and Russia, and emphasizes the degree of influence of geopolitical and socio-cultural factors on the relations between the two countries. The author specially stresses that relations between Russia and Turkey at the present stage develop in the presence in the international relations such trends as, on the one hand, interdependence, and, on the other hand, mutual competition and rivalry as well as an increased political role of the Islamic factor as a defining landmark in the current development of political processes in the Middle East.

Key words: Russia, Turkey, Islam, Russian world, pan-Turkism, geoculture, Middle East, geo-strategy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.023

SH.K. QAMBAROV Lecturer, Chair of social sciences, Karshi State University, city of Karshi, Republic of Uzbekistan

MODERNIZATION OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN UZBEKISTAN: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

This article is devoted to modern trends in the development of the national education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the era of globalization. The process of reforming the education system in Uzbekistan is considered. The author has made an attempt to generalize the most important and noteworthy approaches to the modernization of educational policy.

Key words: modernization, development, national system, education.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.024

F.Z. BOYMATOV Post-graduate student working for the doctoral degree (PhD) at the Uzbek State University of World Languages, city of Kokand, Republic of Uzbekistan

PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN UZBEKISTAN

We know from history that the position, prestige and foreign policy of each country are based on the high spirituality and culture of its people. Indeed, the experience of the peoples of the world shows that where the state and society are developed, people have enough opportunities to live in peace and tranquility, with a noble and great future as the highest goal. It also ensures sustainable development, an environment of free thinking and, on this basis, new opportunities for spiritual growth. The main goal of the reforms carried out in Uzbekistan in many areas is the comprehensive development of the country and the further improvement of the people's living conditions.

Tourism is one of the most important sectors of the economy. It is necessary to further improve this area, effectively using existing opportunities as needed. The article discusses the prospects for the development of tourism in Uzbekistan and the use of international experience.

Key words: tourism, cultural relations, tourist and cultural organizations, pilgrimage tourism, ecological, educational, ethnographic, gastronomic tourism, public-private partnership.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.025

E.F. ASKEROVA PhD student, Saint-Petersburg state university, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

THE KURDISH ISSUE IN US-TURKEY RELATIONS

The article analyzes the main components of the formation of foreign policy interaction between the United States and Turkey. It is noted that at various stages of development, the long-standing Kurdish problem is used by the United States as an element of control and influence on regional politics. The non-intervention strategy, the encouragement of actions used by the United States, are volatile and depend on the development of events in Syria, Iraq, Iran. The Turkish government under the leadership of the AKP (Justice and Development Party) intended to solve the Kurdish problem with a conciliatory approach, not a confrontational one. The party rejected the dead-end policy of the Kemalist government regarding the conflict. However, the collapse of the emerging peace process in September 2014, which followed the spread of the Syrian civil war and the events surrounding the Kurdish city of Kobane in northern Syria, reduced the chances of a peaceful resolution of the Kurdish issue, likely ending any potentially productive dialogue between AKP and militant Kurds. The purpose of this article is to study the government's policy towards the Kurdish population of Turkey from the beginning to the Kurdish referendum in Iraq and the consequences of the regionalization of the Kurdish issue in Turkey. In particular, the military events in Syria led to the failure and subsequent return of government policy to the old, confrontational approach.

Over the past five years, there have been dramatic shifts in US and Turkish policy towards Kurdish political and military actors, both in Turkey itself and in neighboring Syria and Iraq. These shifts have been triggered by a complex convergence of domestic political trends in Turkey and a rapidly changing regional landscape. During this period, Turkey's policies ranged from engaging with Kurdish players in pursuit of peaceful rapprochement to harsh domestic repression and military intervention abroad. Meanwhile, the United States has gradually abandoned its previous policy of non-intervention against Kurdish non-state actors and adopted a temporary interim policy of engaging with left-wing Kurdish elements in Syria, guided primarily by the tactical military requirements of a targeted campaign to eradicate the Islamic State (IS).

Key words: Turkey, USA, Kurds, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Syria, Iran, Iraq.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.026

VAN CZIN'HUJEJ Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asia and Africa, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHINA'S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE FAR EAST: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The reversal of Russia's policy towards Asia has intensified in connection with the "sanctions standoff" with Western countries led by the United States. An important region of interaction between Russia and the countries of the East is the Russian Far East, and the main partner of Russia in the Asian region is the People's Republic of China. At the same time, China has and conducts an independent foreign policy regarding this border region, aimed at promising solutions to problems in the field of ecology, demography, geopolitics, economy and security. Thus, the purpose of this article is to identify the place and role of the Russian Far East in China's foreign policy. As research tasks: characterization of the uniqueness of the Far Eastern region of Russia in the system of international relations, the study of the features of China's foreign policy. The subject of the study is the policy of the People's Republic of China in the Far East.

Key words: foreign policy, People's Republic of China, Far East, Asia-Pacific, East Asia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.027

I.S. EGOROV Post-graduate student of the Department of Political Science of the East of the Institute of Asian and African Studies of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

PROGRESS IN THE NORMALIZATION OF RELATIONS BETWEEN QATAR AND THE ARAB "QUARTET" LED BY SAUDI ARABIA: CAUSES AND PROSPECTS

The study examines the results of the Gulf Cooperation Council summit in Saudi Arabia in early 2021, which formally ended the Qatar diplomatic crisis. The purpose of this article is to analyze the background and prospects for further normalization of relations between Qatar and the countries of the Arab Quartet. The main tasks solved by the author include: studying the reasons that led to the beginning of the crisis in 2017; consideration of the results of more than three years of conflict between Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Bahrain; analysis of the factors that led to the settlement, both within the framework of bilateral relations and the regional and international agenda, and opportunities for the further development of relations between the countries. The author, conducting his analysis within the framework of the realistic paradigm of international relations that is traditional for oriental studies, paying attention to the provisions of liberal institutionalism, uses the comparative, systemic and historical methods of political science. As a result, the article shows that, although the Qatari diplomatic crisis is de facto not fully resolved, at this stage Qatar forced the countries of the Arab Quartet and, above all, Saudi Arabia to make serious concessions and abandon the previous ultimatum. It is concluded that the main confrontation within the GCC will now shift towards the Qatari-Emirates track, while Qatar will not abandon its claims to regional hegemony and will "develop" its main weapon – the influence of the "Muslim Brotherhood" propaganda.

Key words: Qatari diplomatic crisis, political settlement, normalization of relations, Arab Quartet, Muslim brothers, Al-Jazeera, Cooperation Council for Arab States of the Gulf, regional conflict.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.028

N.V. SARSEMBAEV Postgraduate student of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, chief specialist of the state institution «Department of Religious Affairs of the Karaganda region», Republic of Kazakhstan, Karaganda

INTERNAL, REGIONAL AND GLOBAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND RESOLUTION OF THE SYRIAN CONFLICT

The article examines the main results of the study of the internal political, regional and global aspects of the Syrian conflict. When disclosing these issues, the results of the analysis of the main opposition forces and the national interests of the countries of the region are described, as part of the description of the prospects for the development of the Syrian conflict and its impact on the system of regional relations. In particular, special attention is paid to examining the prospects for the strengthening of Iran's geopolitical influence, which causes concern both in the United States and in a number of countries in the region. The article also examines international participation in the political process of resolving the Syrian conflict in the framework of the adopted UN Security Council Resolutions.

Key words: Syrian conflict, Syria, SAR, Middle East, conflict resolution, regional and international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.029

A.A. KUZMICHEV National League of Political Scientists’ Member, Russian state university for the humanities – RSUH (RGGU), Moscow, Russia

SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AS A DEFINITION IN MODERN POLITICAL THEORY

The coronavirus pandemic has become a serious reason to think about the formation of a qualitatively different model of the system of international relations, which could effectively respond to global challenges and threats.

In order to implement such a project, it is mutual to understand whether the current content of the theoretical concept of the “system of international relations”, “system”, “structure”, “world order”, “balance of forces”, “balance of interests” is applicable to modern realities? Have these definitions remained unchanged or have they also been influenced by the "environment", which is an essential part of the formation and functioning of the system? The author is trying to answer to these questions in this article.

Key words: system, structure, world order, balance of power, balance of interests, environment, global threats challenges, alternative way of forming the world order, survival of the mankind.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.030

FAN TIANYANG Master, International Humanitarian Relations, Saint Petersburg State University, China

N.M. BOGOLYUBOVA Scientific adviser – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, International Humanitarian Relations, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

TERRITORIAL DISPUTES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA: THE POSITIONS OF THE CONFLICTING PARTIES

The problem of maritime territorial conflicts in the western Pacific remains relevant in the twenty-first century, despite the deepening of regional economic integration, close bilateral relations between the parties to the disputes, and numerous debates on the ownership of the islands at the government level and in the "second track" format. The world community pays special attention to the situation in the South China Sea (SCS). The article is devoted to the situation in the South China Sea( SCS), where in recent years there has been a serious increase in tension due to the aggravation of territorial disputes in the region. The South China Sea is a point of intersection of the interests of many States and the subject of a number of territorial disputes that are important for regional security. The conflict is sharpened by the antinomian interests of its participants, China's advertising activities, and the increasing attention to the problem from non-regional players. Tensions in the region increased significantly in the 2010s due to the growth of Chinese activity. After analyzing various works devoted to the topic of the article, the author determined that for decades the situation with the disputed territories has remained unresolved, attempts to resolve conflicts have failed, and discussion of the problem in multilateral structures has not brought results. The options offered by both the opposing and non-regional parties to develop a single platform for the subsequent transfer of the problem to a constructive solution rest on the different positions of the disputants and the unwillingness to compromise. The article presents the author's vision of the problem, addresses the issues of the correlation of the legal regulation of a territorial dispute, the national interests of the participating parties, and geopolitical realities. The study analyzes the positions and policies of the three main conflicting parties: China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

Key words: South China Sea, People's Republic of China, Republic of the Philippines, Vietnam, conflict, region, tension.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2021.66.2.031

A.I. BUDNIK Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

T.V. GRIGORIEVA Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. KAN Student of master's program, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE CURRENT STATE OF THE KURIL PROBLEM

The article is devoted to one of the most problematic issues today, which hinders the building of stronger, trusting relations between Russia and Japan - the territorial delimitation of the Kuril Islands, directly its current state. The territorial dispute between Russia and Japan is very complex, since for a long time and under the influence of a number of factors, it managed to absorb a set of reasons that did not allow states to resolve the problem.

Key words: Kuril Islands, Russia, Japan, territorial disputes, current state.

   
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